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Mechanical sharing dual-comb fiber laser based on an all-polarization-maintaining cavity configuration

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Abstract

We present a mechanical sharing, dual-comb fiber laser based on an all-polarization-maintaining cavity configuration and a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror mode-locking mechanism. This simple setup yields dual-optical frequency combs with a high level of mutual coherence without active servo control. We realized a high relative stability with a standard deviation of 0.27 Hz and a relative beat note between the dual-frequency combs with a full-width at half-maximum of ${\sim}{{50}}\;{\rm{Hz}}$. Dual-frequency combs were found to have high relative stability and mutual coherence owing to passive common-mode noise suppression using a mechanical sharing laser cavity. This laser configuration can significantly simplify dual-comb spectroscopy.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2020 (1)

2019 (3)

2018 (4)

2017 (4)

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[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, Science 356, 1164 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. B. Hébert, J. Genest, J.-D. Deschênes, H. Bergeron, G. Y. Chen, C. Khurmi, and D. G. Lancaster, Opt. Express 25, 8168 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

2015 (1)

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, H. Sasada, and F.-L. Hong, Appl. Phys. Express 8, 082402 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 502, 355 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 049901 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

Asahara, A.

Bergeron, H.

Bernhardt, B.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 502, 355 (2013).
[Crossref]

Briles, T. C.

Cardenas, J.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. Y.

Cingöz, A.

Cleff, C.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Coddington, I.

Daimon, Y.

Deschênes, J.-D.

Dobner, S.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Doubek, R.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dutt, A.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

Fischer, M.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Genest, J.

Giunta, M.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Goda, K.

Gohle, C.

Guelachvili, G.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 502, 355 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 502, 355 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. W. Hänsch, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hänsel, W.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hase, E.

Hata, Y.

Hati, A.

Hébert, N. B.

Hirano, M.

Holzner, S.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 502, 355 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, Opt. Lett. 29, 1542 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hong, F.-L.

Hoogland, H.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hosaka, K.

Hsieh, Y.-D.

Hu, G.

Hu, M.

Ichikawa, R.

Ideguchi, T.

T. Ideguchi, T. Nakamura, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Goda, Optica 3, 748 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 502, 355 (2013).
[Crossref]

Inaba, H.

Ito, I.

Iwakuni, K.

Iwata, T.

Ji, X.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

Joshi, C.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kataura, H.

Katsuyama, T.

Kawato, S.

Keilmann, F.

Keller, U.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, Science 356, 1164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Khurmi, C.

Kieu, K.

S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, K.

Kobayashi, T.

Kobayashi, Y.

Kohno, T.

Kondo, K. I.

Kuse, N.

Lancaster, D. G.

Lee, C.-C.

Li, C.

Li, Q.

Li, R.

Li, T.

Li, Y.

Link, S. M.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, Science 356, 1164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Liu, Y.

Luke, K.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, Science 356, 1164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, H.

Mayer, P.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mehravar, S.

S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Minamikawa, T.

Minoshima, K.

Miyamoto, S.

Mizuno, T.

Mizutani, Y.

Nakagawa, K.

Nakajima, Y.

Nakamura, T.

Nakazawa, M.

Newbury, N. R.

Nishiyama, A.

Nishizawa, N.

Norwood, R. A.

S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Okubo, S.

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, H. Sasada, and F.-L. Hong, Appl. Phys. Express 8, 082402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Okuno, T.

Omoda, E.

Onae, A.

Onishi, M.

Pan, Y.

Peyghambarian, N.

S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Picqué, N.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 502, 355 (2013).
[Crossref]

Potvin, S.

Rieker, G. B.

Roy, J.

Saito, S.

Sakakibara, Y.

Sasada, H.

A. Nishiyama, S. Yoshida, Y. Nakajima, H. Sasada, K. Nakagawa, A. Onae, and K. Minoshima, Opt. Express 24, 25894 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, H. Sasada, and F.-L. Hong, Appl. Phys. Express 8, 082402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sato, K.

Schibli, T. R.

Schiller, S.

Schmid, S.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, H.

Shibuya, K.

Sinclair, L. C.

Song, Y.

Steinmetz, T.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Swann, W. C.

Tani, S.

Tian, H.

Waldburger, D.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, Science 356, 1164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, H.

Yamanaka, M.

Yasuda, M.

Yasui, T.

Ye, J.

Yin, S.

Yoshida, S.

Yost, D. C.

Zhang, M.

Zhao, B.

Zhao, X.

Zheng, Z.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, H. Sasada, and F.-L. Hong, Appl. Phys. Express 8, 082402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 231104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 502, 355 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (15)

A. Nishiyama, S. Yoshida, Y. Nakajima, H. Sasada, K. Nakagawa, A. Onae, and K. Minoshima, Opt. Express 24, 25894 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Nakajima, Y. Hata, and K. Minoshima, Opt. Express 27, 5931 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, M. Yamanaka, Y. Sakakibara, E. Omoda, H. Kataura, and N. Nishizawa, Opt. Express 27, 17868 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. B. Hébert, J. Genest, J.-D. Deschênes, H. Bergeron, G. Y. Chen, C. Khurmi, and D. G. Lancaster, Opt. Express 25, 8168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F.-L. Hong, Opt. Express 18, 1667 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, T. Kobayashi, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, and F.-L. Hong, Opt. Express 20, 13769 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, D. C. Yost, A. Cingöz, J. Ye, and T. R. Schibli, Opt. Express 18, 9739 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Nakamura, S. Tani, I. Ito, and K. Kobayashi, Opt. Express 28, 16118 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Roy, J.-D. Deschênes, S. Potvin, and J. Genest, Opt. Express 20, 21932 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, G. Hu, B. Zhao, C. Li, Y. Pan, Y. Liu, T. Yasui, and Z. Zheng, Opt. Express 24, 21833 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Li, H. Shi, H. Tian, Y. Li, B. Liu, Y. Song, and M. Hu, Opt. Express 26, 28302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Nakajima, Y. Hata, and K. Minoshima, Opt. Express 27, 14648 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, Opt. Express 14, 5223 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Express 22, 6996 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, Opt. Express 24, 3095 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (3)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 049901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

J. L. Hall, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. W. Hänsch, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, Science 356, 1164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

W. Kokuyama, H. Nozato, and T. R. Schibli, https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.01137 .

Data Availability

Data underlying the results presented in this Letter are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of an all-PM dual-comb fiber laser with mechanical sharing cavity and an NALM. EDF, Er-doped fiber; LD, laser diode; PBC, polarization beam combiner; HWP and QWP, half- and quarter-wave plate, respectively; FR, Faraday rotator; PBS, polarization beam splitter.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Optical spectra and (b) RF spectra of two laser outputs. (c) Temporal variation in the repetition rates of the two frequency combs and the difference in the repetition rate ( $\Delta {f_{\rm{rep}}}$ ). (d) Allan deviation of $\Delta {f_{\rm{rep}}}$ with (red) and without (black) mechanical sharing.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) RF spectrum and (b) spectral density (upper) and integrated (lower) phase noise of the relative beat note between a pair of comb teeth from dual-frequency combs at 1565 nm. The beat note has a linewidth of  ${\sim}{{50}}\;{\rm{Hz}}$ for a measurement duration of 38 ms. (c) Multi-heterodyne beat notes between the two frequency combs with $\Delta {f_{\rm{rep}}}$ of 150 Hz. (d) Magnified and normalized multi-heterodyne beat notes of red square bracket in (c).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Dual-comb spectroscopy of an HCN cell with a mechanical sharing dual-comb fiber laser ( $\Delta {f_{\rm{rep}}} = {{150}}\;{\rm{Hz}}$ ). (a) Temporal interferogram, (b) magnified signal of (a), and (c) dual-comb spectra obtained by implementing Fourier transform on the interferogram (a) with an acquisition duration of $20\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm s}$ around the burst point. (d) Transmitted spectrum of the same cell obtained by using an optical spectrum analyzer.

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