Atomic clocks are of much interest nowadays for applications such as communication systems, remote sensing, and global positioning. Owing to the small size and low power consumption, microscale atomic clocks [1] are preferred over microwave-cavity-based atomic clocks in particular for battery-operated portable use. Such miniaturized clocks employ the principle of all-optical coherent population trapping (CPT) excitation [2].

© 2013 IEEE

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