Abstract

Atomic clocks are of much interest nowadays for applications such as communication systems, remote sensing, and global positioning. Owing to the small size and low power consumption, microscale atomic clocks [1] are preferred over microwave-cavity-based atomic clocks in particular for battery-operated portable use. Such miniaturized clocks employ the principle of all-optical coherent population trapping (CPT) excitation [2].

© 2013 IEEE

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