The photoelectric effect was fundamental in the development of quantum mechanics and has become a widespread tool for the study of electronic structure in diverse systems. However, its temporal aspect - even in atoms - still lacks complete understanding. The advent of attoscience has provided experimental tools to address this question. Both attosecond streaking [1] and RABBITT [2] were applied to get relative photoionization delays for atoms [3,4]. In 2007 Cavalieri et al. [5] extended the streaking technique to condensed matter systems to extract relative photoemission delays between conduction band and core electrons in tungsten. Above threshold photoemission (ATP) by the IR field, space charge effects and the presence of bands instead of discrete, well-separated states rendered this a formidable task and the applied method is limited to high photon energies (~90 eV). Lower IR intensities are preferred in order to mitigate these limiting effects and to enable access to ionization dynamics at lower photon energies.

© 2013 IEEE

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