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The Human Eye: A Model System For Teaching Optics

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Abstract

The human eye treated as an optical system is an excellent model to teach various aspects of Optics. The range of topics treated can start from simple refraction upto quantum optics including detection of single photons. In particular, concepts and methods such as ray tracing, apertures and stops, field of view calculations, gradient index systems, non-centered systems, Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, scattering, Fourier optics as well as aberrations (both Seidel and wavefront aberrations) and adaptive optics can be illustrated using various properties of the human visual system. A course such as this will be of interest to students from biological sciences as well natural science and engineering students who desire some “real world” applications. I have taught these aspects and will describe my experiences and a model curriculum utilizing this ansatz.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R.A. Serway and R.J. Beichner, Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 5th Edition, Volume 2, Saunders, Ft. Worth, 2000.
  2. D. Halliday, R. Resnick, and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, 8th edition, Wiley, New York, 2007.
  3. D.C. Giancoli, Physics: Principles with Applications, 6th edition, Prentice Hall, New York, 2004.
  4. F.A. Jenkins and H.E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th edition, Chapter 10, McGraw Hill, New York, 1976.
  5. M.P. Keating, Geometric, Physical and Visual Optics, 2nd edition, Butterworth Heinemann, Boston, 2002.
  6. D.A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye, Butterworth Heinemann, oxford, UK, 2000.
  7. see for example, G. Kloos, Matrix Methods for Optical Layout, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2007.
  8. see for example, C. Roychoudhuri and V. Lakshminarayanan, Role of the retinal detector array in perceiving the superposition effects of light, in The Nature of Light: Light in Nature, ed. K. Creath, Proc. SPIE, 6285, 628507, 2006.
  9. A. LeFloch, G. Ropars, J.M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, Polarization sense in human vision, Science, submitted, 2009
  10. V. Lakshminarayanan and J.M. Enoch, Biological Waveguides, Handbook of Optics, Volume 3, Chapter 10, McGraw Hill, NY, 2000.
  11. G. Dai, Wavefront Optics for Vision Correction, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA., 2008
  12. see for example,. V. Lakshminarayanan, Vision and the single photon, in, “What is a Photon?” ed. C. Roychoudhuri and K. Creath, Proc. SPIE, 5866:332–337, 2005.
  13. P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard et al., Quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission, arXiv:0902.2896, 2009.
  14. D. Falk, D. Brill, and D. Stork, Seeing the Light, Wiley, NY, 1986.

2009 (1)

A. LeFloch, G. Ropars, J.M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, Polarization sense in human vision, Science, submitted, 2009

Atchison, D.A.

D.A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye, Butterworth Heinemann, oxford, UK, 2000.

Beichner, R.J.

R.A. Serway and R.J. Beichner, Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 5th Edition, Volume 2, Saunders, Ft. Worth, 2000.

Branciard, C.

P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard et al., Quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission, arXiv:0902.2896, 2009.

Brill, D.

D. Falk, D. Brill, and D. Stork, Seeing the Light, Wiley, NY, 1986.

Brunner, N.

P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard et al., Quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission, arXiv:0902.2896, 2009.

Dai, G.

G. Dai, Wavefront Optics for Vision Correction, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA., 2008

Enoch, J.M.

A. LeFloch, G. Ropars, J.M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, Polarization sense in human vision, Science, submitted, 2009

V. Lakshminarayanan and J.M. Enoch, Biological Waveguides, Handbook of Optics, Volume 3, Chapter 10, McGraw Hill, NY, 2000.

Falk, D.

D. Falk, D. Brill, and D. Stork, Seeing the Light, Wiley, NY, 1986.

Giancoli, D.C.

D.C. Giancoli, Physics: Principles with Applications, 6th edition, Prentice Hall, New York, 2004.

Halliday, D.

D. Halliday, R. Resnick, and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, 8th edition, Wiley, New York, 2007.

Jenkins, F.A.

F.A. Jenkins and H.E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th edition, Chapter 10, McGraw Hill, New York, 1976.

Keating, M.P.

M.P. Keating, Geometric, Physical and Visual Optics, 2nd edition, Butterworth Heinemann, Boston, 2002.

Kloos, G.

see for example, G. Kloos, Matrix Methods for Optical Layout, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2007.

Lakshminarayanan, V.

A. LeFloch, G. Ropars, J.M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, Polarization sense in human vision, Science, submitted, 2009

V. Lakshminarayanan and J.M. Enoch, Biological Waveguides, Handbook of Optics, Volume 3, Chapter 10, McGraw Hill, NY, 2000.

see for example, C. Roychoudhuri and V. Lakshminarayanan, Role of the retinal detector array in perceiving the superposition effects of light, in The Nature of Light: Light in Nature, ed. K. Creath, Proc. SPIE, 6285, 628507, 2006.

see for example,. V. Lakshminarayanan, Vision and the single photon, in, “What is a Photon?” ed. C. Roychoudhuri and K. Creath, Proc. SPIE, 5866:332–337, 2005.

LeFloch, A.

A. LeFloch, G. Ropars, J.M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, Polarization sense in human vision, Science, submitted, 2009

Resnick, R.

D. Halliday, R. Resnick, and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, 8th edition, Wiley, New York, 2007.

Ropars, G.

A. LeFloch, G. Ropars, J.M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, Polarization sense in human vision, Science, submitted, 2009

Roychoudhuri, C.

see for example, C. Roychoudhuri and V. Lakshminarayanan, Role of the retinal detector array in perceiving the superposition effects of light, in The Nature of Light: Light in Nature, ed. K. Creath, Proc. SPIE, 6285, 628507, 2006.

Sekatski, P.

P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard et al., Quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission, arXiv:0902.2896, 2009.

Serway, R.A.

R.A. Serway and R.J. Beichner, Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 5th Edition, Volume 2, Saunders, Ft. Worth, 2000.

Smith, G.

D.A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye, Butterworth Heinemann, oxford, UK, 2000.

Stork, D.

D. Falk, D. Brill, and D. Stork, Seeing the Light, Wiley, NY, 1986.

Walker, J.

D. Halliday, R. Resnick, and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, 8th edition, Wiley, New York, 2007.

White, H.E.

F.A. Jenkins and H.E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th edition, Chapter 10, McGraw Hill, New York, 1976.

Science (1)

A. LeFloch, G. Ropars, J.M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, Polarization sense in human vision, Science, submitted, 2009

Other (13)

V. Lakshminarayanan and J.M. Enoch, Biological Waveguides, Handbook of Optics, Volume 3, Chapter 10, McGraw Hill, NY, 2000.

G. Dai, Wavefront Optics for Vision Correction, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA., 2008

see for example,. V. Lakshminarayanan, Vision and the single photon, in, “What is a Photon?” ed. C. Roychoudhuri and K. Creath, Proc. SPIE, 5866:332–337, 2005.

P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, and C. Branciard et al., Quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission, arXiv:0902.2896, 2009.

D. Falk, D. Brill, and D. Stork, Seeing the Light, Wiley, NY, 1986.

R.A. Serway and R.J. Beichner, Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 5th Edition, Volume 2, Saunders, Ft. Worth, 2000.

D. Halliday, R. Resnick, and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, 8th edition, Wiley, New York, 2007.

D.C. Giancoli, Physics: Principles with Applications, 6th edition, Prentice Hall, New York, 2004.

F.A. Jenkins and H.E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th edition, Chapter 10, McGraw Hill, New York, 1976.

M.P. Keating, Geometric, Physical and Visual Optics, 2nd edition, Butterworth Heinemann, Boston, 2002.

D.A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye, Butterworth Heinemann, oxford, UK, 2000.

see for example, G. Kloos, Matrix Methods for Optical Layout, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2007.

see for example, C. Roychoudhuri and V. Lakshminarayanan, Role of the retinal detector array in perceiving the superposition effects of light, in The Nature of Light: Light in Nature, ed. K. Creath, Proc. SPIE, 6285, 628507, 2006.

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