Abstract

In 1964, J. Bell introduced an inequality that stated a mathematical bound for any physical system that holds both locality and realism; if we violate this inequality, it is clear that we have to reconsider the previous statement. In our work, we report an experimental activity with photons suitable for undergraduate students that makes them question these naïve ideas of nature’s behavior.

With a pre-aligned setup, our students tested and violated Bell’s inequality in a two-hour laboratory session, using two distant photons entangled in polarization. In addition, complementing an educational approach to this phenomenon, the usually called S function, that quantifies correlations, was mapped using different detection angles in one of the two locations. In particular, a more complete picture of the S function, allow us to identify the initial state of light.

We show in this work that it is possible for undergraduate students to question some of our common sense ideas of nature using experiments with photons.

© 2015 OSA, SPIE, IEEE Photonics Society

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References

  • View by:

  1. J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics 1, 195–200 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  2. J.H. Eberly, “Bell inequalities and quantum mechanics,” Am. J. Phys. 70(3), 276–279 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Zeilinger, [Dance of the photons: from Einstein to quantum teleportation], Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 271–288 (2010).
  4. D. Dehlinger and M.W. Mitchell, “Entangled photons, nonlocality, and Bell inequalities in the undergraduate laboratory” Am. J. Phys. 70(9), 903 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Beck, [Quantum mechanics: theory and experiment], Oxford University Press, New York, 433–495 (2012).
  6. J.F. Clauser, M.A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R.A. Holt “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
    [Crossref]

2002 (2)

J.H. Eberly, “Bell inequalities and quantum mechanics,” Am. J. Phys. 70(3), 276–279 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Dehlinger and M.W. Mitchell, “Entangled photons, nonlocality, and Bell inequalities in the undergraduate laboratory” Am. J. Phys. 70(9), 903 (2002).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

J.F. Clauser, M.A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R.A. Holt “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics 1, 195–200 (1964).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. Beck, [Quantum mechanics: theory and experiment], Oxford University Press, New York, 433–495 (2012).

Bell, J. S.

J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics 1, 195–200 (1964).
[Crossref]

Clauser, J.F.

J.F. Clauser, M.A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R.A. Holt “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[Crossref]

Dehlinger, D.

D. Dehlinger and M.W. Mitchell, “Entangled photons, nonlocality, and Bell inequalities in the undergraduate laboratory” Am. J. Phys. 70(9), 903 (2002).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J.H.

J.H. Eberly, “Bell inequalities and quantum mechanics,” Am. J. Phys. 70(3), 276–279 (2002).
[Crossref]

Holt, R.A.

J.F. Clauser, M.A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R.A. Holt “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[Crossref]

Horne, M.A.

J.F. Clauser, M.A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R.A. Holt “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, M.W.

D. Dehlinger and M.W. Mitchell, “Entangled photons, nonlocality, and Bell inequalities in the undergraduate laboratory” Am. J. Phys. 70(9), 903 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shimony, A.

J.F. Clauser, M.A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R.A. Holt “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Zeilinger, [Dance of the photons: from Einstein to quantum teleportation], Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 271–288 (2010).

Am. J. Phys. (2)

J.H. Eberly, “Bell inequalities and quantum mechanics,” Am. J. Phys. 70(3), 276–279 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Dehlinger and M.W. Mitchell, “Entangled photons, nonlocality, and Bell inequalities in the undergraduate laboratory” Am. J. Phys. 70(9), 903 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J.F. Clauser, M.A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R.A. Holt “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[Crossref]

Physics (1)

J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics 1, 195–200 (1964).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. Beck, [Quantum mechanics: theory and experiment], Oxford University Press, New York, 433–495 (2012).

A. Zeilinger, [Dance of the photons: from Einstein to quantum teleportation], Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 271–288 (2010).