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Determination of the Extent of Reaction in Proton-Exchanged Lithium Niobate Optical Waveguides

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Proton-exchange is a relatively low temperature process for fabricating optical waveguides in LiNbO3(1) and, only recently, has been shown to produce low loss waveguiding material with a restored electrooptic effect(2,3). The technique involves(4,5) an ion exchange reaction between Li+ in the substrate and H+ from an acidic source, most commonly benzoic acid, resulting in the formation of Li(1−x)HxNbO3.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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