One of the major remaining problems in implementing amplified WDM lightwave systems is "gain equalization". Because of the nonuniform wavelength-dependent gain profile and saturation characteristics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, each channel in a WDM system will experience different optical gain. In long amplified systems this leads to unacceptable bitenorrate (BER) performance of some channels. We describe techniques to equalize either the optical powers or the optical signal-to-noise ratios of WDM channels in amplified systems. No new optical components and no upgrades or adjustments are required at the intermediate amplifier sites.
© 1992 Optical Society of AmericaPDF Article
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