In long distance optical amplifier systems, polarization-dependent gain (PDG) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL) in repeaters cause fluctuation and reduction of Q factor -. PDG is caused by polarization hole burning (PHB) in the Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs)  and PDL by passive devices, such as optical isolators and couplers. Recently, it has been reported that the polarization scrambling with frequency of several hundred kHz reduced the Q degradation due to PDG in 5 Gb/s system . Moreover, it was found that the Q degradation due to PDL as well as PDG can be suppressed using the high speed scrambling with frequency higher than the bit rate in 622 Mb/s system . However, the high speed polarization scrambler would not be easy to realize for the multi-Gb/s systems.
© 1994 Optical Society of AmericaPDF Article
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