A Ti:LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator with an asymmetric traveling-wave electrode has been studied for use as a high speed external modulator because of its low chirp and wide bandwidth.1 The overly high drive voltage prohibits practical use, however. Our attempts to reduce the drive voltage by, for example, using two traveling-wave electrodes,2 have met with problems, such as the interaction of microwaves.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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