Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) is attractive because it can offer asynchronous multiple access and is capable of realizing 1:1 or 1:N access and routing operations in a common channel without optical switches in addition to allowing flexible bandwidth assignment.1 Several OCDMA schemes have been reported, in which encoding/decoding procedures are carried out in the time1–3 or wavelength4,5 domain. Time-spreading/wavelength-hopping OCDMA, utilizing both the time and wavelength domain (two-dimensional) encoding/decoding, can provide more flexible codes and greater capacity than the two schemes mentioned above.6,7 Fiber grating cascades with different reflection wavelengths6 and arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) with fiber delay lines7 have already been proposed as encoder/decoders for this OCDMA. However, with the former it is difficult to tune each wavelength independently over a wide range by changing the temperature or stress, and with the latter it is difficult to vary the delays precisely. Therefore, flexible code assignment is difficult using these devices.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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