With the growth of the transmission channel rates up to multi-10’s gigabits per second, polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is became a major system performance-limiting factor.1–2 To overcome this limit, different PMD compensation schemes have been suggested so far.3–4 For all the PMD compensation (PMDC) schemes, feedback algorithms and tunability should be satisfied to actively trace the randomly varying PMD evolutions. Among the various statistical parameter sets for PMD, the frequency dependence of the changes in PMD has been an intensive research topic. This effect—second order PMD can be divided into two terms; the parallel term to the first order PMD (differential group delay, DGD) and the perpendicular term to DGD. Of the second order PMD, the parallel term makes polarization-induced chromatic dispersion (PCD) producing the pulse broadening or compression, and the perpendicular term generates signal distortion with the depolarization effect.5 In comparison to PCD, depolarization effect gives highly detrimental system performance degrades, even after first order PMD compensation. Meanwhile, there have been recent reports suggesting different relationships for second-order PMD to the instantaneous DGD value.6–7 Intuitively, this suggestion holds some ground for its claim—when the PSPs of the concatenated birefringence of transmission fiber are at near-alignment state, and the resulting total DGD is high—also a small change in the fre quency does not significantly change the direction of the PMD vector.8 Still, even the near exact relationship between their relationships is still in veil, making it hard to construct a highly reliable PMDC based on inner dynamics.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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