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Absolute frequency control in WDM systems

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The recent standardization of the transmitter channels allocation in dense WDM systems has emphasized the importance of absolute frequency control of the laser sources. In this paper, we give the main methods used to determine the absolute frequency of a source and we describe the issues to be considered concerning its frequency stability characterization. Then, we present the state of the art in frequency control using electrical feedback, optical feedback or optical injection. Applications of these techniques to WDM systems are considered and the practical realizations of the 100 GHz ITU grid are described.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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