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Design of multilayer extreme-ultraviolet mirrors for enhanced reflectivity

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Abstract

We show numerically that the reflectivity of multilayer extreme-UV (EUV) mirrors tuned for the 11–14-nm spectral region, for which the two-component, Mo/Be and Mo/Si multilayer systems with constant layer thickness are commonly used, can be enhanced significantly when we incorporate additional materials within the stack. The reflectivity performance of the quarter-wavelength multilayers can be enhanced further by global optimization procedures with which the layer thicknesses are varied for optimum performance. By incorporating additional materials of differing complex refractive indices—e.g., Rh, Ru, Sr, Pd, and RbCl—in various regions of the stack, we observed peak reflectivity enhancements of as much as ∼5% for a single reflector compared with standard unoptimized stacks. We show that, in an EUV optical system with nine near-normal-incidence mirror surfaces, the optical throughput may be increased by a factor as great as 2. We also show that protective capping layers, in addition to protecting the mirrors from environmental attack, may serve to improve the reflectivity characteristics.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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