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Design calculations for directional couplers fabricated by Ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides

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Abstract

Coupling characteristics for designing a LiNbO3 directional coupler fabricated by Ti diffusion have been investigated with a modified WKB method. The present analysis is verified by comparing the refractive-index change in the Ti-diffused LiNbCO3 waveguide derived from direct measurement and coupling length calculation. Coupling length variations due to refractive-index change, diffusion length waveguide spacing, and wavelength are described. Tolerances in coupling length mismatch and propagation constant differences affecting cross talk of the directional coupler are discussed.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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