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Efficient optical elements to generate intensity weighted spot arrays: design and fabrication

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Abstract

We report on the design and fabrication of fully 2-D surface relief diffraction elements that can split a single collimated beam into many beams in an arbitrary intensity distribution. These splitters were designed by computer using simulated annealing, and made into phase gratings by electron-beam lithography followed by plasma etching into quartz glass. Both two and four phase level gratings have been fabricated, allowing a wide range of uniform and weighted spot patterns to be generated. These grating elements have a measured diffraction efficiency of over 74%, with the beam intensity ratios accurate to within 1% of their target values.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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