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Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments

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Abstract

The effects of mask alignment and etch-depth errors in the array uniformity error U and diffraction efficiency η of multilevel-grating array illuminators are evaluated numerically. Also demonstrated are 16-level fan-out elements with array size up to 32 × 16, with U = 5%–10% and η = 83%–92%. These are fabricated with electron-beam-written binary masks, optical alignment and contact copying, and reactive ion etching. Good agreement between the predictions of the error analysis and the performance of the fabricated components is observed.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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