We derive explicit expressions in the frame of the optical indicatrix for the second-order effective nonlinearity in biaxial crystals with point groups 2, m, and 1, governing the conversion efficiency in three-wave nonlinear optical interactions. The tabulated expressions for the monoclinic symmetry classes 2 and m are valid for all possible orientations of the optical indicatrix relative to the crystallographic frame and for propagation along an arbitrary direction outside the principal planes. They can be used for direct estimation of the effective nonlinearity in the same frame where the phase-matching loci are calculated. The relevant properties and conventions used for the newly emerging acentric monoclinic crystals belonging to the borate family are summarized and tabulated. The derivations are expected to help establish adherence to uniform nomenclature and conventions for these novel inorganic nonlinear crystals, and to eliminate ambiguity and increasing confusion in the literature and in the industrial specifications. The general expressions for the effective nonlinearity are reduced for triclinic crystals of point group 1 to simplified forms in the principal planes.
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