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Reducing field depth: annular Hadamard masks

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Abstract

For optically narrowing field depth, we explore the use of annular masks that are coded with the elements of Hadamard matrices. We show that with no further reduction of light throughput, these annular masks can enhance the influence of focus error on the modulation transfer functions (MTF). We report numerical evaluations of the irradiance point spread functions (PSFs), their associated MTFs, and of some digitally generated images. For complementing our assessments, we evaluate the Fisher information of these Walsh–Hadamard, annular masks. We suggest an optical technique for breaking 3-D scenes into several 2-D sliced frames by translating out-of-focus images into background noise.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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