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Investigation of the mechanism and influence of laser wavelength and energy on laser opto-ultrasonic dual detection

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Abstract

Laser opto-ultrasonic dual (LOUD) detection, which uses laser irradiation of samples to generate spectral and ultrasonic signals simultaneously, can perform multimodal detection of element composition and structural property. As such, it has been applied to the detection of additive manufacturing (AM) components. Further, optimized parameters lead to better detection results. To the best of our knowledge, however, there is no study on the effect of laser properties on LOUD detection. Therefore, we studied the mechanism and influence of laser wavelength and energy on LOUD detection. In this work, the intensity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and stability evolution of the laser excitation spectrum and ultrasonic signals at different wavelengths and energies were analyzed. It was found in the plasma evolution that high electron number density means a large amount of ablated mass generated, which was favorable for laser ultrasonic excitation and can produce higher SNR and a more stable signal. However, it also led to more atoms of the ground-state, which resulted in the self-absorption effect and reduced spectrum intensity in the spectrum analysis. Therefore, with self-absorption correction, better stability, and higher signal intensity, an SNR of spectral and ultrasonic signals can be obtained using 355 nm laser excitation at optimal energy. As a result, in the quantitative analysis of Cu and Si elements by LOUD detection, the determination coefficients (${{\rm R}^2}$) were higher than 0.995, and the average relative errors were less than 2.5%, the limit of detection could reach the order of 100 ppm. Further, the defect size of 0.55 mm in the wire $+{\rm arc}$ additive manufacturing sample was detected by LOUD detection, and the average relative error was 5.59% compared with the digital radiography results, which indicate that laser wavelength and laser energy affect the intensity and stability of spectral and ultrasonic signals in LOUD detection, which means selecting appropriate laser parameters is important to obtain a high precision detection.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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