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Compact and broadband silicon-based polarization beam splitter using asymmetric directional couplers embedded with subwavelength gratings and slots

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Abstract

A compact and broadband silicon-based polarization beam splitter (PBS) is proposed and investigated in detail, where the two arms of the directional coupler (DC) are, respectively, embedded with subwavelength gratings (SWGs) and vertical slots so that field distributions for the TE mode are significantly changed, effectively weakening coupling strength, whereas those for the TM mode are almost unaffected, nearly analogous to the DC with strip waveguides. By carefully optimizing structural parameters, efficient coupling will emerge between the two waveguides for the TM mode, while TE mode will be confined in the SWG-assisted strip waveguide. Consequently, the two modes can be effectively separated, and thus the realization of a PBS is accomplished. Results show that a compact PBS with a coupling length of 6.45 µm is achieved, together with the extinction ratio (ER) of 27.54/31.88 dB, the insertion loss of 0.12/0.14 dB, and the reflection loss of ${-}{43.67/ {-} 30.50}\;{\rm dB}$, respectively, for TE/TM mode at the wavelength of 1.55 µm. The bandwidth, for both modes, is up to 230/100 nm when ER is larger than 15/20 dB. In addition, fabrication tolerances to the critical structural parameters and field evolution through the proposed device are analyzed.

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