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Silicon hybrid plasmonic microring resonator for sensing applications

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Abstract

A novel silicon hybrid plasmonic microring resonator consisting of a silver nanoring on top of a silicon-on-insulator ring is proposed and investigated theoretically for possible applications in sensing at the deep subwavelength scale. By using the finite-element method, insight into how the mode properties (Q factor, effective mode volume, energy ratio, sensitivity) depend on the geometric structure of the hybrid microring resonator is presented. Simulation results reveal that this kind of hybrid microcavity maintains a high Q factor 600, an ultrasmall mode volume of 0.15μm3, and high sensitivity of 497nm/refractive index unit for refractive index sensing. The hybrid plasmonic microcavity with optimized geometric structures presented provides the potential for ultracompact sensing applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. INTRODUCTION

With the development of fabrication techniques and integrated optics, the dimensions of photonic devices to be integrated have decreased by several orders of magnitude. However, due to the diffraction limit, the optical mode size and physical device dimensions of those photonic devices are restricted to being larger than half the wavelength of the optical field, and it remains a key fundamental challenge to realize all kinds of photonic devices that can break the diffraction limit.

The optical cavity, a versatile element for integrated optics, can be used in optical sensing [1], light sources [2], optical filters [3], optical modulators/switches [4], nonlinear optics [5], etc. Among them, dielectric whispering gallery mode microcavities can be used for highly sensitive detection of single biological or chemical molecules [6,7]; nevertheless, the sensitivity is not high, due to the fact that the energy is predominantly confined inside of the cavity body. These pure dielectric microcavities exhibit a high quality factor (1010) but require a relatively large size, which not only increases the physical dimensions but also tends to introduce a large mode volume (dozens of cubic micrometers). On the other hand, the surface plasmon polarition (SPP) is an electromagnetic excitation existing on the interface between the dielectric and metallic media; it has both the speed of photonics and also the scale of the electronics. Moreover, it has the ability to concentrate and channel electromagnetic energy below the so-called diffraction limit. Therefore, plasmonic microcavities with ultrasmall mode volume attract a lot of attention [810]. The problem is that the metal absorption loss is high. Recently, hybrid plasmonic microcavities have been proposed as a good option for realizing a relatively high Q factor as well as nanoscale light confinement. Furthermore, hybrid microcavities have considerable energy distributed in the surrounding dielectric. Thus, they are accessible outside the structure for sensing purposes. In addition, people have recently developed various hybrid plasmonic microcavities based on the traditional hybrid plasmonic waveguide [1118], e.g., a hybrid plasmonic nanodisk [12], hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator [13], etc.

In this paper, we introduce a novel silicon hybrid plasmonic microring resonator that consists of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ring with a metal nanoring on the top. The mode properties such as Q factor, mode volume, energy ratio, and sensitivity are investigated by employing the finite-element method (FEM) and analyzed considering the varying structure geometry. One of the unique features of this hybrid microring resonator is the high sensitivity of 497nm/refractive index unit (RIU). Moreover, for such a structure, the fabrication is simple and CMOS-compatible.

2. DEVICE STRUCTURE

Figure 1(a) depicts the proposed silicon hybrid plasmonic microring resonator. It is composed of a metal nanoring and a SOI ring. The metal nanoring and the silicon ring are coaxial, and the former is placed well on the latter; that is, they have the same major radius R. In the following study, R is set to 5 μm, which is a typical size used in many hybrid plasmonic microcavities. The metal nanoring can be chemically synthesized with major radius R and minor radius r [19,20]. The width and the height of the silicon ring are denoted as w and h, as shown in Fig. 1(b), which illustrates the cross section of the proposed silicon hybrid microring resonator. At the same time, we want to get an operating wavelength of 1550 nm, which is one of the most used windows, so the permittivities of silicon (Si), metal (the medium of the metal nanoring is assumed to be Ag due to its low metal absorption loss), and silica (SiO2) are set to be εSi=12.25, εAg=129+3.3i, and εSiO2=2.25 [21], respectively. The surrounding medium is air, whose dielectric constant is 1.0.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) Structure of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microcavity, (b) the cross section, and (c) the field intensity distribution of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microcavity.

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For the proposed hybrid plasmonic microresonator, the metal nanoring on top of the SOI ring results in a hybrid plasmonic mode; this is because of the coupling between the SPP whispering gallery mode and the dielectric whispering gallery mode. To intuitively exhibit the hybrid plasmonic mode, we first resort to the FEM [22]. Figure 1(c) shows the field intensity distribution of the whispering-gallery-like hybrid plasmonic mode. As can be seen in Fig. 1(c), the hybrid plasmonic microcavity has considerable energy distributed in the surrounding dielectric. This result can be explained the hybrid mode, which attracts part of the cavity energy from the silicon ring microcavity. Furthermore, since the contact area between the silver nanoring and the silicon ring microcavity is small, the electromagnetic field of the hybrid plasmonic mode is highly confined around the interface of the silver nanoring and the silicon ring microcavity, resulting in subwavelength mode confinement. In general, the hybrid mode can be classified with only the azimuthal mode number M.

3. SIMULATION RESULTS

Now we investigate some parameters influencing the device properties by employing the FEM. We fix the height of the silicon ring h=300nm, but vary the radius of the nanoring r from 25 to 200 nm. The width of the silicon ring is set at w=200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 nm, respectively.

The Q factor associated with the photon lifetime and the effective mode volume of the proposed plasmonic microresonator are important to fully understand the characteristics of the hybrid plasmonic mode. The Q factor can be evaluated as [23]

Q=Re(f)/2Im(f),
where f is the complex-valued eigenfrequency, and the effective mode volume is given by [23]
V=w(r⃗)d3(r⃗)/w(r⃗)max,
where
w=[d(wε(r⃗))/dw|E(r⃗)|2+μ0|H(r⃗)|2]/2
is the electromagnetic energy density [23]. Here H(r⃗), E(r⃗), ε(r⃗), and μ0 are the magnetic field, electric field, dielectric permittivity, and vacuum permeability, respectively. 1/Qtotal=1/Qrad+1/Qabs is the loss mechanism of the hybrid plasmonic mode, like that of the dielectric whispering gallery mode. Qabs and Qrad are induced by the metal absorption loss and radiation loss, respectively. The silicon absorption loss, which is much smaller than the metal absorption loss, is left out. Also, the scattering loss due to the surface roughness, which can be restricted to a minimum in the experiment, is not considered. Here we propose utilizing a perfectly matched layer to calculate the total Q, and the Q value provides an ideal theoretical value.

Figure 2(a) shows the Q factor for the hybrid modes. If one looks at the modes with the same w value, as r increases from 25 to 100 nm, the Q factor clearly increases due to the reduced radiation loss, which indicates that the coupling between the SPP whispering gallery mode and the dielectric whispering gallery mode becomes weak and the hybrid mode gradually tends to the pure dielectric whispering gallery mode. As r increases further, however, the Q factor increases only slightly. If one looks at the modes with the same r value, the calculated results show that a larger Q factor is associated with a larger width of the silicon ring. This is because there is stronger confinement for a hybrid plasmonic microcavity with a larger w value. In addition, a Q factor as high as 600 can be achieved. In Fig. 2(b), we find that for the same r(w) value, when w(r) increases, the trend for the effective mode volume is similar to the trend for the Q factor. The effective mode volume is as small as 0.15μm3, which is much smaller compared to 10μm3 in [23].

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Mode properties of the hybrid plasmonic modes versus width w and radius r.

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To characterize the hybrid mode in more detail, we calculate the energy ratio η, which is defined as the ratio of energy outside the silicon region is and given by [24]

η=outw(r⃗)d3(r⃗)/allw(r⃗)d3(r⃗).
Figure 2(c) shows the energy ratio η for the hybrid modes. If one looks at the modes with the same w value, as r increases from 25 to 100 nm, the energy ratio η clearly decreases. As r increases further, however, the energy ratio η decreases only slightly. If one looks at the modes with the same r value, the calculated results show that a higher energy ratio η is associated with a smaller width of the silicon ring. One sees that for the same r(w) value, when w(r) increases, the trend for energy ratio η is opposite to the trend for the Q factor, which is due to the fact that when the ratio of energy in metal and air is large, the metal absorption loss and radiation loss will be great.

This hybrid microcavity may have potential applications in a refractive index sensor. The sensitivity S, defined as

S=dλ/dn,
is one important parameter for the sensor. To demonstrate this potential, Fig. 2(d) plots the sensitivity as the radius r decreases. Calculations show that there is high sensitivity (497nm/RIU) when r=25nm. This is because more energy is confined outside the silicon region [see the ratio η shown in Fig. 2(c)].

The performance of the proposed silicon hybrid microresonator sensor, according to the figure of merit defined in above (S=497nm/RIU), is superior to the performance of a Si3N4-based microdisk with a radius of R=15μm that has a sensitivity of S=22.8nm/RIU [25], a glass-based microring resonator with a radius of R=60μm that has a sensitivity of S=141nm/RIU [26], and a hybrid plasmonic refractometer with a radius of R=10μm that has a sensitivity of S=298nm/RIU [15]. It also can be seen that the proposed hybrid microresonator has a smaller size compared to these structures. Thus the proposed hybrid microresonator provides potential for ultracompact sensing applications with high sensitivity.

Next, we investigate the characteristics of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microring resonator varied with height h of the silicon ring. Here, the radius r and the width w are set to 25 and 200 nm, respectively. Figure 3 plots the Q factor, effective mode volume, energy ratio, and sensitivity as the height h increases from 150 to 600 nm. From this figure, one sees that the Q factor and the effective mode volume increase together as the height h increases from 150 to 350 nm, while the energy ratio and sensitivity decrease together as the height h increases from 150 to 350 nm. This is because there is more power confined in the silicon region, which indicates that the hybrid mode gradually tends toward the pure dielectric whispering gallery mode. As h increases further, however, the Q factor, mode volume, and sensitivity are not sensitive to h. In addition, calculations show that the ranges of the Q factor, effective mode volume, and sensitivity are not great, in contrast to that of the height h. Therefore, in practice slight changes of the height h during the fabrication of the device do not seriously affect the performance.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Mode properties of the hybrid plasmonic modes versus height h.

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4. CONCLUSIONS

In conclusion, we have studied the hybrid plasmonic mode in a novel Si-based hybrid plasmonic microcavity consisting of a silver nanoring on top of a SOI ring. The hybrid modes are theoretically demonstrated to possess a very high Q factor and extremely small mode volume. A Q factor as high as 600 and an effective mode volume as small as 0.15μm3 are achieved. In addition, the microcavity can be further engineered to be applicable for ultracompact sensing applications, with a high sensitivity of 497nm/RIU at the deep subwavelength scale.

Funding

Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province of China (LY15F050001, 2011C21038, 2011C22051); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (61007029); Zhejiang Province Key Science and Technology Innovation (2010R50007).

REFERENCES

1. K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003). [CrossRef]  

2. D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H. H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y. H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. X. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 17, 20355–20364 (2009). [CrossRef]  

3. P. Dong, N. N. Feng, D. Z. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, B. J. Luff, T. Banwelll, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “GHz-bandwidth optical filters based on high-order silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Express 18, 23784–23789 (2010). [CrossRef]  

4. Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef]  

5. R. Dekker, N. Usechak, M. Forst, and A. Driessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear all-optical processes in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” J. Phys. D 40, R249–R271 (2007). [CrossRef]  

6. F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002). [CrossRef]  

7. X. D. Wang, X. N. Zhao, X. J. Liu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Fu, J. Hu, and C. J. Huang, “Homogenous liquid–liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 620, 162–169 (2008). [CrossRef]  

8. H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005). [CrossRef]  

9. J. C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).

10. Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. H. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010). [CrossRef]  

11. Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43, 035402 (2010). [CrossRef]  

12. Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Subwavelength hybrid plasmonic nanodisk with high Q-factor and Purcell factor,” J. Opt. 13, 075001 (2011). [CrossRef]  

13. D. X. Dai, Y. C. Shi, S. L. He, W. Lech, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 23671–23682 (2011). [CrossRef]  

14. C. Xiang, C. K. Chan, and J. Wang, “Proposal and numerical study of ultra-compact active hybrid plasmonic resonator for sub-wavelength lasing applications,” Sci. Rep. 4, 03720 (2014).

15. Y. W. Hu, B. B. Li, Y. X. Liu, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. H. Gong, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic mode for refractometer and nanoparticle trapping,” Opt. Commun. 291, 380–385 (2013). [CrossRef]  

16. Q. J. Lu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, B. J. Peng, and J. C. Xu, “A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume,” J. Opt. 14, 125503 (2012). [CrossRef]  

17. C. Y. Jeong, M. Kim, and S. Kim, “Metal nanodisk hybrid plasmonic resonator on dielectric substrate for relieved fabrication complexity,” Opt. Express 22, 5772–5780 (2014). [CrossRef]  

18. Q. J. Lu, F. J. Shu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, and P. Zhou, “Focusing of electromagnetic field in high-Q hybrid wedge plasmon polariton microresonator,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6968–6973 (2012). [CrossRef]  

19. H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Illuminating dark plasmons of silver nanoantenna rings to enhance exciton–plasmon interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298–303 (2009). [CrossRef]  

20. L. Zhou, X. F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X. F. Yu, and Z. H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nano-rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153102 (2009). [CrossRef]  

21. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Chriety, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).

22. M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite-element simulation of the whispering-gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 55, 1209–1218 (2007).

23. B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458 (2009). [CrossRef]  

24. C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010). [CrossRef]  

25. E. Krioukov, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Integrated formation of a high-quality beam from a pure high-order Hermite–Gaussian mode,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1504–1506 (2002). [CrossRef]  

26. A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H. H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y. H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. X. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 17, 20355–20364 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Dong, N. N. Feng, D. Z. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, B. J. Luff, T. Banwelll, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “GHz-bandwidth optical filters based on high-order silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Express 18, 23784–23789 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Dekker, N. Usechak, M. Forst, and A. Driessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear all-optical processes in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” J. Phys. D 40, R249–R271 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. X. D. Wang, X. N. Zhao, X. J. Liu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Fu, J. Hu, and C. J. Huang, “Homogenous liquid–liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 620, 162–169 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).
  10. Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. H. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43, 035402 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Subwavelength hybrid plasmonic nanodisk with high Q-factor and Purcell factor,” J. Opt. 13, 075001 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. X. Dai, Y. C. Shi, S. L. He, W. Lech, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 23671–23682 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Xiang, C. K. Chan, and J. Wang, “Proposal and numerical study of ultra-compact active hybrid plasmonic resonator for sub-wavelength lasing applications,” Sci. Rep. 4, 03720 (2014).
  15. Y. W. Hu, B. B. Li, Y. X. Liu, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. H. Gong, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic mode for refractometer and nanoparticle trapping,” Opt. Commun. 291, 380–385 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. Q. J. Lu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, B. J. Peng, and J. C. Xu, “A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume,” J. Opt. 14, 125503 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Y. Jeong, M. Kim, and S. Kim, “Metal nanodisk hybrid plasmonic resonator on dielectric substrate for relieved fabrication complexity,” Opt. Express 22, 5772–5780 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. Q. J. Lu, F. J. Shu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, and P. Zhou, “Focusing of electromagnetic field in high-Q hybrid wedge plasmon polariton microresonator,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6968–6973 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Illuminating dark plasmons of silver nanoantenna rings to enhance exciton–plasmon interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298–303 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. Zhou, X. F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X. F. Yu, and Z. H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nano-rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153102 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  21. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Chriety, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
  22. M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite-element simulation of the whispering-gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 55, 1209–1218 (2007).
  23. B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  25. E. Krioukov, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Integrated formation of a high-quality beam from a pure high-order Hermite–Gaussian mode,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1504–1506 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. Y. Jeong, M. Kim, and S. Kim, “Metal nanodisk hybrid plasmonic resonator on dielectric substrate for relieved fabrication complexity,” Opt. Express 22, 5772–5780 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Xiang, C. K. Chan, and J. Wang, “Proposal and numerical study of ultra-compact active hybrid plasmonic resonator for sub-wavelength lasing applications,” Sci. Rep. 4, 03720 (2014).

2013 (1)

Y. W. Hu, B. B. Li, Y. X. Liu, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. H. Gong, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic mode for refractometer and nanoparticle trapping,” Opt. Commun. 291, 380–385 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Q. J. Lu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, B. J. Peng, and J. C. Xu, “A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume,” J. Opt. 14, 125503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Lu, F. J. Shu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, and P. Zhou, “Focusing of electromagnetic field in high-Q hybrid wedge plasmon polariton microresonator,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6968–6973 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Subwavelength hybrid plasmonic nanodisk with high Q-factor and Purcell factor,” J. Opt. 13, 075001 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. X. Dai, Y. C. Shi, S. L. He, W. Lech, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 23671–23682 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. H. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43, 035402 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, N. N. Feng, D. Z. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, B. J. Luff, T. Banwelll, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “GHz-bandwidth optical filters based on high-order silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Express 18, 23784–23789 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H. H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y. H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. X. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 17, 20355–20364 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Illuminating dark plasmons of silver nanoantenna rings to enhance exciton–plasmon interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, X. F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X. F. Yu, and Z. H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nano-rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153102 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

X. D. Wang, X. N. Zhao, X. J. Liu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Fu, J. Hu, and C. J. Huang, “Homogenous liquid–liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 620, 162–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

R. Dekker, N. Usechak, M. Forst, and A. Driessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear all-optical processes in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” J. Phys. D 40, R249–R271 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite-element simulation of the whispering-gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 55, 1209–1218 (2007).

2006 (1)

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. Krioukov, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Integrated formation of a high-quality beam from a pure high-order Hermite–Gaussian mode,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1504–1506 (2002).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Chriety, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).

Agarwal, A.

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Banwelll, T.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bouhelier, A.

J. C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).

Bowers, J. E.

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. K.

C. Xiang, C. K. Chan, and J. Wang, “Proposal and numerical study of ultra-compact active hybrid plasmonic resonator for sub-wavelength lasing applications,” Sci. Rep. 4, 03720 (2014).

Chang, H. H.

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, D. R.

Q. J. Lu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, B. J. Peng, and J. C. Xu, “A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume,” J. Opt. 14, 125503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Lu, F. J. Shu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, and P. Zhou, “Focusing of electromagnetic field in high-Q hybrid wedge plasmon polariton microresonator,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6968–6973 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. D.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chriety, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Chriety, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).

Chu, S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Colas des Francs, G.

J. C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).

Cui, J. M.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dai, D. X.

Dekker, R.

R. Dekker, N. Usechak, M. Forst, and A. Driessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear all-optical processes in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” J. Phys. D 40, R249–R271 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

J. C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dong, C. H.

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. H. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

Driessen, A.

R. Dekker, N. Usechak, M. Forst, and A. Driessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear all-optical processes in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” J. Phys. D 40, R249–R271 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Krioukov, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Integrated formation of a high-quality beam from a pure high-order Hermite–Gaussian mode,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1504–1506 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fang, A. W.

Feng, D. Z.

Feng, N. N.

Fiorentino, M.

Forst, M.

R. Dekker, N. Usechak, M. Forst, and A. Driessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear all-optical processes in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” J. Phys. D 40, R249–R271 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fu, L. Y.

X. D. Wang, X. N. Zhao, X. J. Liu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Fu, J. Hu, and C. J. Huang, “Homogenous liquid–liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 620, 162–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fu, X. F.

L. Zhou, X. F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X. F. Yu, and Z. H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nano-rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gong, H. M.

H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Illuminating dark plasmons of silver nanoantenna rings to enhance exciton–plasmon interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q. H.

Y. W. Hu, B. B. Li, Y. X. Liu, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. H. Gong, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic mode for refractometer and nanoparticle trapping,” Opt. Commun. 291, 380–385 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43, 035402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. H. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Greve, J.

Guo, G. C.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, Z. F.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. H. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z. H.

L. Zhou, X. F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X. F. Yu, and Z. H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nano-rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153102 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, S. L.

Hofer, F.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hohenau, A.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

X. D. Wang, X. N. Zhao, X. J. Liu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Fu, J. Hu, and C. J. Huang, “Homogenous liquid–liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 620, 162–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. Y.

Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43, 035402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y. W.

Y. W. Hu, B. B. Li, Y. X. Liu, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. H. Gong, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic mode for refractometer and nanoparticle trapping,” Opt. Commun. 291, 380–385 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. J.

X. D. Wang, X. N. Zhao, X. J. Liu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Fu, J. Hu, and C. J. Huang, “Homogenous liquid–liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 620, 162–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jeong, C. Y.

Jiang, X.

Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43, 035402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Chriety, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

Kim, S.

King, O.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Klunder, D. J. W.

Kreibig, U.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krioukov, E.

Kuo, Y. H.

Lech, W.

Lee, D. C.

Li, B. B.

Y. W. Hu, B. B. Li, Y. X. Liu, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. H. Gong, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic mode for refractometer and nanoparticle trapping,” Opt. Commun. 291, 380–385 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. H. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43, 035402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43, 035402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. H. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. Y.

X. D. Wang, X. N. Zhao, X. J. Liu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Fu, J. Hu, and C. J. Huang, “Homogenous liquid–liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 620, 162–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liang, D.

Liang, H.

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Little, B. E.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. D.

H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Illuminating dark plasmons of silver nanoantenna rings to enhance exciton–plasmon interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. J.

X. D. Wang, X. N. Zhao, X. J. Liu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Fu, J. Hu, and C. J. Huang, “Homogenous liquid–liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 620, 162–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. X.

Y. W. Hu, B. B. Li, Y. X. Liu, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. H. Gong, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic mode for refractometer and nanoparticle trapping,” Opt. Commun. 291, 380–385 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, Q. J.

Q. J. Lu, F. J. Shu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, and P. Zhou, “Focusing of electromagnetic field in high-Q hybrid wedge plasmon polariton microresonator,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6968–6973 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Lu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, B. J. Peng, and J. C. Xu, “A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume,” J. Opt. 14, 125503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luff, B. J.

Markey, L.

J. C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).

Menendez, R.

Min, B.

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458 (2009).
[Crossref]

Okumura, T.

Ostby, E.

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458 (2009).
[Crossref]

Otto, C.

Oxborrow, M.

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite-element simulation of the whispering-gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 55, 1209–1218 (2007).

Peng, B. J.

Q. J. Lu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, B. J. Peng, and J. C. Xu, “A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume,” J. Opt. 14, 125503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pradhan, S.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Qian, W.

Qiu, M.

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Subwavelength hybrid plasmonic nanodisk with high Q-factor and Purcell factor,” J. Opt. 13, 075001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rogers, M.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y. C.

Shu, F. J.

Song, Y.

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Subwavelength hybrid plasmonic nanodisk with high Q-factor and Purcell factor,” J. Opt. 13, 075001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V.

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spencer, D. T.

Su, X. R.

H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Illuminating dark plasmons of silver nanoantenna rings to enhance exciton–plasmon interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, F. W.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Teraoka, I.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[Crossref]

Thylen, L.

Toliver, P.

Ulin-Avila, E.

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458 (2009).
[Crossref]

Unlu, M. S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Usechak, N.

R. Dekker, N. Usechak, M. Forst, and A. Driessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear all-optical processes in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” J. Phys. D 40, R249–R271 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K.

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref]

Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

C. Xiang, C. K. Chan, and J. Wang, “Proposal and numerical study of ultra-compact active hybrid plasmonic resonator for sub-wavelength lasing applications,” Sci. Rep. 4, 03720 (2014).

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Subwavelength hybrid plasmonic nanodisk with high Q-factor and Purcell factor,” J. Opt. 13, 075001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. Q.

H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Illuminating dark plasmons of silver nanoantenna rings to enhance exciton–plasmon interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Wang, X. N. Zhao, X. J. Liu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Fu, J. Hu, and C. J. Huang, “Homogenous liquid–liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 620, 162–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weeber, J. C.

J. C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).

Woodward, T. K.

Wu, G. Z.

Q. J. Lu, F. J. Shu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, and P. Zhou, “Focusing of electromagnetic field in high-Q hybrid wedge plasmon polariton microresonator,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6968–6973 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Lu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, B. J. Peng, and J. C. Xu, “A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume,” J. Opt. 14, 125503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiang, C.

C. Xiang, C. K. Chan, and J. Wang, “Proposal and numerical study of ultra-compact active hybrid plasmonic resonator for sub-wavelength lasing applications,” Sci. Rep. 4, 03720 (2014).

Xiao, S.

H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Illuminating dark plasmons of silver nanoantenna rings to enhance exciton–plasmon interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y. F.

Y. W. Hu, B. B. Li, Y. X. Liu, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. H. Gong, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic mode for refractometer and nanoparticle trapping,” Opt. Commun. 291, 380–385 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. H. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43, 035402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. C.

Q. J. Lu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, B. J. Peng, and J. C. Xu, “A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume,” J. Opt. 14, 125503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q. F.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Subwavelength hybrid plasmonic nanodisk with high Q-factor and Purcell factor,” J. Opt. 13, 075001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

L. Zhou, X. F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X. F. Yu, and Z. H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nano-rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, X. F.

L. Zhou, X. F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X. F. Yu, and Z. H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nano-rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

L. Zhou, X. F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X. F. Yu, and Z. H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nano-rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153102 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. N.

X. D. Wang, X. N. Zhao, X. J. Liu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Fu, J. Hu, and C. J. Huang, “Homogenous liquid–liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 620, 162–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, X. F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X. F. Yu, and Z. H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nano-rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153102 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Illuminating dark plasmons of silver nanoantenna rings to enhance exciton–plasmon interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, P.

Zou, C. L.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. H. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Illuminating dark plasmons of silver nanoantenna rings to enhance exciton–plasmon interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chim. Acta. (1)

X. D. Wang, X. N. Zhao, X. J. Liu, Y. Y. Li, L. Y. Fu, J. Hu, and C. J. Huang, “Homogenous liquid–liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 620, 162–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, X. F. Fu, L. Yu, X. Zhang, X. F. Yu, and Z. H. Hao, “Crystal structure and optical properties of silver nano-rings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153102 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. (1)

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite-element simulation of the whispering-gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 55, 1209–1218 (2007).

IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (2)

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Subwavelength hybrid plasmonic nanodisk with high Q-factor and Purcell factor,” J. Opt. 13, 075001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Lu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, B. J. Peng, and J. C. Xu, “A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume,” J. Opt. 14, 125503 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43, 035402 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

R. Dekker, N. Usechak, M. Forst, and A. Driessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear all-optical processes in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” J. Phys. D 40, R249–R271 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).

Nature (3)

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. W. Hu, B. B. Li, Y. X. Liu, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. H. Gong, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic mode for refractometer and nanoparticle trapping,” Opt. Commun. 291, 380–385 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Chriety, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. H. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. Xiang, C. K. Chan, and J. Wang, “Proposal and numerical study of ultra-compact active hybrid plasmonic resonator for sub-wavelength lasing applications,” Sci. Rep. 4, 03720 (2014).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Structure of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microcavity, (b) the cross section, and (c) the field intensity distribution of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microcavity.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Mode properties of the hybrid plasmonic modes versus width w and radius r .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Mode properties of the hybrid plasmonic modes versus height h .

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = Re ( f ) / 2 Im ( f ) ,
V = w ( r⃗ ) d 3 ( r⃗ ) / w ( r⃗ ) max ,
w = [ d ( w ε ( r⃗ ) ) / d w | E ( r⃗ ) | 2 + μ 0 | H ( r⃗ ) | 2 ] / 2
η = out w ( r⃗ ) d 3 ( r⃗ ) / all w ( r⃗ ) d 3 ( r⃗ ) .
S = d λ / d n ,

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