Abstract

Light has played a crucial role in the age of information technology and has facilitated the soaring development of information optics. The ever-increasing demand for high-capacity optical devices has prompted the use of physically orthogonal dimensions of light for optical multiplexing. Recent advances in nanotechnology, mainly stemming from functionalized nanomaterials and powerful nanofabrication tools, have propelled the fusion of optical multiplexing and nanophotonics (the study of light at nanoscale and of its interactions with nanostructures) by enabling ultrahigh-capacity information technology. This review aims to introduce the emerging concept of angular momentum (AM)-involved information optics and its implementation in nanophotonic devices. First, previous researches on the manipulation of spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM) by nanostructures will be reviewed. We then summarize the SAM multiplexing technology on the platform of metasurfaces. Particularly, we elaborately summarize our recent progress in the area of information optics, including OAM holography and on-chip AM multiplexing technology. Finally, a perspective in the combination of this emerging field with optical artificial intelligence (AI) will be given.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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2021 (4)

S. V. Kutsaev, A. Krasnok, S. N. Romanenko, A. Y. Smirnov, K. Taletski, and V. P. Yakovlev, “Up-and-coming advances in optical and microwave nonreciprocity: from classical to quantum realm,” Adv. Photon. Res. 2, 2000104 (2021).
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S. Guddala, M. Khatoniar, N. Yama, W. Liu, G. S. Agarwal, and V. M. Menon, “Optical analog of valley Hall effect of 2D excitons in hyperbolic metamaterial,” Optica 8, 50–55 (2021).
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X. Fang, H. Yang, W. Yao, T. Wang, Y. Zhang, M. Gu, and M. Xiao, “High-dimensional orbital angular momentum multiplexing nonlinear holography,” Adv. Photon. 3, 015001 (2021).
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H. Luan, D. Lin, K. Li, W. Meng, M. Gu, and X. Fang, “768-ary Laguerre-Gaussian-mode shift keying free-space optical communication based on convolutional neural networks,” Opt. Express 29, 19807–19818 (2021).
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2020 (22)

X. Fang, H. Wang, H. Yang, Z. Ye, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, X. Hu, S. Zhu, and M. Xiao, “Multichannel nonlinear holography in a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 102, 043506 (2020).
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H. Ren, X. Fang, J. Jang, J. Bürger, J. Rho, and S. A. Maier, “Complex-amplitude metasurface-based orbital angular momentum holography in momentum space,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 948–955 (2020).
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X. Fang, H. Ren, and M. Gu, “Orbital angular momentum holography for high-security encryption,” Nat. Photonics 14, 102–108 (2020).
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W. Ma, Z. Liu, Z. A. Kudyshev, A. Boltasseva, W. Cai, and Y. Liu, “Deep learning for the design of photonic structures,” Nat. Photonics 15, 77–90 (2020).
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H. Ren, W. Shao, Y. Li, F. Salim, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional vectorial holography based on machine learning inverse design,” Sci. Adv. 6, eaaz4261 (2020).
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B. P. Cumming and M. Gu, “Direct determination of aberration functions in microscopy by an artificial neural network,” Opt. Express 28, 14511–14521 (2020).
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E. Goi, Q. Zhang, X. Chen, H. Luan, and M. Gu, “Perspective on photonic memristive neuromorphic computing,” PhotoniX 1, 1–26 (2020).
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C. Qian, X. Lin, X. Lin, J. Xu, Y. Sun, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Performing optical logic operations by a diffractive neural network,” Light Sci. Appl. 9, 59 (2020).
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P. Chen, T. W. Lo, Y. Fan, S. Wang, H. Huang, and D. Lei, “Chiral coupling of valley excitons and light through photonic spin–orbit interactions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 8, 1901233 (2020).
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K. Rong, B. Wang, A. Reuven, E. Maguid, B. Cohn, V. Kleiner, S. Katznelson, E. Koren, and E. Hasman, “Photonic Rashba effect from quantum emitters mediated by a Berry-phase defective photonic crystal,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 927–933 (2020).
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A. Krasnok, “Photonic Rashba effect,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 893–894 (2020).
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X. Hu, Y. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “Nonlinear beam shaping in domain engineered ferroelectric crystals,” Adv. Mater. 32, 1903775 (2020).
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K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Directional Janus metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32, 1906352 (2020).
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J. Deng, L. Deng, Z. Guan, J. Tao, G. Li, Z. Li, Z. Li, S. Yu, and G. Zheng, “Multiplexed anticounterfeiting meta-image displays with single-sized nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 20, 1830–1838 (2020).
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L. Deng, J. Deng, Z. Guan, J. Tao, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, D. Zhang, J. Tang, Z. Li, and Z. Li, “Malus-metasurface-assisted polarization multiplexing,” Light Sci. Appl. 9, 101 (2020).
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H. Zhou, B. Sain, Y. Wang, C. Schlickriede, R. Zhao, X. Zhang, Q. Wei, X. Li, L. Huang, and T. Zentgraf, “Polarization-encrypted orbital angular momentum multiplexed metasurface holography,” ACS Nano 14, 5553–5559 (2020).
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Z. Ji, W. Liu, S. Krylyuk, X. Fan, Z. Zhang, A. Pan, L. Feng, A. Davydov, and R. Agarwal, “Photocurrent detection of the orbital angular momentum of light,” Science 368, 763–767 (2020).
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Z. Zhang, X. Qiao, B. Midya, K. Liu, J. Sun, T. Wu, W. Liu, R. Agarwal, J. M. Jornet, and S. Longhi, “Tunable topological charge vortex microlaser,” Science 368, 760–763 (2020).
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C. Huang, C. Zhang, S. Xiao, Y. Wang, Y. Fan, Y. Liu, N. Zhang, G. Qu, H. Ji, and J. Han, “Ultrafast control of vortex microlasers,” Science 367, 1018–1021 (2020).
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S. Paik, G. Kim, S. Chang, S. Lee, D. Jin, K.-Y. Jeong, I. S. Lee, J. Lee, H. Moon, and J. Lee, “Near-field sub-diffraction photolithography with an elastomeric photomask,” Nat. Commun. 11, 805 (2020).
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J. Lu, C. Cao, Z. Zhu, and B. Gu, “Flexible measurement of high-order optical orbital angular momentum with a variable cylindrical lens pair,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 116, 201105 (2020).
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Q. Zhao, M. Dong, Y. Bai, and Y. Yang, “Measuring high orbital angular momentum of vortex beams with an improved multipoint interferometer,” Photon. Res. 8, 745–749 (2020).
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2019 (26)

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J. C. T. Lee, S. J. Alexander, S. D. Kevan, S. Roy, and B. J. Mcmorran, “Laguerre–Gauss and Hermite–Gauss soft X-ray states generated using diffractive optics,” Nat. Photonics 13, 205–209 (2019).
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E. Khoram, A. Chen, D. Liu, L. Ying, Q. Wang, M. Yuan, and Z. Yu, “Nanophotonic media for artificial neural inference,” Photon. Res. 7, 823–827 (2019).
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J. Feldmann, N. Youngblood, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, and W. Pernice, “All-optical spiking neurosynaptic networks with self-learning capabilities,” Nature 569, 208–214 (2019).
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M. Gu, X. Fang, H. Ren, and E. Goi, “Optically digitalized holography: a perspective for all-optical machine learning,” Engineering 5, 363–365 (2019).
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Y. Luo, D. Mengu, N. T. Yardimci, Y. Rivenson, M. Veli, M. Jarrahi, and A. Ozcan, “Design of task-specific optical systems using broadband diffractive neural networks,” Light Sci. Appl. 8, 112 (2019).
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T. Yan, J. Wu, T. Zhou, H. Xie, F. Xu, J. Fan, L. Fang, X. Lin, and Q. Dai, “Fourier-space diffractive deep neural network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 023901 (2019).
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H. Ren, G. Briere, X. Fang, P. Ni, R. Sawant, S. Héron, S. Chenot, S. Vézian, B. Damilano, V. Brändli, S. A. Maier, and P. Genevet, “Metasurface orbital angular momentum holography,” Nat. Commun. 10, 2986 (2019).
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2018 (17)

X. Lin, Y. Rivenson, N. T. Yardimci, M. Veli, Y. Luo, M. Jarrahi, and A. Ozcan, “All-optical machine learning using diffractive deep neural networks,” Science 361, 1004–1008 (2018).
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D. Wei, C. Wang, H. Wang, X. Hu, D. Wei, X. Fang, Y. Zhang, D. Wu, Y. Hu, J. Li, S. Zhu, and M. Xiao, “Experimental demonstration of a three-dimensional lithium niobate nonlinear photonic crystal,” Nat. Photonics 12, 596–600 (2018).
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G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10, 4237–4245 (2018).
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N. Zhou and J. Wang, “Metasurface-assisted orbital angular momentum carrying Bessel-Gaussian laser: proposal and simulation,” Sci. Rep. 8, 8038 (2018).
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2017 (16)

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, H. Pichler, and P. Zoller, “Chiral quantum optics,” Nature 541, 473–480 (2017).
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2016 (17)

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1601102 (2016).
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2014 (21)

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Figures (39)

Figure 1.
Figure 1. Schematic of the (a) SAM as well as the (b) OAM of light associated with circularly polarized light and a helical wavefront, respectively. The helical wavefronts along the propagation axis (left column) and the transverse helical wavefronts (middle column), as well as the corresponding intensity distributions (right column) of different OAM-carrying beams are shown in (b).
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Schematic illustration of the SAM sensitivity and the nanophotonic manipulation of OAM. (a) SAM sensitivity by 1D waveguide nanostructure [63], 2D chiral nanostructure [64], 3D chiral nanostructure [65], and achiral nanostructure [66]. (b) Nanophotonic generation and detection of OAM by dynamic phase plate [67], spin–orbit conversion metasurface [68], integrated OAM laser [69], fork grating [70], plasmonic OAM detector [71], and OAM photocurrent detector [72]. (a) Adapted from [63,64]. From Gansel et al., Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009) [65]. Figures 2 and 3 reprinted with permission from Bliokh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 030404 (2008) [66]. Copyright 2008 by the American Physical Society. https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.030404. (b) Reprinted with permission from Sun et al., Nano Lett. 14, 2726–2729 (2014). [67]. Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society. Adapted from [68,71,72]. From Miao et al., Science 353, 464–467 (2016) [69]. Reprinted with permission from AAAS. Reprinted with permission from [70]. Copyright 2018 Optical Society of America.
Figure 3.
Figure 3. SAM sensitivity by 3D chiral nanostructures. A broadband CD has been demonstrated by (a) 3D gold helix metamaterials [65], (b) 3D gyroid photonic crystals [75], and (c) 3D twisted-rod metasurfaces [76], respectively. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images (top row) of these 3D chiral nanostructures as well as their transmission spectra (bottom row) irradiated by left- and right-handed circularly polarized light are shown. (a) From Gansel et al., Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009) [65]. Reprinted with permission from AAAS. (b) Adapted from [75,76].
Figure 4.
Figure 4. SAM sensitivity by 2D planar chiral nanostructures. (a)–(e) SAM-dependent directional coupling of the SPP flows [64]. (a) Schematic of the SAM sensitive by chiral nanoaperture arrays (inset). (b) SEM image of the structure. (c)–(e) Near-field scanning optical microscopy images of the structure under normal illumination by (c) linearly polarized light, (d) right-handed circularly polarized light, and (e) left-handed circularly polarized light. (f)–(h) SAM-dependent optical transmission through nanoapertures enclosed by spiral nanogratings [79]. (f) Light transmission measured for the illuminations of right-handed circularly polarized light, left-handed circularly polarized light, and linearly polarized light. (g) SEM image of the structure. The magnified SEM images of spiral nanogratings and a nanoaperture are presented. (h) Spectral transmission enhancement for right- (red line) and left-handed (blue line) circularly polarized light, respectively. The spectrum was normalized by the transmission measured for nanoapertures without corrugations of spiral nanogratings. (a)–(e) Adapted from [64]. (f)–(h) Reprinted with permission from Gorodetski et al., Nano Lett. 9, 3016–3019 (2009) [79]. Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society.
Figure 5.
Figure 5. SAM sensitivity by 1D waveguide nanostructures. (a)–(d) SAM-dependent directional SPPs excitation with a nanoslit. (a) Schematics of the experiment. A plane wave is incident at a nearly grazing angle (70 deg) onto a nanoslit in a metal film [63]. (b) SEM of the nanoslit. (c) Measured SPP leakage radiation collected from the sample for different polarization states of the illuminating light. (d) Experimental (solid lines) and simulated (dashed lines) dependences of the intensity of left and right excited SPPs on the polarization of the illuminating light. (e)–(g) SAM-dependent directional scattering of light with a nanoparticle on the surface of a nanofiber waveguide [84]. (e) Schematic of a single nanoparticle on a silica nanofiber surface illuminated by circularly polarized light propagating in the $x$ direction. The light scattered into the nanofiber is detected at the left and right fiber output ports. (f) SEM image of the nanofiber and nanoparticle. (g) Measured photon fluxes at the left (blue circles) and right (purple squares) fiber output ports as a function of the angle of the quarter-wave plate. The measured photon fluxes at the left (yellow diamonds) and right (green triangles) outputs without the nanoparticle are also shown, scaled up by a factor of 10. (a) From Rodríguez-Fortuño et al., Science 340, 328–330 (2013) [63]. Reprinted with permission from AAAS. (e)–(g) Adapted from [84].
Figure 6.
Figure 6. SAM sensitivity by achiral nanostructures. (a) SAM sensitivity based on a tilted illumination [85]. The schematic of the experiment (top) and the measured CD spectra for different incident angles (bottom) are shown. (b) OAM-induced SAM sensitivity [86]. The schematic of the experiment (top left) and the SEM image of the nanoaperture (top right) as well as the measured CD results as a function of the size of the nanoaperture (bottom) are shown; l0 is the topological charge of an OAM-carrying beam. (c) Near-field SAM-dependent directional SPPs coupling arising from the SOI [66]. The SEM image of the achiral semi-circular nanogratings (top) as well as the simulated (bottom left) and measured (bottom right) SPPs focal spots for different SAM states are shown. (d) Far-field SAM-distinguishing beam splitter arising from the SOI [87]. The schematic of the experiment (top left) as well as the SEM image of the nanofin-based achiral geometric metasurface (top right) are shown. The measured focal spots for linearly polarized light (bottom first row), left- (bottom second row), and right-handed (bottom third row) circularly polarized light are shown. (a) Adapted from [85]. (b) Adapted from [86,87]. (c) Figures 2 and 3 reprinted with permission from Bliokh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 030404 (2008) [66]. Copyright 2008 by the American Physical Society. https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.030404.
Figure 7.
Figure 7. Diffractive elements for OAM generation. (a) Generation of beam with ultrahigh OAM (10,010) by a SPM in a quantum entanglement process [95]. (b) Binary amplitude-only fork grating for the generation of OAM array in the wavelength range of soft x rays [96]. (a) Fickler et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 13642–13647 (2016) [95]. (b) Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd.: Lee et al., Nat. Photonics 13, 205–209 (2019) [96]. Copyright 2019.
Figure 8.
Figure 8. Generation of OAM-carrying beams by metasurfaces. (a) OAM generation through a scattering-based digitalized metasurface [98]. (b) OAM generation through a geometric