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Optica Publishing Group
  • Current Optics and Photonics
  • Vol. 2,
  • Issue 3,
  • pp. 269-279
  • (2018)

Performance Prediction of a Laser-guide Star Adaptive Optics System for a 1.6 m Telescope

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

We are currently investigating the feasibility of a 1.6 m telescope with a laser-guide star adaptive optics (AO) system. The telescope, if successfully commissioned, would be the first dedicated adaptive optics observatory in South Korea. The 1.6 m telescope is an f/13.6 Cassegrain telescope with a focal length of 21.7 m. This paper first reviews atmospheric seeing conditions measured over a year in 2014~2015 at the Bohyun Observatory, South Korea, which corresponds to an area from 11.6 to 21.6 cm within 95% probability with regard to the Fried parameter of 880 nm at a telescope pupil plane. We then derive principal seeing conditions such as the Fried parameter and Greenwood frequency for eight astronomical spectral bands (V/R/I/J/H/K/L/M centered at 0.55, 0.64, 0.79, 1.22, 1.65, 2.20, 3.55, and 4.77 μm). Then we propose an AO system with a laser guide star for the 1.6 m telescope based on the seeing conditions. The proposed AO system consists of a fast tip/tilt secondary mirror, a 17 × 17 deformable mirror, a 16 × 16 Shack-Hartmann sensor, and a sodium laser guide star (589.2 nm). The high order AO system is close-looped with 2 KHz sampling frequency while the tip/tilt mirror is independently close-looped with 63 Hz sampling frequency. The AO system has three operational concepts: 1) bright target observation with its own wavefront sensing, 2) less bright star observation with wavefront sensing from another bright natural guide star (NGS), and 3) faint target observation with tip/tilt sensing from a bright natural guide star and wavefront sensing from a laser guide star. We name these three concepts ‘None’, ‘NGS only’, and ‘LGS + NGS’, respectively. Following a thorough investigation into the error sources of the AO system, we predict the root mean square (RMS) wavefront error of the system and its corresponding Strehl ratio over nine analysis cases over the worst (2σ) seeing conditions. From the analysis, we expect Strehl ratio >0.3 in most seeing conditions with guide stars.

© 2018 Optical Society of Korea

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References

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2017 (1)

2014 (1)

2011 (1)

B. García-Lorenzo, A. Eff-Darwich, J. J. Fuensalida, J. A. Castro-Almazán, "Adaptive optics parameters connection to wind speed at the Teide Observatory: corrigendum," Mon. Notices Royal Astron. 414, 801‒809 (2011)
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, M. Sarazin, "Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835‒845 (2006)
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

R. Flicker, "Efficient first-order performance estimation for high-order adaptive optics systems," Astron. Astrophys. 405, 1177‒1189 (2003)
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. W. Wilson, "SLODAR: measuring optical turbulence altitude with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 103‒108 (2002)
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. H. Lee, B. C. Bigelow, D. D. Walker, A. P. Doel, R. G. Bingham, "Why adaptive secondaries?," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 97‒107 (2000)
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

J. M. Beckers, "Adaptive optics for astronomy: principles performance and applications," Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13‒62 (1993)
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

R. R. Parenti, "Adaptive optics for astronomy," Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 93‒114 (1992)

1990 (2)

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thopson, "Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars," Proc. IEEE 78, 1721‒1743 (1990)
[Crossref]

R. K. Tyson, "Adaptive optics system performance approximations for atmospheric turbulence correction," Opt. Eng. 29, 1165‒1173 (1990)
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

F. Roddier, J. M. Gilli, G. Lund, "On the origin of speckle boiling and its effects in stellar speckle interferometry," J. Opt. 13, 263‒271 (1982)
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

F. Roddier, "The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy," Prog. Opt. 19, 281‒376 (1981)

1977 (1)

1973 (1)

1966 (1)

An, J. R.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Avicola, K.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Bauman, B. J.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, "Adaptive optics for astronomy: principles performance and applications," Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13‒62 (1993)
[Crossref]

Belen’kii, M. S.

M. S. Belen’kii, Tilt angular correlation and tilt sensing techniques with a laser guide star .

Bigelow, B. C.

J. H. Lee, B. C. Bigelow, D. D. Walker, A. P. Doel, R. G. Bingham, "Why adaptive secondaries?," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 97‒107 (2000)
[Crossref]

Bingham, R. G.

J. H. Lee, B. C. Bigelow, D. D. Walker, A. P. Doel, R. G. Bingham, "Why adaptive secondaries?," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 97‒107 (2000)
[Crossref]

Bo, Y.

W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

Brase, J. M.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Butterley, T.

T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, M. Sarazin, "Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835‒845 (2006)
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, S. J. Ro, K. Kim, T. Butterley, R. Wilson, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Robotic SLODAR development for seeing evaluations at the Bohyunsan Observatory .

Campbell, E. W.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Carrano, C. J.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Castro-Almazán, J. A.

B. García-Lorenzo, A. Eff-Darwich, J. J. Fuensalida, J. A. Castro-Almazán, "Adaptive optics parameters connection to wind speed at the Teide Observatory: corrigendum," Mon. Notices Royal Astron. 414, 801‒809 (2011)
[Crossref]

B. García-Lorenzo, A. Eff-Darwich, J. J. Fuensalida, J. A. Castro-Almazán, Estimation of adaptive optics parameters from wind speed: results for the Teide Observatory .

Chen, S.

W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

Choi, Y.

J. H. Lee, S. J. Ro, K. Kim, T. Butterley, R. Wilson, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Robotic SLODAR development for seeing evaluations at the Bohyunsan Observatory .

Cooke, J. B.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Correia, C. M.

d’Orgeville, C.

C. d’Orgeville, G. J. Fetzer, Four generations of sodium guide star lasers for adaptive optics in astronomy and space situational awareness .

Doel, A. P.

J. H. Lee, B. C. Bigelow, D. D. Walker, A. P. Doel, R. G. Bingham, "Why adaptive secondaries?," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 97‒107 (2000)
[Crossref]

Eff-Darwich, A.

B. García-Lorenzo, A. Eff-Darwich, J. J. Fuensalida, J. A. Castro-Almazán, "Adaptive optics parameters connection to wind speed at the Teide Observatory: corrigendum," Mon. Notices Royal Astron. 414, 801‒809 (2011)
[Crossref]

B. García-Lorenzo, A. Eff-Darwich, J. J. Fuensalida, J. A. Castro-Almazán, Estimation of adaptive optics parameters from wind speed: results for the Teide Observatory .

Fetzer, G. J.

C. d’Orgeville, G. J. Fetzer, Four generations of sodium guide star lasers for adaptive optics in astronomy and space situational awareness .

Flicker, R.

R. Flicker, "Efficient first-order performance estimation for high-order adaptive optics systems," Astron. Astrophys. 405, 1177‒1189 (2003)
[Crossref]

Frazier, B. W.

Freeze, G. J.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Fried, D. L.

Friedman, H. W.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Fuensalida, J. J.

B. García-Lorenzo, A. Eff-Darwich, J. J. Fuensalida, J. A. Castro-Almazán, "Adaptive optics parameters connection to wind speed at the Teide Observatory: corrigendum," Mon. Notices Royal Astron. 414, 801‒809 (2011)
[Crossref]

B. García-Lorenzo, A. Eff-Darwich, J. J. Fuensalida, J. A. Castro-Almazán, Estimation of adaptive optics parameters from wind speed: results for the Teide Observatory .

García-Lorenzo, B.

B. García-Lorenzo, A. Eff-Darwich, J. J. Fuensalida, J. A. Castro-Almazán, "Adaptive optics parameters connection to wind speed at the Teide Observatory: corrigendum," Mon. Notices Royal Astron. 414, 801‒809 (2011)
[Crossref]

B. García-Lorenzo, A. Eff-Darwich, J. J. Fuensalida, J. A. Castro-Almazán, Estimation of adaptive optics parameters from wind speed: results for the Teide Observatory .

Gardner, C. S.

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thopson, "Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars," Proc. IEEE 78, 1721‒1743 (1990)
[Crossref]

Gates, E. L.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Gavel, D. T.

D. T. Gavel, J. R. Morris, R. G. Vernon, "Systematic design and analysis of laser-guide-star adaptive-optics systems for large telescopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 914‒924 (1994)
[Crossref]

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Gilli, J. M.

F. Roddier, J. M. Gilli, G. Lund, "On the origin of speckle boiling and its effects in stellar speckle interferometry," J. Opt. 13, 263‒271 (1982)
[Crossref]

Greenwood, D. P.

Guan, C.

W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

Hao, X.

W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive optics for astronomical telescopes .

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics .

Kanz, V. K.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Kim, K.

J. H. Lee, S. J. Ro, K. Kim, T. Butterley, R. Wilson, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Robotic SLODAR development for seeing evaluations at the Bohyunsan Observatory .

Kuklo, T. C.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Le Mignant, D.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, S. Shin, G. N. Park, H. Rhee, H. Yang, "Atmospheric turbulence simulator for adaptive optics evaluation on an optical test bench," Curr. Opt. Photon. 1, 107‒112 (2017)
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, B. C. Bigelow, D. D. Walker, A. P. Doel, R. G. Bingham, "Why adaptive secondaries?," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 97‒107 (2000)
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, S. J. Ro, K. Kim, T. Butterley, R. Wilson, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Robotic SLODAR development for seeing evaluations at the Bohyunsan Observatory .

Lee, S.

J. H. Lee, S. J. Ro, K. Kim, T. Butterley, R. Wilson, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Robotic SLODAR development for seeing evaluations at the Bohyunsan Observatory .

Li, C.

W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

Li, M.

W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

Lund, G.

F. Roddier, J. M. Gilli, G. Lund, "On the origin of speckle boiling and its effects in stellar speckle interferometry," J. Opt. 13, 263‒271 (1982)
[Crossref]

Ma, W.

W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

Macintosh, B. A.

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant, B. A. Macintosh, "Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system," Appl. Opt. 43, 5458‒5467 (2004)
[Crossref]

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Max, C. E.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Morris, J. R.

Newman, M. J.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Olivier, S. S.

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

Parenti, R. R.

R. R. Parenti, "Adaptive optics for astronomy," Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 93‒114 (1992)

Park, G. N.

Pierce, E. L.

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W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

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J. H. Lee, S. J. Ro, K. Kim, T. Butterley, R. Wilson, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Robotic SLODAR development for seeing evaluations at the Bohyunsan Observatory .

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S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

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W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

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W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

Zhang, Y.

W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

Zhou, L.

W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

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F. Roddier, J. M. Gilli, G. Lund, "On the origin of speckle boiling and its effects in stellar speckle interferometry," J. Opt. 13, 263‒271 (1982)
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

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R. W. Wilson, "SLODAR: measuring optical turbulence altitude with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 103‒108 (2002)
[Crossref]

T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, M. Sarazin, "Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835‒845 (2006)
[Crossref]

Mon. Notices Royal Astron. (1)

B. García-Lorenzo, A. Eff-Darwich, J. J. Fuensalida, J. A. Castro-Almazán, "Adaptive optics parameters connection to wind speed at the Teide Observatory: corrigendum," Mon. Notices Royal Astron. 414, 801‒809 (2011)
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Opt. Eng. (1)

R. K. Tyson, "Adaptive optics system performance approximations for atmospheric turbulence correction," Opt. Eng. 29, 1165‒1173 (1990)
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C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thopson, "Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars," Proc. IEEE 78, 1721‒1743 (1990)
[Crossref]

Prog. Opt. (1)

F. Roddier, "The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy," Prog. Opt. 19, 281‒376 (1981)

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific (1)

J. H. Lee, B. C. Bigelow, D. D. Walker, A. P. Doel, R. G. Bingham, "Why adaptive secondaries?," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 97‒107 (2000)
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Other (13)

E. Hecht, Optics .

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics .

S. S. Olivier, D. T. Gavel, H. W. Friedman, C. E. Max, J. R. An, K. Avicola, B. J. Bauman, J. M. Brase, E. W. Campbell, C. J. Carrano, J. B. Cooke, G. J. Freeze, E. L. Gates, V. K. Kanz, T. C. Kuklo, B. A. Macintosh, M. J. Newman, E. L. Pierce, K. E. Waltjen, J. A. Watson, Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory .

W. C. Rao, Y. Bo, C. Li, M. Li, X Zhang, A. Zhang, C. Guan, L. Zhou, S. Chen, X. Hao, W. Ma, Y. Zhang, A sodium guide star adaptive optics system for the 1.8 meter telescope .

C. d’Orgeville, G. J. Fetzer, Four generations of sodium guide star lasers for adaptive optics in astronomy and space situational awareness .

J. H. Lee, S. J. Ro, K. Kim, T. Butterley, R. Wilson, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Robotic SLODAR development for seeing evaluations at the Bohyunsan Observatory .

B. García-Lorenzo, A. Eff-Darwich, J. J. Fuensalida, J. A. Castro-Almazán, Estimation of adaptive optics parameters from wind speed: results for the Teide Observatory .

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive optics for astronomical telescopes .

.

.

.

.

M. S. Belen’kii, Tilt angular correlation and tilt sensing techniques with a laser guide star .

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