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Optica Publishing Group
  • Current Optics and Photonics
  • Vol. 3,
  • Issue 4,
  • pp. 275-284
  • (2019)

Chirality in Non-Hermitian Photonics

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

Chirality is ubiquitous in physics and biology from microscopic to macroscopic phenomena, such as fermionic interactions and DNA duplication. In photonics, chirality has traditionally represented differentiated optical responses for right and left circular polarizations. This definition of optical chirality in the polarization domain includes handedness-dependent phase velocities or optical absorption inside chiral media, which enable polarimetry for measuring the material concentration and circular dichroism spectroscopy for sensing biological or chemical enantiomers. Recently, the emerging field of non-Hermitian photonics, which explores exotic phenomena in gain or loss media, has provided a new viewpoint on chirality in photonics that is not restricted to the traditional polarization domain but is extended to other physical quantities such as the orbital angular momentum, propagation direction, and system parameter space. Here, we introduce recent milestones in chiral light-matter interactions in non-Hermitian photonics and show an enhanced degree of design freedom in photonic devices for spin and orbital angular momenta, directionality, and asymmetric modal conversion.

© 2019 Optical Society of Korea

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2019 (6)

M.-A. Miri, A. Alù, "Exceptional points in optics and photonics," Science 363, eaar7709 (2019)
[Crossref]

R. El-Ganainy, M. Khajavikhan, D. N. Christodoulides, S. K. Ozdemir, "The dawn of non-Hermitian optics," Commun. Phys. 2, 37 (2019)
[Crossref]

N. C. Zambon, P. St-Jean, M. Milićević, A. Lemaître, A. Harouri, L. Le Gratiet, O. Bleu, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, I. Sagnes, S. Ravets, A. Amo, J. Bloch, "Optically controlling the emission chirality of microlasers," Nat. Photonics 13, 283‒288 (2019)
[Crossref]

W. R. Sweeney, C. W. Hsu, S. Rotter, A. D. Stone, "Perfectly absorbing exceptional points and chiral absorbers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 093901 (2019)
[Crossref]

E. Lustig, S. Weimann, Y. Plotnik, Y. Lumer, M. A. Bandres, A. Szameit, M. Segev, "Photonic topological insulator in synthetic dimensions," Nature 567, 356‒360 (2019)
[Crossref]

M. P. Hokmabadi, N. S. Nye, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Khajavikhan, "Supersymmetric laser arrays," Science 363, 623‒626 (2019)
[Crossref]

2018 (14)

S. Yu, X. Piao, N. Park, "Disordered potential landscapes for anomalous delocalization and superdiffusion of light," ACS Photonics 5, 1499‒1505 (2018)
[Crossref]

Q. Zhong, M. Khajavikhan, D. N. Christodoulides, R. El-Ganainy, "Winding around non-Hermitian singularities," Nat. Commun. 9, 4808 (2018)
[Crossref]

S. Lieu, "Topological phases in the non-Hermitian SuSchrieffer-Heeger model," Phys. Rev. B 97, 045106 (2018)
[Crossref]

S. Yu, X. Piao, N. Park, "Bohmian photonics for independent control of the phase and amplitude of waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 193902 (2018)
[Crossref]

E. Rivet, A. Brandstötter, K. G. Makris, H. Lissek, S. Rotter, R. Fleury, "Constant-pressure sound waves in nonHermitian disordered media," Nat. Phys 14, 942‒947 (2018)
[Crossref]

X.-L. Zhang, S. Wang, B. Hou, C. T. Chan, "Dynamically encircling exceptional points: in situ control of encircling loops and the role of the starting point," Phys. Rev. X 8, 021066 (2018)

J. W. Yoon, Y. Choi, C. Hahn, G. Kim, S. H. Song, K.-Y. Yang, J. Y. Lee, Y. Kim, C. S. Lee, J. K. Shin, H.-S. Lee, P. Berini, "Time-asymmetric loop around an exceptional point over the full optical communications band," Nature 562, 86‒90 (2018)
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A. Mock, D. Sounas, A. Alù, "Tunable orbital angular momentum radiation from angular-momentum-biased microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 103901 (2018)
[Crossref]

S. Yu, X. Piao, N. Park, "Designing non-Hermitian dynamics for conservative state evolution on the Bloch spher," Phys. Rev. A 97, 033805 (2018)
[Crossref]

B. Baum, M. Lawrence, D. Barton, J. Dionne, H. Alaeian, "Active polarization control with a parity-time-symmetric plasmonic resonator," Phys. Rev. B 98, 165418 (2018)
[Crossref]

X. Piao, S. Yu, N. Park, "Design of transverse spinning of light with globally unique handedness," Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 203901 (2018)
[Crossref]

S. Longhi, "Parity-time symmetry meets photonics: A new twist in non-Hermitian optics," Europhys. Lett. 120, 64001 (2018)

H.-E. Lee, H.-Y. Ahn, J. Mun, Y. Y. Lee, M. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Chang, W. S. Kim, J. Rho, K. T. Nam, "Aminoacid-and peptide-directed synthesis of chiral plasmonic gold nanoparticles," Nature 556, 360‒365 (2018)
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R. El-Ganainy, K. G. Makris, M. Khajavikhan, Z. H. Musslimani, S. Rotter, D. N. Christodoulides, "NonHermitian physics and PT symmetry," Nat. Phys. 14, 11‒19 (2018)
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2017 (13)

S. Weimann, M. Kremer, Y. Plotnik, Y. Lumer, S. Nolte, K. Makris, M. Segev, M. Rechtsman, A. Szameit, "Topologically protected bound states in photonic parity-time-symmetric crystals," Nat. Mater. 16, 433‒438 (2017)
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S. Assawaworrarit, X. Yu, S. Fan, "Robust wireless power transfer using a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit," Nature 546, 387‒390 (2017)
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L. Feng, R. El-Ganainy, L. Ge, "Non-Hermitian photonics based on parity-time symmetry," Nat. Photonics 11, 752‒762 (2017)
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A. Cerjan, S. Fan, "Achieving arbitrary control over pairs of polarization states using complex birefringent metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 253902 (2017)
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R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. B. Mueller, F. Capasso, "Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light," Science 358, 896‒901 (2017)
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W. Chen, Ş. K. Özdemir, G. Zhao, J. Wiersig, L. Yang, "Exceptional points enhance sensing in an optical microcavity," Nature 548, 192‒196 (2017)
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D. L. Sounas, A. Alù, "Non-reciprocal photonics based on time modulation," Nat. Photonics 11, 774‒783 (2017)
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A. U. Hassan, B. Zhen, M. Soljačić, M. Khajavikhan, D. N. Christodoulides, "Dynamically encircling exceptional points: Exact evolution and polarization state conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 093002 (2017)
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K. G. Makris, A. Brandstötter, P. Ambichl, Z. H. Musslimani, S. Rotter, "Wave propagation through disordered media without backscattering and intensity variations," Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17035 (2017)
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S. Yu, X. Piao, N. Park, "Target decoupling in coupled systems resistant to random perturbation," Sci. Rep. 7, 2139 (2017)
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D. Leykam, K. Y. Bliokh, C. Huang, Y. D. Chong, F. Nori, "Edge modes degeneracies and topological numbers in non-Hermitian systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 040401 (2017)
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H. H. Sheinfux, Y. Lumer, G. Ankonina, A. Z. Genack, G. Bartal, M. Segev, "Observation of Anderson localization in disordered nanophotonic structures," Science 356, 953‒956 (2017)
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S. Yu, X. Piao, N. Park, "Controlling random waves with digital building blocks based on supersymmetry," Phys. Rev. Appl. 8, 054010 (2017)
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2016 (12)

J. Doppler, A. A. Mailybaev, J. Böhm, U. Kuhl, A. Girschik, F. Libisch, T. J. Milburn, P. Rabl, N. Moiseyev, S. Rotter, "Dynamically encircling an exceptional point for asymmetric mode switching," Nature 537, 76‒79 (2016)
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S. Yu, X. Piao, J. Hong, N. Park, "Metadisorder for designer light in random systems," Sci. Adv. 2, e1501851 (2016)
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H. Xu, D. Mason, L. Jiang, J. G. E. Harris, "Topological energy transfer in an optomechanical system with exceptional points," Nature 537, 80‒83 (2016)
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T. E. Lee, "Anomalous edge state in a non-Hermitian lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133903 (2016)
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F.-J. Shu, C.-L. Zou, X.-B. Zou, L. Yang, "Chiral symmetry breaking in a microring optical cavity by engineered dissipation," Phys. Rev. A 94, 013848 (2016)
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B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, L. Yang, "Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113, 6845‒6850 (2016)
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J. Wiersig, "Sensors operating at exceptional points: general theory," Phys. Rev. A 93, 033809 (2016)
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D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, A. Forbes, "Controlled generation of higherorder Poincaré sphere beams from a laser," Nat. Photonics 10, 327‒332 (2016)
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P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, L. Feng, "Orbital angular momentum microlaser," Science 353, 464‒467 (2016)
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S. Yu, H. S. Park, X. Piao, B. Min, N. Park, "Lowdimensional optical chirality in complex potentials," Optica 3, 1025‒1032 (2016)
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M. Kang, J. Chen, Y. D. Chong, "Chiral exceptional points in metasurfaces," Phys. Rev. A 94, 033834 (2016)
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S. Yu, X. Piao, N. Park, "Acceleration toward polarization singularity inspired by relativistic E × B drift," Sci. Rep. 6, 37754 (2016)
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2015 (6)

M. Kang, Y. D. Chong, "Coherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurface," Phys. Rev. A 92, 043826 (2015)
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S. Yu, X. Piao, J. Hong, N. Park, "Progress toward high-Q perfect absorption: A Fano antilaser," Phys. Rev. A 92, 011802 (2015)
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X. Piao, S. Yu, J. Hong, N. Park, "Spectral separation of optical spin based on antisymmetric Fano resonances," Sci. Rep. 5, 16585 (2015)
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K. G. Makris, Z. H. Musslimani, D. N. Christodoulides, S. Rotter, "Constant-intensity waves and their modulation instability in non-Hermitian potentials," Nat. Commun. 6, 7257 (2015)
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K. Y. Bliokh, D. Smirnova, F. Nori, "Quantum spin Hall effect of light," Science 348, 1448‒1451 (2015)
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S. Yu, X. Piao, J. Hong, N. Park, "Bloch-like waves in random-walk potentials based on supersymmetry," Nat. Commun. 6, 8269 (2015)
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2014 (9)

M. Heinrich, M. A. Miri, S. Stutzer, R. El-Ganainy, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, D. N. Christodoulides, "Supersymmetric mode converters," Nat. Commun. 5, 3698 (2014)
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R. Fleury, D. L. Sounas, A. Alù, "Negative refraction and planar focusing based on parity-time symmetric metasurfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023903 (2014)
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L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, "Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking," Science 346, 972‒975 (2014)
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H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Khajavikhan, "Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers," Science 346, 975‒978 (2014)
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L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, M. Xiao, "Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators," Nat. Photonics 8, 524‒529 (2014)
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J. Wiersig, "Enhancing the sensitivity of frequency and energy splitting detection by using exceptional points: application to microcavity sensors for single-particle detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 20390 (2014)

L. Ge, A. D. Stone, "Parity-time symmetry breaking beyond one dimension: the role of degeneracy," Phys. Rev. X 4, 031011 (2014)

J. M. Lee, S. Factor, Z. Lin, I. Vitebskiy, F. M. Ellis, T. Kottos, "Reconfigurable directional lasing modes in cavities with generalized PT symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 253902 (2014)
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M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, S. Zhang, "Manifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093901 (2014)
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2013 (5)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, "Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers," Science 340, 1545‒1548 (2013)
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D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popović, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, H. Renner, "What is —and what is not — an optical isolator," Nat. Photonics 7, 579‒582 (2013)
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A. B. Khanikaev, S. H. Mousavi, W. K. Tse, M. Kargarian, A. H. MacDonald, G. Shvets, "Photonic topological insulators," Nat. Mater. 12, 233‒239 (2013)
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M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, "Supersymmetric optical structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 233902 (2013)
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D. S. Wiersma, "Disordered photonics," Nat. Photonics 7, 188‒196 (2013)
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2012 (5)

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, U. Peschel, "Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices," Nature 488, 167‒171 (2012)
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A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M. A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, U. Peschel, "Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices," Nature 488, 167‒171 (2012)
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W. D. Heiss, "The physics of exceptional points," J. Phys. A 45, 444016 (2012)
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S. Yu, X. Piao, D. R. Mason, S. In, N. Park, "Spatiospectral separation of exceptional points in PT-symmetric optical potentials," Phys. Rev. A 86, 031802 (2012)
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S. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popovic, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, C. R. Doerr, "Comment on Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit," Science 335, 38 (2012)

2011 (3)

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, A. D. Stone, "PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093902 (2011)
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Y. Tang, A. E. Cohen, "Enhanced enantioselectivity in excitation of chiral molecules by superchiral light," Science 332, 333‒336 (2011)
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2010 (5)

Y. Tang, A. E. Cohen, "Optical chirality and its interaction with matter," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163901 (2010)
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C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, D. Kip, "Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics," Nat. Phys. 6, 192‒195 (2010)
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J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, L. Yang, "On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator," Nat. Photonics 4, 46‒49 (2010)
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D. A. B. Miller, "Are optical transistors the logical next step?," Nat. Photonics 4, 3‒5 (2010)
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2009 (2)

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093902 (2009)
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R. Lefebvre, O. Atabek, M. Šindelka, N. Moiseyev, "Resonance coalescence in molecular photodissociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 123003 (2009)
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2008 (1)

Z. H. Musslimani, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, "Optical solitons in PT periodic potentials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 030402 (2008)
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2004 (2)

J. B. Pendry, "A chiral route to negative refraction," Science 306, 1353‒1355 (2004)
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2003 (2)

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, N. I. Zheludev, "Optical manifestations of planar chirality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003)
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P. L. Polavarapu, "Optical rotation: recent advances in determining the absolute configuratio," Chirality 14, 768‒781 (2002)
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W. Heiss, H. Harney, "The chirality of exceptional points," Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 149‒151 (2001)
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W. Heiss, "Repulsion of resonance states and exceptional points," Phys. Rev. E 61, 929‒932 (2000)
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M. K. Gaillard, P. D. Grannis, F. J. Sciulli, "The standard model of particle physics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S96 (1999)
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