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Optica Publishing Group
  • Current Optics and Photonics
  • Vol. 4,
  • Issue 3,
  • pp. 161-173
  • (2020)

Recent Progress in High-Luminance Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) have gained tremendous attention as a key material for highly advanced display technologies. The performance of QD light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) has improved significantly over the past two decades, owing to notable progress in both material development and device engineering. The brightness of QLEDs has improved by more than three orders of magnitude from that of early-stage devices, and has attained a value in the range of traditional inorganic LEDs. The emergence of high-luminance (HL) QLEDs has induced fresh demands to incorporate the unique features of QDs into a wide range of display applications, beyond indoor and mobile displays. Therefore it is necessary to assess the present status and prospects of HL-QLEDs, to expand the application domain of QD-based light sources. As part of this study, we review recent advances in HL-QLEDs. In particular, based on reports of brightness exceeding 105 cd/m2, we have summarized the major approaches toward achieving high brightness in QLEDs, in terms of material development and device engineering. Furthermore, we briefly introduce the recent progress achieved toward QD laser diodes, being the next step in the development of HL-QLEDs. This review provides general guidelines for achieving HL-QLEDs, and reveals the high potential of QDs as a universal material solution that can enable realization of a wide range of display applications.

© 2020 Optical Society of Korea

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2020 (3)

D. Kim, D. C. Lee, "Surface ligands as permeation barrier in the growth and assembly of anisotropic semi-conductor nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 11, 2647‒2657 (2020)
[Crossref]

H. Lee, D.-E. Yoon, S. Koh, M. S. Kang, J. Lim, D. C. Lee, "Ligands as a universal molecular toolkit in synthesis and assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals," Chem. Sci. 11, 2318‒2329 (2020)
[Crossref]

J. Roh, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, V. I. Klimov, "Optically pumped colloidal-quantum-dot lasing in LED-like devices with an integrated optical cavity," Nat. Commun. 11, 271 (2020)
[Crossref]

2019 (9)

O. V. Kozlov, Y.-S. Park, J. Roh, I. Fedin, T. Nakotte, V. I. Klimov, "Sub-single-exciton lasing using charged quantum dots coupled to a distributed feedback cavity," Science 365, 672‒675 (2019)
[Crossref]

W. D. Kim, D. Kim, D.-E. Yoon, H. Lee, J. Lim, W. K. Bae, D. C. Lee, "Pushing the efficiency envelope for semiconductor nanocrystal-based electroluminescence devices using anisotropic nanocrystals," Chem. Mater 31, 3066‒3082 (2019)
[Crossref]

X. Xiong, C. Wei, L. Xie, M. Chen, P. Tang, W. Shen, Z. Deng, X. Li, Y. Duan, W. Su, H. Zeng, Z. Cui, "Realizing 17.0% external quantum efficiency in red quantum dot light-emitting diodes by pursuing the idea linkjet-printed film and interface," Org. Electron. 73, 247‒254 (2019)
[Crossref]

H. Shen, Q. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Lin, Q. Lin, Z. Li, L. Chen, Z. Zeng, X. Li, Y. Jia, S. Wang, Z. L. Du, L. S. Li, Z. Zhang, "Visible quantum dot light-emitting diodeswith simultaneous high brightness and efficiency," Nat. Photonics 13, 192‒197 (2019)
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J. Song, O. Wang, H. Shen, Q. Lin, Z. Li, L. Wang, X. Zhang, L. S. Li, "Over 30% external quantum efficiency light-emitting diodes by engineering quantum dot-assisted energy level match for hole transport layer," Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1808377 (2019)
[Crossref]

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, "Nanostructured colloidal quantum dots for efficient electroluminescence devices," Korean J. Chem. Eng. 36, 173‒185 (2019)
[Crossref]

S. Rhee, J. H. Chang, D. Hahm, K. Kim, B. G. Jeong, H. J. Lee, J. Lim, K. Char, C. Lee, W. K. Bae, "Positive incentive approach to enhance the operational stability of quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 40252‒40259 (2019)
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Won, O. Cho, T. Kim, D.-Y. Chung, T. Kim, H. Chung, H. Jang, J. Lee, D. Kim, E. Jang, "Highly efficient and stable InP/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dot light-emitting diodes," Nature 575, 634‒638 (2019)
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Y. Sun, Q. Su, H. Zhang, F. Wang, S. Zhang, S. Chen, "Investigation on thermally induced efficiency roll-off: toward efficient and ultrabright quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," ACS Nano 13, 11433‒11442 (2019)
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2018 (12)

J. Li, Z. Liang, Q. Su, H. Jin, K. Wang, G. Xu, X. Xu, "Small molecule-modified hole transport layer targeting low turn-on-voltage bright and efficient full-color quantum dot light emitting diodes," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 3865‒3873 (2018)
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H. Zhang, S. Chen, X. W. Sun, "Efficient red/green/blue tandem quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency exceeding 21%," ACS Nano 12, 697‒704 (2018)
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K. Ding, Y. Fang, S. Dong, H. Chen, B. Luo, K. Jiang, H. Gu, L. Fan, S. Liu, B. Hu, L. Wang, "24.1% external quantum efficiency of flexible quantum dot light-emitting diodes by light extraction of silver nanowire transparent electrodes," Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1800347 (2018)
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M. K. Choi, J. Yang, T. Hyeon, D.-H. Kim, "Flexible quantum dot light-emitting diodes for next-generation displays," npj Flexible Electron 2, 10 (2018)
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F. Chen, Z. Guan, A. Tang, "Nanostructure and device architecture engineering for high-performance quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," J. Mater. Chem. C 6, 10958‒10981 (2018)

X. Li, Y.-B. Zhao, F. Fan, L. Levina, M. Liu, R. Quintero-Bermudez, X. Gong, L. N. Quan, J. Fan, Z. Yang, S. Hoogland, O. Voznyy, Z.-H. Lu, E. H. Sargent, "Bright colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by efficient chlorination," Nat. Photonics 12, 159‒164 (2018)
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J. Lim, Y. S. Park, K. Wu, H. J. Yun, V. I. Klimov, "Droop-free colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes," Nano Lett. 18, 6645‒6653 (2018)
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Y. Lee, B. G. Jeong, H. Roh, J. Roh, J. Han, D. C. Lee, W. K. Bae, J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, "Enhanced lifetime and efficiency of red quantum dot light-emitting diodes with Y-doped ZnO sol-gel electron-transport layers by reducing excess electron injection," Adv. Quantum Technol. 1, 1700006 (2018)
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J. H. Chang, P. Park, H. Jung, B. G. Jeong, D. Hahm, G. Nagamine, J. Ko, J. Cho, L. A. Padilha, D. C. Lee, C. Lee, K. Char, W. K. Bae, "Unraveling the origin of operational instability of quantum dot based light-emitting diodes," ACS Nano 12, 10231‒10239 (2018)
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X. Jin, C. Chang, W. Zhao, S. Huang, X. Gu, Q. Zhang, F. Li, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, "Balancing the electron and hole transfer for efficient quantum dot light-emitting diodes by employing a versatile organic electron-blocking layer," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 15803‒15811 (2018)
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Y. Fu, W. Jiang, D. Kim, W. Lee, H. Chae, "Highly efficient and fully solution-processed inverted light-emitting diodes with charge control interlayers," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 17295‒17300 (2018)
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J. Lim, Y.-S. Park, V. I. Klimov, "Optical gain in colloidal quantum dots achieved with direct-current electrical pumping," Nat. Mater. 17, 42‒49 (2018)
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2017 (11)

F. Fan, O. Voznyy, R. P. Sabatini, K. T. Bicanic, M. M. Adachi, J. R. McBride, K. R. Reid, Y. S. Park, X. Li, A. Jain, R. Quintero-Bermudez, M. Saravanapavanantham, M. Liu, M. Korkusinski, P. Hawrylak, V. I. Klimov, S. J. Rosenthal, S. Hoogland, E. H. Sargent, "Continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids enabled by facet-selective epitaxy," Nature 544, 75‒79 (2017)
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H. Zhang, X. Sun, S. Chen, "Over 100 cd A-1 efficient quantum dot light-emitting diodes with inverted tandem structure," Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1700610 (2017)
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Z. Li, "Enhanced performance of quantum dots light-emitting diodes: The case of Al2O3 electron blocking layer," Vacuum 137, 38‒41 (2017)
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I. Cho, H. Jung, B. G. Jeong, J. H. Chang, Y. Kim, K. Char, D. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. Cho, W. K. Bae, "Multi-functional dendrimer ligands for high efficiency solution-processed quantum dot light-emitting diodes," ACS Nano 11, 684‒692 (2017)
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K. Yoshida, T. Matsushima, Y. Shiihara, H. Kuwae, J. Mizuno, C. Adachi, "Joule heat-induced breakdown of organic thin-film devices under pulse operation," J. Appl. Phys. 121, 195503 (2017)
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H. Shen, Q. Lin, W. Cao, C. Yang, N. T. Shewmon, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. S. Li, J. Xue, "Efficient and long-lifetime full-color light-emitting diodes using high luminescence quantum yield thick-shell quantum dots," Nanoscale 9, 13583‒13591 (2017)
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Z. Li, Y. Hu, H. Shen, Q. Lin, L. Wang, H. Wang, W. Zhao, L. S. Li, "Efficient and long-life green light-emitting diodes comprising tridentate thiol capped quantum dots," Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600227 (2017)
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C. Y. Han, H. Yang, "Development of colloidal quantum dots for electrically driven light-emitting devices," J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 54, 449‒469 (2017)
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Y. Shang, Z. Ning, "Colloidal quantum-dots surface and device structure engineering for high-performance light-emitting diodes," Natl. Sci. Rev. 4, 170‒183 (2017)
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D. Kim, Y. Fu, S. Kim, W. Lee, K.-H. Lee, H. K. Chung, H.-J. Lee, H. Yang, H. Chae, "Polyethylenimine ethoxylated-mediated all-solution-processed high-performance flexible inverted quantum dot-light-emitting device," ACS Nano 11, 1982‒1990 (2017)
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L. Wang, J. Lin, Y. Hu, X. Guo, Y. Lv, Z. Tang, J. Zhao, Y. Fan, N. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. Liu, "Blue quantum dot light-emitting diodes with high electroluminescent efficiency," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 38755‒38760 (2017)
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2016 (10)

Y. Altintas, S. Genc, M. Y. Talpur, E. Mutlugun, "CdSe/ZnS quantum dot films for high performance flexible lighting and display applications," Nanotechnology 27, 295604 (2016)
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Q. Huang, J. Pan, Y. Zhang, J. Chen, Z. Tao, C. He, K. Zhou, Y. Tu, W. Lei, "High-performance quantum dot light-emitting diodes with hybrid hole transport layer via doping engineering," Opt. Express 24, 25955‒25963 (2016)
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C. Jiang, H. Liu, B. Liu, Z. Zhong, J. Zou, J. Wang, L. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Cao, "Improved performance of inverted quantum dots light emitting devices by introducing double hole transport layers," Org. Electron. 31, 82‒89 (2016)
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G. Liu, X. Zhou, S. Chen, "Very b right a nd e fficient microcavity top-emitting quantum dot light-emitting diodes with Ag electrodes," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 16768‒16775 (2016)
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J. H. Oh, D. B. Choi, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, Y. R. Do, "Enhanced light extraction from green quantum dot light-emitting diodes by attaching microstructure arrayed films," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 42‒47 (2016)

J. M. Pietryga, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, A. F. Fidler, W. K. Bae, S. Brovelli, V. I. Klimov, "Spectroscopic and device aspects of nanocrystal quantum dots," Chem. Rev. 116, 10513‒10622 (2016)
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B.-H. Kang, J.-S. Lee, S.-W. Lee, S.-W. Kim, J.-W. Lee, S.-A. Gopalan, J.-S. Park, D.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Bae, H.-R. Kim, S.-W. Kang, "Efficient exciton generation in atomic passivated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots light-emitting devices," Sci. Rep. 6, 34659 (2016)
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S. Dey, S. Chen, S. Thota, M. R. Shakil, S. L. Suib, J. Zhao, "Effect of gradient alloying on photoluminescence blinking of single CdSxSe1-x nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 20547‒20554 (2016)
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J. Zhang, Q. Yang, H. Cao, C. I. Ratcliffe, D. Kingston, Q. Y. Chen, J. Ouyang, X. Wu, D. M. Leek, F. S. Riehle, K. Yu, "Bright gradient-alloyed CdSexS1-x quantum dots exhibiting cyan-blue emission," Chem. Mater. 28, 618‒625 (2016)
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G. W. Park, S. J. Lee, J. H. Ko, "Comparison of out-coupling efficiency between bottom-emission and top-emission organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD simulation," J. Nanoelectron. Optoelectron. 11, 229‒233 (2016)
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2015 (5)

Y. S. Park, W. K. Bae, T. Baker, J. Lim, V. I. Klimov, "Effect of auger recombination on lasing in heterostructured quantum dots with engineered core/shell interfaces," Nano Lett. 15, 7319‒7328 (2015)
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H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, J. Xue, "High-efficiency low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes," Nano Lett. 15, 1211‒1216 (2015)
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J.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Han, K.-H. Lee, K.-S. An, W. Song, J. Kim, M. S. Oh, Y. R. Do, H. Yang, "Performance improvement of quantum dot-light-emitting diodes enabled by an alloyed ZnMgO nanoparticle electron transport layer," Chem. Mater. 27, 197‒204 (2015)
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S. J. Lim, M. U. Zahid, P. Le, L. Ma, D. Entenberg, A. S. Harney, J. Condeelis, A. M. Smith, "Brightness-equalized quantum dots," Nat. Commun. 6, 8210 (2015)
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Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, L. Qian, "High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures," Nat. Photonics 9, 259‒266 (2015)
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2014 (4)

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, S. Lee, "R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 26, 6387‒6393 (2014)
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X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, X. Peng, "Solution-processed high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots," Nature 515, 96‒99 (2014)
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H. Zhang, J. Jang, W. Liu, D. V. Talapin, "Colloidal nanocrystals with inorganic halide pseudohalide and halo-metallate ligands," ACS Nano 8, 7359‒7369 (2014)
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J. Lim, B. G. Jeong, M. Park, J. K. Kim, J. M. Pietryga, Y.-S. Park, V. I. Klimov, C. Lee, D. C. Lee, W. K. Bae, "Influence of shell thickness on the performance of light-emitting devices based on CdSe/Zn1-XCdXS core/shell heterostructured quantum dots," Adv. Mater. 26, 8034‒8040 (2014)
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2013 (5)

W. K. Bae, L. A. Padilha, Y. S. Park, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, J. M. Pietryga, V. I. Klimov, "Controlled alloying of the core-shell interface in CdSe/CdS quantum dots for suppression of auger recombination," ACS Nano 7, 3411‒3419 (2013)
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J. Lim, M. Park, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, S. Lee, C. Lee, K. Char, "Highly efficient cadmium-free quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by the direct formation of excitons within InP@ZnSeS qu antum dots," ACS Nano 7, 9019‒9026 (2013)
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S. Schmidbauer, A. Hohenleutner, B. König, "Chemical degradation in organic light-emitting devices: mechanisms and implications for the design of new materials," Adv. Mater. 25, 2114‒2129 (2013)
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W. K. Bae, Y. S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, V. I. Klimov, "Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Nat. Commun. 4, 2661 (2013)
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B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, P. T. Kazlas, "High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection," Nat. Photonics 7, 407‒412 (2013)
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2012 (3)

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, C. Lee, "Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure," Nano Lett. 12, 2362‒2366 (2012)
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Y. Zhao, C. Riemersma, F. Pietra, R. Koole, C. D. Donegá, A. Meijerink, "High-temperature luminescence quenching of colloidal quantum dots," ACS Nano 6, 9058‒9067 (2012)
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Q. Yue, W. Li, F. Kong, K. Li, "Enhancing the out-coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using two-dimensional periodic nanostructures," Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2012, 985762 (2012)

2011 (2)

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, "Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures," Nat. Photonics 5, 543‒548 (2011)
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S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, "Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes," Opt. Express 19, A1250‒A1264 (2011)
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2010 (1)

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Llim, B. Kim, Y. Kim, "White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot colorconverters for display backlights," Adv. Mater. 22, 3076‒3080 (2010)
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2009 (1)

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B. K. Kim, B. L. Choi, J. M. Kim, "High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Nat. Photonics 3, 341‒345 (2009)
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2008 (1)

W. K. Bae, K. Char, H. Hur, S. Lee, "Single-stepsynthesis of quantum dots with chemical compositiongradients," Chem. Mat 20, 531‒539 (2008)
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2007 (3)

Q. Sun, Y. A. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, Y. Li, "Bright multicoloured light-emittingdiodes based on quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 717‒722 (2007)
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J. Lim, S. Jun, E. Jang, H. Baik, H. Kim, J. Cho, "Preparation of highly luminescent nanocrystals and their application to light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 1927‒1932 (2007)
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D. Y. Kondakov, W. C. Lenhart, W. F. Nichols, "Operational degradation of organic light-emitting diodes: Mechanism and identification of chemical products," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024512 (2007)
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2006 (1)

J.-M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Bulović, M. G. Bawendi, "NiO as an inorganic hole-transporting layer in quantum-dot light-emitting devices," Nano Lett. 6, 2991‒2994 (2006)
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2005 (3)

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basché, A. Mews, "Synthesis and characterization of highly luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS multishell nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480‒7488 (2005)
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J.-R. Gong, L.-J. Wan, S.-B. Lei, C.-L. Bai, X.-H. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, "Direct evidence of molecular aggregation and degradation mechanism of organic light-emitting diodes under joule heating: an STM and photoluminescence study," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1675‒1682 (2005)

A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, V. I. Klimov, "Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers," Nano Lett. 5, 1039‒1044 (2005)
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2004 (1)

D. V. Talapin, I. Mekis, S. Götzinger, A. Kornowski, O. Benson, H. Weller, "CdSe/CdS/ZnS and CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS core-shell-shell nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 18826‒18831 (2004)
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2003 (1)

R. E. Bailey, S. Nie, "Alloyed semiconductor quantum dots: Tuning the optical properties without changing the particle size," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 7100‒7106 (2003)
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2002 (1)

S. Coe, W. K. Woo, M. Bawendi, V. Bulovic, "Electro-luminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices," Nature 420, 800‒803 (2002)
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2001 (1)

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, H. Weller, "Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphospine mixture," Nano Lett. 1, 207‒211 (2001)
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2000 (1)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nano-crystalquantum dots," Science 290, 314‒317 (2000)
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1997 (2)

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, M. G. Bawendi, "(CdSe) ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463‒9475 (1997)
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X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, A. P. Alivisatos, "Epitaxial growth of highly luminescent CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals with photostability and electronic accessibility," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 7019‒7029 (1997)
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1994 (1)

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, A. P. Alivisatos, "Light-emitting-diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer," Nature 370, 354‒357 (1994)
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A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, V. I. Klimov, "Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers," Nano Lett. 5, 1039‒1044 (2005)
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Adachi, C.

K. Yoshida, T. Matsushima, Y. Shiihara, H. Kuwae, J. Mizuno, C. Adachi, "Joule heat-induced breakdown of organic thin-film devices under pulse operation," J. Appl. Phys. 121, 195503 (2017)
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Adachi, M. M.

F. Fan, O. Voznyy, R. P. Sabatini, K. T. Bicanic, M. M. Adachi, J. R. McBride, K. R. Reid, Y. S. Park, X. Li, A. Jain, R. Quintero-Bermudez, M. Saravanapavanantham, M. Liu, M. Korkusinski, P. Hawrylak, V. I. Klimov, S. J. Rosenthal, S. Hoogland, E. H. Sargent, "Continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids enabled by facet-selective epitaxy," Nature 544, 75‒79 (2017)
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Akhadov, E. A.

A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, V. I. Klimov, "Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers," Nano Lett. 5, 1039‒1044 (2005)
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X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, A. P. Alivisatos, "Epitaxial growth of highly luminescent CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals with photostability and electronic accessibility," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 7019‒7029 (1997)
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Y. Altintas, S. Genc, M. Y. Talpur, E. Mutlugun, "CdSe/ZnS quantum dot films for high performance flexible lighting and display applications," Nanotechnology 27, 295604 (2016)
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An, K.-S.

J.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Han, K.-H. Lee, K.-S. An, W. Song, J. Kim, M. S. Oh, Y. R. Do, H. Yang, "Performance improvement of quantum dot-light-emitting diodes enabled by an alloyed ZnMgO nanoparticle electron transport layer," Chem. Mater. 27, 197‒204 (2015)
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B.-H. Kang, J.-S. Lee, S.-W. Lee, S.-W. Kim, J.-W. Lee, S.-A. Gopalan, J.-S. Park, D.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Bae, H.-R. Kim, S.-W. Kang, "Efficient exciton generation in atomic passivated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots light-emitting devices," Sci. Rep. 6, 34659 (2016)
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W. D. Kim, D. Kim, D.-E. Yoon, H. Lee, J. Lim, W. K. Bae, D. C. Lee, "Pushing the efficiency envelope for semiconductor nanocrystal-based electroluminescence devices using anisotropic nanocrystals," Chem. Mater 31, 3066‒3082 (2019)
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S. Rhee, J. H. Chang, D. Hahm, K. Kim, B. G. Jeong, H. J. Lee, J. Lim, K. Char, C. Lee, W. K. Bae, "Positive incentive approach to enhance the operational stability of quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 40252‒40259 (2019)
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W. K. Bae, J. Lim, "Nanostructured colloidal quantum dots for efficient electroluminescence devices," Korean J. Chem. Eng. 36, 173‒185 (2019)
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Y. Lee, B. G. Jeong, H. Roh, J. Roh, J. Han, D. C. Lee, W. K. Bae, J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, "Enhanced lifetime and efficiency of red quantum dot light-emitting diodes with Y-doped ZnO sol-gel electron-transport layers by reducing excess electron injection," Adv. Quantum Technol. 1, 1700006 (2018)
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J. H. Chang, P. Park, H. Jung, B. G. Jeong, D. Hahm, G. Nagamine, J. Ko, J. Cho, L. A. Padilha, D. C. Lee, C. Lee, K. Char, W. K. Bae, "Unraveling the origin of operational instability of quantum dot based light-emitting diodes," ACS Nano 12, 10231‒10239 (2018)
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I. Cho, H. Jung, B. G. Jeong, J. H. Chang, Y. Kim, K. Char, D. C. Lee, C. Lee, J. Cho, W. K. Bae, "Multi-functional dendrimer ligands for high efficiency solution-processed quantum dot light-emitting diodes," ACS Nano 11, 684‒692 (2017)
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J. M. Pietryga, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, A. F. Fidler, W. K. Bae, S. Brovelli, V. I. Klimov, "Spectroscopic and device aspects of nanocrystal quantum dots," Chem. Rev. 116, 10513‒10622 (2016)
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Y. S. Park, W. K. Bae, T. Baker, J. Lim, V. I. Klimov, "Effect of auger recombination on lasing in heterostructured quantum dots with engineered core/shell interfaces," Nano Lett. 15, 7319‒7328 (2015)
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J. Lim, B. G. Jeong, M. Park, J. K. Kim, J. M. Pietryga, Y.-S. Park, V. I. Klimov, C. Lee, D. C. Lee, W. K. Bae, "Influence of shell thickness on the performance of light-emitting devices based on CdSe/Zn1-XCdXS core/shell heterostructured quantum dots," Adv. Mater. 26, 8034‒8040 (2014)
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W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, S. Lee, "R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 26, 6387‒6393 (2014)
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W. K. Bae, Y. S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, V. I. Klimov, "Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Nat. Commun. 4, 2661 (2013)
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W. K. Bae, L. A. Padilha, Y. S. Park, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, J. M. Pietryga, V. I. Klimov, "Controlled alloying of the core-shell interface in CdSe/CdS quantum dots for suppression of auger recombination," ACS Nano 7, 3411‒3419 (2013)
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J. Lim, M. Park, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, S. Lee, C. Lee, K. Char, "Highly efficient cadmium-free quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by the direct formation of excitons within InP@ZnSeS qu antum dots," ACS Nano 7, 9019‒9026 (2013)
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, C. Lee, "Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure," Nano Lett. 12, 2362‒2366 (2012)
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W. K. Bae, K. Char, H. Hur, S. Lee, "Single-stepsynthesis of quantum dots with chemical compositiongradients," Chem. Mat 20, 531‒539 (2008)
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J. Lim, B. G. Jeong, M. Park, J. K. Kim, J. M. Pietryga, Y.-S. Park, V. I. Klimov, C. Lee, D. C. Lee, W. K. Bae, "Influence of shell thickness on the performance of light-emitting devices based on CdSe/Zn1-XCdXS core/shell heterostructured quantum dots," Adv. Mater. 26, 8034‒8040 (2014)
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, C. Lee, "Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure," Nano Lett. 12, 2362‒2366 (2012)
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W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, S. Lee, "R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 26, 6387‒6393 (2014)
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H. Lee, D.-E. Yoon, S. Koh, M. S. Kang, J. Lim, D. C. Lee, "Ligands as a universal molecular toolkit in synthesis and assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals," Chem. Sci. 11, 2318‒2329 (2020)
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J. H. Chang, P. Park, H. Jung, B. G. Jeong, D. Hahm, G. Nagamine, J. Ko, J. Cho, L. A. Padilha, D. C. Lee, C. Lee, K. Char, W. K. Bae, "Unraveling the origin of operational instability of quantum dot based light-emitting diodes," ACS Nano 12, 10231‒10239 (2018)
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J. Lim, B. G. Jeong, M. Park, J. K. Kim, J. M. Pietryga, Y.-S. Park, V. I. Klimov, C. Lee, D. C. Lee, W. K. Bae, "Influence of shell thickness on the performance of light-emitting devices based on CdSe/Zn1-XCdXS core/shell heterostructured quantum dots," Adv. Mater. 26, 8034‒8040 (2014)
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B. K. Kim, B. L. Choi, J. M. Kim, "High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Nat. Photonics 3, 341‒345 (2009)
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Lee, H.

H. Lee, D.-E. Yoon, S. Koh, M. S. Kang, J. Lim, D. C. Lee, "Ligands as a universal molecular toolkit in synthesis and assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals," Chem. Sci. 11, 2318‒2329 (2020)
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W. D. Kim, D. Kim, D.-E. Yoon, H. Lee, J. Lim, W. K. Bae, D. C. Lee, "Pushing the efficiency envelope for semiconductor nanocrystal-based electroluminescence devices using anisotropic nanocrystals," Chem. Mater 31, 3066‒3082 (2019)
[Crossref]

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, S. Lee, "R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 26, 6387‒6393 (2014)
[Crossref]

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S. Rhee, J. H. Chang, D. Hahm, K. Kim, B. G. Jeong, H. J. Lee, J. Lim, K. Char, C. Lee, W. K. Bae, "Positive incentive approach to enhance the operational stability of quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 40252‒40259 (2019)
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D. Kim, Y. Fu, S. Kim, W. Lee, K.-H. Lee, H. K. Chung, H.-J. Lee, H. Yang, H. Chae, "Polyethylenimine ethoxylated-mediated all-solution-processed high-performance flexible inverted quantum dot-light-emitting device," ACS Nano 11, 1982‒1990 (2017)
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Y.-H. Won, O. Cho, T. Kim, D.-Y. Chung, T. Kim, H. Chung, H. Jang, J. Lee, D. Kim, E. Jang, "Highly efficient and stable InP/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dot light-emitting diodes," Nature 575, 634‒638 (2019)
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B.-H. Kang, J.-S. Lee, S.-W. Lee, S.-W. Kim, J.-W. Lee, S.-A. Gopalan, J.-S. Park, D.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Bae, H.-R. Kim, S.-W. Kang, "Efficient exciton generation in atomic passivated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots light-emitting devices," Sci. Rep. 6, 34659 (2016)
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B.-H. Kang, J.-S. Lee, S.-W. Lee, S.-W. Kim, J.-W. Lee, S.-A. Gopalan, J.-S. Park, D.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Bae, H.-R. Kim, S.-W. Kang, "Efficient exciton generation in atomic passivated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots light-emitting devices," Sci. Rep. 6, 34659 (2016)
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J. H. Oh, D. B. Choi, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, Y. R. Do, "Enhanced light extraction from green quantum dot light-emitting diodes by attaching microstructure arrayed films," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 42‒47 (2016)

Lee, K.-H.

D. Kim, Y. Fu, S. Kim, W. Lee, K.-H. Lee, H. K. Chung, H.-J. Lee, H. Yang, H. Chae, "Polyethylenimine ethoxylated-mediated all-solution-processed high-performance flexible inverted quantum dot-light-emitting device," ACS Nano 11, 1982‒1990 (2017)
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J.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Han, K.-H. Lee, K.-S. An, W. Song, J. Kim, M. S. Oh, Y. R. Do, H. Yang, "Performance improvement of quantum dot-light-emitting diodes enabled by an alloyed ZnMgO nanoparticle electron transport layer," Chem. Mater. 27, 197‒204 (2015)
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W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, S. Lee, "R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 26, 6387‒6393 (2014)
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J. Lim, M. Park, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, S. Lee, C. Lee, K. Char, "Highly efficient cadmium-free quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by the direct formation of excitons within InP@ZnSeS qu antum dots," ACS Nano 7, 9019‒9026 (2013)
[Crossref]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, C. Lee, "Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure," Nano Lett. 12, 2362‒2366 (2012)
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W. K. Bae, K. Char, H. Hur, S. Lee, "Single-stepsynthesis of quantum dots with chemical compositiongradients," Chem. Mat 20, 531‒539 (2008)
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G. W. Park, S. J. Lee, J. H. Ko, "Comparison of out-coupling efficiency between bottom-emission and top-emission organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD simulation," J. Nanoelectron. Optoelectron. 11, 229‒233 (2016)
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B. K. Kim, B. L. Choi, J. M. Kim, "High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Nat. Photonics 3, 341‒345 (2009)
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J.-R. Gong, L.-J. Wan, S.-B. Lei, C.-L. Bai, X.-H. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, "Direct evidence of molecular aggregation and degradation mechanism of organic light-emitting diodes under joule heating: an STM and photoluminescence study," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1675‒1682 (2005)

Lee, S.-W.

B.-H. Kang, J.-S. Lee, S.-W. Lee, S.-W. Kim, J.-W. Lee, S.-A. Gopalan, J.-S. Park, D.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Bae, H.-R. Kim, S.-W. Kang, "Efficient exciton generation in atomic passivated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots light-emitting devices," Sci. Rep. 6, 34659 (2016)
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Y. Fu, W. Jiang, D. Kim, W. Lee, H. Chae, "Highly efficient and fully solution-processed inverted light-emitting diodes with charge control interlayers," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 17295‒17300 (2018)
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D. Kim, Y. Fu, S. Kim, W. Lee, K.-H. Lee, H. K. Chung, H.-J. Lee, H. Yang, H. Chae, "Polyethylenimine ethoxylated-mediated all-solution-processed high-performance flexible inverted quantum dot-light-emitting device," ACS Nano 11, 1982‒1990 (2017)
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Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, B. G. Jeong, H. Roh, J. Roh, J. Han, D. C. Lee, W. K. Bae, J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, "Enhanced lifetime and efficiency of red quantum dot light-emitting diodes with Y-doped ZnO sol-gel electron-transport layers by reducing excess electron injection," Adv. Quantum Technol. 1, 1700006 (2018)
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