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Optica Publishing Group

Application of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

The feasibility of the application of terahertz electromagnetic waves in the diagnosis of prostate cancer was examined. Four samples of incomplete cancerous prostatic paraffin-embedded tissues were examined using terahertz spectral imaging (TPI) system and the results obtained by comparing the absorption coefficient and refractive index of prostate tumor, normal prostate tissue and smooth muscle from one of the paraffin tissue masses examined were reported. Three hundred and sixty cases of absorption coefficients from one of the paraffin tissues examined were used as raw data to classify these three tissues using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM). An excellent classification with an accuracy of 92.22% in the prediction set was achieved. Using the distribution information of THz reflection signal intensity from sample surface and absorption coefficient of the sample, an attempt was made to use the TPI system to identify the boundaries of the different tissues involved (prostate tumors, normal and smooth muscles). The location of three identified regions in the terahertz images (frequency domain slice absorption coefficient imaging, 1.2 THz) were compared with those obtained from the histopathologic examination. The tissue tumor region had a distinctively visible color and could well be distinguished from other tissue regions in terahertz images. Results indicate that a THz spectroscopy imaging system can be efficiently used in conjunction with the proposed advanced computer-based mathematical analysis method to identify tumor regions in the paraffin tissue mass of prostate cancer.

© 2020 Optical Society of Korea

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  31. P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, R. H. Giles, Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection .
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    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

S. Zhong, "Progress in terahertz nondestructive testing: a review," Front. Mech. Eng. 14, 273‒281 (2019)
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

P. Doradla, C. Joseph, R. H. Giles, "Terahertz endoscopic imaging for colorectal cancer detection: Current status and future perspectives," World J. Gastrointest. Endosc. 9, 346‒358 (2017)
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, S. Yamamoto, "Origin and quantification of differences between normal and tumor tissues observed by terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 61, 6808 (2016)
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

B. C. Q. Truong, H. D. Tuan, V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, H. T. Nguyen, "The potential of the double debye parameters to discriminate between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin," IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 990‒998 (2015)
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. I. Abdulmajed, D. Hughes, I. S. Shergill, "The role of transperineal template biopsies of the prostate in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 12, 175‒182 (2014)

2011 (2)

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

H. Chen, T.-H. Chen, T.-F. Tseng, J.-T. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Fu, W.- J. Lee, Y.-F. Tsai, Y.-Y. Huang, E. Y. Chuang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-K. Sun, "High-sensitivity in vivo THz transmission imaging of early human breast cancer in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model," Opt. Express 19, 21552‒21562 (2011)
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, D. Abbott, "Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study," Electron. Lett. 45, 343‒345 (2009)
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, R. J. Falconer, B. M. Fischer, H. A. Zakaria, S. P. Mickan, A. P. J. Middelberg, D. Abbott, "Terahertz spectroscopic differentiation of microstructures in protein gels," Opt. Express 17, 13102‒13115 (2009)
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

A. M. Hövels, R. A. M. Heesakkers, E. M. Adang, G. J. Jager, S. Strum, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. L. Severens, J. O. Barentsz, "The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis," Clin. Radiol. 63, 387‒395 (2008)
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501 (2008)
[Crossref]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, , J. Aizpurua, R. Hillenbrand, "Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices," Nano Lett. 8, 3766‒3770 (2008)
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys 38, R301 (2006)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533‒540 (2006)
[Crossref]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectmsc. 60, 1127‒1133 (2006)
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438‒2447 (2004)
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190‒2192 (2004)
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, S. Kraatz, G. C. Cho, R. Kersting, "Identification of a resonant imaging process in apertureless near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 267401 (2004)
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J. L. Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 739‒746 (2002)

2001 (2)

1999 (2)

V. N. Vapnik, "An overview of statistical learning theory," IEEE Trans. Neural. Netw. 10, 988‒999 (1999)
[Crossref]

J. A. K. Suykens, J. Vandewalle, "Least squares support vector machine classifiers," Neural Process. Lett. 9, 293‒300 (1999)
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. J. C. Burges, "A tutorial on support vector machines for pattern recognition," Data Min. Knowl. Disc. 2, 121‒167 (1998)
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C. Cortes, V. Vapnik, "Support-vector networks," Mach. Learn. 20, 273‒297 (1995)

1990 (1)

Abbott, D.

T. T. L. Kristensen, W. Withayachumnankul, P. U. Jepsen, D. Abbott, "Modeling terahertz heating effects on water," Opt. Express 18, 4727‒4739 (2010)
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, D. Abbott, "Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study," Electron. Lett. 45, 343‒345 (2009)
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, R. J. Falconer, B. M. Fischer, H. A. Zakaria, S. P. Mickan, A. P. J. Middelberg, D. Abbott, "Terahertz spectroscopic differentiation of microstructures in protein gels," Opt. Express 17, 13102‒13115 (2009)
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501 (2008)
[Crossref]

Abdulmajed, M. I.

M. I. Abdulmajed, D. Hughes, I. S. Shergill, "The role of transperineal template biopsies of the prostate in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 12, 175‒182 (2014)

Adang, E. M.

A. M. Hövels, R. A. M. Heesakkers, E. M. Adang, G. J. Jager, S. Strum, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. L. Severens, J. O. Barentsz, "The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis," Clin. Radiol. 63, 387‒395 (2008)
[Crossref]

Aizpurua, , J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, , J. Aizpurua, R. Hillenbrand, "Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices," Nano Lett. 8, 3766‒3770 (2008)
[Crossref]

Alavi, K.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, R. H. Giles, Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection .

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533‒540 (2006)
[Crossref]

Baraniuk, R. G.

Barentsz, J. O.

A. M. Hövels, R. A. M. Heesakkers, E. M. Adang, G. J. Jager, S. Strum, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. L. Severens, J. O. Barentsz, "The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis," Clin. Radiol. 63, 387‒395 (2008)
[Crossref]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533‒540 (2006)
[Crossref]

Burges, C. J. C.

C. J. C. Burges, "A tutorial on support vector machines for pattern recognition," Data Min. Knowl. Disc. 2, 121‒167 (1998)
[Crossref]

Carneiro, F.

F. Wahaia, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Molis, A. Urbanowicz, C. D. C. Silva, F. Carneiro, G. Valusis, P. L. Granja, Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques .

Chen, H.

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, S. Kraatz, G. C. Cho, R. Kersting, "Identification of a resonant imaging process in apertureless near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 267401 (2004)
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-H.

Cho, G. C.

H.-T. Chen, S. Kraatz, G. C. Cho, R. Kersting, "Identification of a resonant imaging process in apertureless near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 267401 (2004)
[Crossref]

Choi, J. W.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501 (2008)
[Crossref]

Chuang, E. Y.

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190‒2192 (2004)
[Crossref]

Cootney, R. W.

R. W. Cootney, "Ultrasound imaging: principles and applications in rodent research," ILAR J. 42, 233‒247 (2001)
[Crossref]

Cortes, C.

C. Cortes, V. Vapnik, "Support-vector networks," Mach. Learn. 20, 273‒297 (1995)

Coutaz, J. L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J. L. Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 739‒746 (2002)

Doradla, P.

P. Doradla, C. Joseph, R. H. Giles, "Terahertz endoscopic imaging for colorectal cancer detection: Current status and future perspectives," World J. Gastrointest. Endosc. 9, 346‒358 (2017)
[Crossref]

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, R. H. Giles, Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection .

Dorney, T. D.

Duvillaret, L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J. L. Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 739‒746 (2002)

Evans, M.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

Exter, M. V.

Falconer, R. J.

Fattinger, C.

Fischer, B. M.

Fitzgerald, A. J.

B. C. Q. Truong, H. D. Tuan, V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, H. T. Nguyen, "The potential of the double debye parameters to discriminate between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin," IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 990‒998 (2015)
[Crossref]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533‒540 (2006)
[Crossref]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectmsc. 60, 1127‒1133 (2006)
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190‒2192 (2004)
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, Tissue classification using terahertz pulsed imaging .

Flanagan, N.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectmsc. 60, 1127‒1133 (2006)
[Crossref]

Flook, R.

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, D. Abbott, "Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study," Electron. Lett. 45, 343‒345 (2009)
[Crossref]

Fu, S.-C.

Fukushi, Y.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, S. Yamamoto, "Origin and quantification of differences between normal and tumor tissues observed by terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 61, 6808 (2016)
[Crossref]

Garet, F.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J. L. Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 739‒746 (2002)

Giles, R. H.

P. Doradla, C. Joseph, R. H. Giles, "Terahertz endoscopic imaging for colorectal cancer detection: Current status and future perspectives," World J. Gastrointest. Endosc. 9, 346‒358 (2017)
[Crossref]

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, R. H. Giles, Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection .

Gordon, K. C.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

Granja, P. L.

F. Wahaia, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Molis, A. Urbanowicz, C. D. C. Silva, F. Carneiro, G. Valusis, P. L. Granja, Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques .

Grischkowsky, D.

Groat, W. C. D.

W. C. D. Groat, Neurobiology of Incontinence .

Ha, T.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectmsc. 60, 1127‒1133 (2006)
[Crossref]

Heesakkers, R. A. M.

A. M. Hövels, R. A. M. Heesakkers, E. M. Adang, G. J. Jager, S. Strum, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. L. Severens, J. O. Barentsz, "The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis," Clin. Radiol. 63, 387‒395 (2008)
[Crossref]

Hillenbrand, R.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, , J. Aizpurua, R. Hillenbrand, "Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices," Nano Lett. 8, 3766‒3770 (2008)
[Crossref]

Ho, L.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

Hoogeveen, Y. L.

A. M. Hövels, R. A. M. Heesakkers, E. M. Adang, G. J. Jager, S. Strum, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. L. Severens, J. O. Barentsz, "The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis," Clin. Radiol. 63, 387‒395 (2008)
[Crossref]

Hövels, A. M.

A. M. Hövels, R. A. M. Heesakkers, E. M. Adang, G. J. Jager, S. Strum, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. L. Severens, J. O. Barentsz, "The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis," Clin. Radiol. 63, 387‒395 (2008)
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

N. Khiabani, Y. Huang, Y.-C. Shen, Comparison of ultra-wideband THz generation and detection systems .

Huang, Y.-Y.

Huber, A. J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, , J. Aizpurua, R. Hillenbrand, "Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices," Nano Lett. 8, 3766‒3770 (2008)
[Crossref]

Hughes, D.

M. I. Abdulmajed, D. Hughes, I. S. Shergill, "The role of transperineal template biopsies of the prostate in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 12, 175‒182 (2014)

Hwang, Y.-J.

Itsuji, T.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, S. Yamamoto, "Origin and quantification of differences between normal and tumor tissues observed by terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 61, 6808 (2016)
[Crossref]

Jager, G. J.

A. M. Hövels, R. A. M. Heesakkers, E. M. Adang, G. J. Jager, S. Strum, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. L. Severens, J. O. Barentsz, "The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis," Clin. Radiol. 63, 387‒395 (2008)
[Crossref]

Jepsen, P. U.

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533‒540 (2006)
[Crossref]

Joseph, C.

P. Doradla, C. Joseph, R. H. Giles, "Terahertz endoscopic imaging for colorectal cancer detection: Current status and future perspectives," World J. Gastrointest. Endosc. 9, 346‒358 (2017)
[Crossref]

Joseph, C. S.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, R. H. Giles, Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection .

Kasalynas, I.

F. Wahaia, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Molis, A. Urbanowicz, C. D. C. Silva, F. Carneiro, G. Valusis, P. L. Granja, Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques .

Keiding, S.

Keilmann, F.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, , J. Aizpurua, R. Hillenbrand, "Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices," Nano Lett. 8, 3766‒3770 (2008)
[Crossref]

Kersting, R.

H.-T. Chen, S. Kraatz, G. C. Cho, R. Kersting, "Identification of a resonant imaging process in apertureless near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 267401 (2004)
[Crossref]

Khiabani, N.

N. Khiabani, Y. Huang, Y.-C. Shen, Comparison of ultra-wideband THz generation and detection systems .

Kleinebudde, P.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

Kraatz, S.

H.-T. Chen, S. Kraatz, G. C. Cho, R. Kersting, "Identification of a resonant imaging process in apertureless near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 267401 (2004)
[Crossref]

Kristensen, T. T. L.

Kubota, O.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, S. Yamamoto, "Origin and quantification of differences between normal and tumor tissues observed by terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 61, 6808 (2016)
[Crossref]

Kuo, C.-C.

Lee, W.- J.

Lu, J.-T.

May, R. K.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

Mickan, S. P.

G. M. Png, R. J. Falconer, B. M. Fischer, H. A. Zakaria, S. P. Mickan, A. P. J. Middelberg, D. Abbott, "Terahertz spectroscopic differentiation of microstructures in protein gels," Opt. Express 17, 13102‒13115 (2009)
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501 (2008)
[Crossref]

Middelberg, A. P. J.

Miller, R

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

Mittleman, D. M.

Molis, G.

F. Wahaia, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Molis, A. Urbanowicz, C. D. C. Silva, F. Carneiro, G. Valusis, P. L. Granja, Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques .

Nguyen, H. T.

B. C. Q. Truong, H. D. Tuan, V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, H. T. Nguyen, "The potential of the double debye parameters to discriminate between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin," IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 990‒998 (2015)
[Crossref]

Ouchi, T.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, S. Yamamoto, "Origin and quantification of differences between normal and tumor tissues observed by terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 61, 6808 (2016)
[Crossref]

Pepper, M.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190‒2192 (2004)
[Crossref]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys 38, R301 (2006)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectmsc. 60, 1127‒1133 (2006)
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190‒2192 (2004)
[Crossref]

Png, G. M.

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, D. Abbott, "Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study," Electron. Lett. 45, 343‒345 (2009)
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, R. J. Falconer, B. M. Fischer, H. A. Zakaria, S. P. Mickan, A. P. J. Middelberg, D. Abbott, "Terahertz spectroscopic differentiation of microstructures in protein gels," Opt. Express 17, 13102‒13115 (2009)
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501 (2008)
[Crossref]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533‒540 (2006)
[Crossref]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533‒540 (2006)
[Crossref]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectmsc. 60, 1127‒1133 (2006)
[Crossref]

Rades, T.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

Seliuta, D.

F. Wahaia, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Molis, A. Urbanowicz, C. D. C. Silva, F. Carneiro, G. Valusis, P. L. Granja, Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques .

Severens, J. L.

A. M. Hövels, R. A. M. Heesakkers, E. M. Adang, G. J. Jager, S. Strum, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. L. Severens, J. O. Barentsz, "The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis," Clin. Radiol. 63, 387‒395 (2008)
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.-C.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

N. Khiabani, Y. Huang, Y.-C. Shen, Comparison of ultra-wideband THz generation and detection systems .

Shergill, I. S.

M. I. Abdulmajed, D. Hughes, I. S. Shergill, "The role of transperineal template biopsies of the prostate in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 12, 175‒182 (2014)

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438‒2447 (2004)
[Crossref]

Silva, C. D. C.

F. Wahaia, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Molis, A. Urbanowicz, C. D. C. Silva, F. Carneiro, G. Valusis, P. L. Granja, Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques .

Strum, S.

A. M. Hövels, R. A. M. Heesakkers, E. M. Adang, G. J. Jager, S. Strum, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. L. Severens, J. O. Barentsz, "The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis," Clin. Radiol. 63, 387‒395 (2008)
[Crossref]

Sun, C.-K.

Suykens, J. A. K.

J. A. K. Suykens, J. Vandewalle, "Least squares support vector machine classifiers," Neural Process. Lett. 9, 293‒300 (1999)
[Crossref]

Taday, P. F.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectmsc. 60, 1127‒1133 (2006)
[Crossref]

Truong, B. C. Q.

B. C. Q. Truong, H. D. Tuan, V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, H. T. Nguyen, "The potential of the double debye parameters to discriminate between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin," IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 990‒998 (2015)
[Crossref]

Tsai, Y.-F.

Tseng, T.-F.

Tuan, H. D.

B. C. Q. Truong, H. D. Tuan, V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, H. T. Nguyen, "The potential of the double debye parameters to discriminate between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin," IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 990‒998 (2015)
[Crossref]

Urbanowicz, A.

F. Wahaia, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Molis, A. Urbanowicz, C. D. C. Silva, F. Carneiro, G. Valusis, P. L. Granja, Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques .

Valusis, G.

F. Wahaia, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Molis, A. Urbanowicz, C. D. C. Silva, F. Carneiro, G. Valusis, P. L. Granja, Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques .

Vandewalle, J.

J. A. K. Suykens, J. Vandewalle, "Least squares support vector machine classifiers," Neural Process. Lett. 9, 293‒300 (1999)
[Crossref]

Vapnik, V.

C. Cortes, V. Vapnik, "Support-vector networks," Mach. Learn. 20, 273‒297 (1995)

Vapnik, V. N.

V. N. Vapnik, "An overview of statistical learning theory," IEEE Trans. Neural. Netw. 10, 988‒999 (1999)
[Crossref]

W.-H. Ng, B.

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, D. Abbott, "Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study," Electron. Lett. 45, 343‒345 (2009)
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501 (2008)
[Crossref]

Wahaia, F.

F. Wahaia, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Molis, A. Urbanowicz, C. D. C. Silva, F. Carneiro, G. Valusis, P. L. Granja, Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques .

Wallace, V. P.

B. C. Q. Truong, H. D. Tuan, V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, H. T. Nguyen, "The potential of the double debye parameters to discriminate between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin," IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 990‒998 (2015)
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys 38, R301 (2006)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533‒540 (2006)
[Crossref]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectmsc. 60, 1127‒1133 (2006)
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190‒2192 (2004)
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, Tissue classification using terahertz pulsed imaging .

Withayachumnankul, W.

Wittborn, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, , J. Aizpurua, R. Hillenbrand, "Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices," Nano Lett. 8, 3766‒3770 (2008)
[Crossref]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, Tissue classification using terahertz pulsed imaging .

Yamaguchi, S.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, S. Yamamoto, "Origin and quantification of differences between normal and tumor tissues observed by terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 61, 6808 (2016)
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, S. Yamamoto, "Origin and quantification of differences between normal and tumor tissues observed by terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 61, 6808 (2016)
[Crossref]

Zakaria, H. A.

Zeitler, J. A.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501 (2008)
[Crossref]

Zhong, S.

S. Zhong, "Progress in terahertz nondestructive testing: a review," Front. Mech. Eng. 14, 273‒281 (2019)
[Crossref]

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Pepper, "Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2190‒2192 (2004)
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectmsc. (1)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, T. Ha, "Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma," Appl. Spectmsc. 60, 1127‒1133 (2006)
[Crossref]

Clin. Radiol. (1)

A. M. Hövels, R. A. M. Heesakkers, E. M. Adang, G. J. Jager, S. Strum, Y. L. Hoogeveen, J. L. Severens, J. O. Barentsz, "The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis," Clin. Radiol. 63, 387‒395 (2008)
[Crossref]

Data Min. Knowl. Disc. (1)

C. J. C. Burges, "A tutorial on support vector machines for pattern recognition," Data Min. Knowl. Disc. 2, 121‒167 (1998)
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. M. Png, R. Flook, B. W.-H. Ng, D. Abbott, "Terahertz spectroscopy of snap-frozen human brain tissue: an initial study," Electron. Lett. 45, 343‒345 (2009)
[Crossref]

Expert Rev. Med. Devices (1)

M. I. Abdulmajed, D. Hughes, I. S. Shergill, "The role of transperineal template biopsies of the prostate in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 12, 175‒182 (2014)

Front. Mech. Eng. (1)

S. Zhong, "Progress in terahertz nondestructive testing: a review," Front. Mech. Eng. 14, 273‒281 (2019)
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J. L. Coutaz, "A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 739‒746 (2002)

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438‒2447 (2004)
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Neural. Netw. (1)

V. N. Vapnik, "An overview of statistical learning theory," IEEE Trans. Neural. Netw. 10, 988‒999 (1999)
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

B. C. Q. Truong, H. D. Tuan, V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, H. T. Nguyen, "The potential of the double debye parameters to discriminate between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin," IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 990‒998 (2015)
[Crossref]

ILAR J. (1)

R. W. Cootney, "Ultrasound imaging: principles and applications in rodent research," ILAR J. 42, 233‒247 (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys (1)

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys 38, R301 (2006)

Mach. Learn. (1)

C. Cortes, V. Vapnik, "Support-vector networks," Mach. Learn. 20, 273‒297 (1995)

Nano Lett. (1)

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, , J. Aizpurua, R. Hillenbrand, "Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices," Nano Lett. 8, 3766‒3770 (2008)
[Crossref]

Neural Process. Lett. (1)

J. A. K. Suykens, J. Vandewalle, "Least squares support vector machine classifiers," Neural Process. Lett. 9, 293‒300 (1999)
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R Miller, P. Kleinebudde, "Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lasers Eng. 49, 361‒365 (2011)
[Crossref]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501 (2008)
[Crossref]

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, S. Yamamoto, "Origin and quantification of differences between normal and tumor tissues observed by terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 61, 6808 (2016)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H.-T. Chen, S. Kraatz, G. C. Cho, R. Kersting, "Identification of a resonant imaging process in apertureless near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 267401 (2004)
[Crossref]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533‒540 (2006)
[Crossref]

World J. Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

P. Doradla, C. Joseph, R. H. Giles, "Terahertz endoscopic imaging for colorectal cancer detection: Current status and future perspectives," World J. Gastrointest. Endosc. 9, 346‒358 (2017)
[Crossref]

Other (5)

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. S. Joseph, R. H. Giles, Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection .

F. Wahaia, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Molis, A. Urbanowicz, C. D. C. Silva, F. Carneiro, G. Valusis, P. L. Granja, Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques .

W. C. D. Groat, Neurobiology of Incontinence .

R. M. Woodward, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, Tissue classification using terahertz pulsed imaging .

N. Khiabani, Y. Huang, Y.-C. Shen, Comparison of ultra-wideband THz generation and detection systems .

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