Expand this Topic clickable element to expand a topic
Skip to content
Optica Publishing Group
  • Current Optics and Photonics
  • Vol. 6,
  • Issue 2,
  • pp. 202-211
  • (2022)

Bactericidal Effect of a 275-nm UV-C LED Sterilizer for Escalator Handrails: Optimization of Optical Structure and Evaluation of Sterilization of Six Bacterial Strains

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

In the pasteurization of escalator handrails using ultraviolet (UV) sterilizers, a combination of light distribution and escalator speed has priority over other important factors. Furthermore, since part of the escalator handrail has a curved structure, proper design is needed to improve the sterilization rate on the surfaces touched by users. In this paper, two types of sterilizers satisfying these conditions are manufactured with 275-nm UV-C LEDs, after modeling the three-dimensional (3D) structure of an escalator handrail and simulating optical distributions of UV-C irradiation on the handrail’s surface according to light-emitting diode (LED) positions and reflector variations in the sterilizers. Pasteurization experiments with the UV-C LED sterilizers are conducted on six types of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, with exposure times of 0.2, 5, and 15 s at an actual installation distance of 20 mm. The sterilization rates for the gram-positive bacteria are 10.63% to 27.94% at 0.2 s, 89.44% to 96.30% at 5 s, and 99.64% to 99.88% at 15 s. Those for the gram-negative bacteria are 57.70% to 77.63% at 0.2 s, 98.90% to 99.49% at 5 s, and 99.88% to 99.99% at 15 s. The power consumption of the UV-C LED sterilizer is about 8 W, which can be supplied by a self-generation module instead of an external power supply.

© 2022 Optical Society of Korea

PDF Article

References

  • View by:

  1. W. A. Rutala, D. J. Webber, "Infection control: the role of disinfection and sterilization," J. Hosp. Infect. 43, S43‒S55 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  2. M. P. Muller, C. MacDougall, M. Lim, Ontario Agency for Health Protection, Promotion, "Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review," J. Hosp. Infect. 92, 7‒13 (2016)
  3. J. K. Hong, "Experimental study on the irradiation and surface sterilization effect of ultra violet ray in air conditioning system," Korean J. Air-Cond. Refrig. Eng. 16, 250‒258 (2004)
  4. M. Raeiszadeh, B. Adeli, "A critical review on ultraviolet disinfection systems against COVID-19 outbreak: applicability validation and safety considerations," ACS Photonics 7, 2941‒2951 (2020)
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Z. Brook, I. Brook, "Recovery of organisms from the handrails of escalators in the public metro rail system in Washington D.C.," J. Environ. Health 57, 13‒15 (1994)
  6. K. S. Ismail, "A preliminary study of bacterial contamination from elevators," Inter. J. Sci. Res. 2, 1‒2 (2013)
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. W. Lee, H. D. Yoon, J.-H. Park, U.-C Ryu, "Application of 265-nm UVC LED lighting to sterilization of typical gram negative and positive bacteria," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 72, 1174‒1178 (2018)
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Cheverfils, E. Caron E, H. Wrigth, G. Sakamto, P. Payment, B. Barbeau, B. Carins, "UV dose required to achieve incremental log inactivation of bacteria protozoa and viruses," IUVA News 8, 38‒45 (2006)
  9. M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Berney, H.-U. Weilenmann, T. Egli, "Adaptation to UVA radiation of E.coli growing in continuous culture," Biol. 86, 149‒159 (2007)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A.-C. Chevremont, A.-M. Farnet, B. Coulomb, J.-L. Boudenne, "Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters," Sci. Total Environ. 426, 304‒310 (2012)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
    [Crossref]
  13. J. H. Kim, J. I. Band, A. S. Choi, M. K. Sung, "An analysis on the effect of mold sterilization in apartment using 405 nm visible light LED," J. Korean Inst. Archit. Sust. Environ. Buil. Sys. 13, 590‒598 (2019)
  14. P. O. Nyangaresi, Y. Qin, G. Chen, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, L. Shen, "Comparison of the performance of pulsed and continuous UVC-LED irradiation in the inactivation of bacteria," Water Res 157, 218‒227 (2019)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Ahmadi, N. Bhardwaj, K.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, "Recent advances in photocatalytic removal of airborne pathogens in air," Sci. Total Environ. 794, (2021)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. S. Do, W. S. Bang, "Bactericidal effect of 461 nm blue light emitting diode on pathogenic bacteria," Korean J. Food Preserv 20, 419‒423 (2013)
    [Crossref]
  17. T. Assefa, H. Tasew, B. Wondafrash, J. Beker, "Assessment of bacterial hand contamination and associated factors among food handlers working in the student cafeterias of Jimma Main Campus Jimma South West Ethiopia," J. Community Med. Health Educ. 5, (2015)
    [Crossref]
  18. D. R. Bhatta, D. Hamal, R. Shrestha, S. H. Subramanya, N. Baral, R. K. Singh, N. Nayak, S. Gokhale, "Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara Nepal: how safe are our hands," Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 7, 97 (2018)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S.-K. Park, D.-M. Jo, M.-G. Kang, F. Khan, S. D. Hong, C. Y. Kim, Y.-M. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, "Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes: Optimization of efficacy toward foodborne pathogens in water," Biol. 222, (2021)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. O. Kim, S. K. Park, D. M. Jo, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on optical simulation of UV C sterilizer for escalator handrail in Proc. OSK Annual Meeting .
  21. J. O. Kim, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on the optical structure and sterilization evaluation of UV C LED sterilizer of escalator handrail, Proc. KIIEE Annual Spring Conference and General Meeting .
  22. C. K. Mok, N. H. Lee, Distribution of ultraviolet intensity and UV leaking of commercial UV sterilizers used in restaurants Korean J. Food Sci. Technol .

2021 (2)

Y. Ahmadi, N. Bhardwaj, K.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, "Recent advances in photocatalytic removal of airborne pathogens in air," Sci. Total Environ. 794, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-K. Park, D.-M. Jo, M.-G. Kang, F. Khan, S. D. Hong, C. Y. Kim, Y.-M. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, "Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes: Optimization of efficacy toward foodborne pathogens in water," Biol. 222, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2020 (1)

M. Raeiszadeh, B. Adeli, "A critical review on ultraviolet disinfection systems against COVID-19 outbreak: applicability validation and safety considerations," ACS Photonics 7, 2941‒2951 (2020)
[Crossref]

2019 (2)

J. H. Kim, J. I. Band, A. S. Choi, M. K. Sung, "An analysis on the effect of mold sterilization in apartment using 405 nm visible light LED," J. Korean Inst. Archit. Sust. Environ. Buil. Sys. 13, 590‒598 (2019)

P. O. Nyangaresi, Y. Qin, G. Chen, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, L. Shen, "Comparison of the performance of pulsed and continuous UVC-LED irradiation in the inactivation of bacteria," Water Res 157, 218‒227 (2019)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

Y. W. Lee, H. D. Yoon, J.-H. Park, U.-C Ryu, "Application of 265-nm UVC LED lighting to sterilization of typical gram negative and positive bacteria," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 72, 1174‒1178 (2018)
[Crossref]

D. R. Bhatta, D. Hamal, R. Shrestha, S. H. Subramanya, N. Baral, R. K. Singh, N. Nayak, S. Gokhale, "Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara Nepal: how safe are our hands," Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 7, 97 (2018)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. P. Muller, C. MacDougall, M. Lim, Ontario Agency for Health Protection, Promotion, "Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review," J. Hosp. Infect. 92, 7‒13 (2016)

2015 (1)

T. Assefa, H. Tasew, B. Wondafrash, J. Beker, "Assessment of bacterial hand contamination and associated factors among food handlers working in the student cafeterias of Jimma Main Campus Jimma South West Ethiopia," J. Community Med. Health Educ. 5, (2015)
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

K. S. Ismail, "A preliminary study of bacterial contamination from elevators," Inter. J. Sci. Res. 2, 1‒2 (2013)
[Crossref]

J. S. Do, W. S. Bang, "Bactericidal effect of 461 nm blue light emitting diode on pathogenic bacteria," Korean J. Food Preserv 20, 419‒423 (2013)
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A.-C. Chevremont, A.-M. Farnet, B. Coulomb, J.-L. Boudenne, "Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters," Sci. Total Environ. 426, 304‒310 (2012)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Berney, H.-U. Weilenmann, T. Egli, "Adaptation to UVA radiation of E.coli growing in continuous culture," Biol. 86, 149‒159 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

G. Cheverfils, E. Caron E, H. Wrigth, G. Sakamto, P. Payment, B. Barbeau, B. Carins, "UV dose required to achieve incremental log inactivation of bacteria protozoa and viruses," IUVA News 8, 38‒45 (2006)

2004 (1)

J. K. Hong, "Experimental study on the irradiation and surface sterilization effect of ultra violet ray in air conditioning system," Korean J. Air-Cond. Refrig. Eng. 16, 250‒258 (2004)

1999 (1)

W. A. Rutala, D. J. Webber, "Infection control: the role of disinfection and sterilization," J. Hosp. Infect. 43, S43‒S55 (1999)
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Z. Brook, I. Brook, "Recovery of organisms from the handrails of escalators in the public metro rail system in Washington D.C.," J. Environ. Health 57, 13‒15 (1994)

Adeli, B.

M. Raeiszadeh, B. Adeli, "A critical review on ultraviolet disinfection systems against COVID-19 outbreak: applicability validation and safety considerations," ACS Photonics 7, 2941‒2951 (2020)
[Crossref]

Ahmadi, Y.

Y. Ahmadi, N. Bhardwaj, K.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, "Recent advances in photocatalytic removal of airborne pathogens in air," Sci. Total Environ. 794, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akutagawa, M.

S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
[Crossref]

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alang, T. A. I. T.

S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
[Crossref]

Assefa, T.

T. Assefa, H. Tasew, B. Wondafrash, J. Beker, "Assessment of bacterial hand contamination and associated factors among food handlers working in the student cafeterias of Jimma Main Campus Jimma South West Ethiopia," J. Community Med. Health Educ. 5, (2015)
[Crossref]

Band, J. I.

J. H. Kim, J. I. Band, A. S. Choi, M. K. Sung, "An analysis on the effect of mold sterilization in apartment using 405 nm visible light LED," J. Korean Inst. Archit. Sust. Environ. Buil. Sys. 13, 590‒598 (2019)

Bang, W. S.

J. S. Do, W. S. Bang, "Bactericidal effect of 461 nm blue light emitting diode on pathogenic bacteria," Korean J. Food Preserv 20, 419‒423 (2013)
[Crossref]

Baral, N.

D. R. Bhatta, D. Hamal, R. Shrestha, S. H. Subramanya, N. Baral, R. K. Singh, N. Nayak, S. Gokhale, "Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara Nepal: how safe are our hands," Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 7, 97 (2018)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbeau, B.

G. Cheverfils, E. Caron E, H. Wrigth, G. Sakamto, P. Payment, B. Barbeau, B. Carins, "UV dose required to achieve incremental log inactivation of bacteria protozoa and viruses," IUVA News 8, 38‒45 (2006)

Beker, J.

T. Assefa, H. Tasew, B. Wondafrash, J. Beker, "Assessment of bacterial hand contamination and associated factors among food handlers working in the student cafeterias of Jimma Main Campus Jimma South West Ethiopia," J. Community Med. Health Educ. 5, (2015)
[Crossref]

Berney, M.

M. Berney, H.-U. Weilenmann, T. Egli, "Adaptation to UVA radiation of E.coli growing in continuous culture," Biol. 86, 149‒159 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, N.

Y. Ahmadi, N. Bhardwaj, K.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, "Recent advances in photocatalytic removal of airborne pathogens in air," Sci. Total Environ. 794, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhatta, D. R.

D. R. Bhatta, D. Hamal, R. Shrestha, S. H. Subramanya, N. Baral, R. K. Singh, N. Nayak, S. Gokhale, "Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara Nepal: how safe are our hands," Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 7, 97 (2018)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudenne, J.-L.

A.-C. Chevremont, A.-M. Farnet, B. Coulomb, J.-L. Boudenne, "Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters," Sci. Total Environ. 426, 304‒310 (2012)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brook, I.

J. Z. Brook, I. Brook, "Recovery of organisms from the handrails of escalators in the public metro rail system in Washington D.C.," J. Environ. Health 57, 13‒15 (1994)

Brook, J. Z.

J. Z. Brook, I. Brook, "Recovery of organisms from the handrails of escalators in the public metro rail system in Washington D.C.," J. Environ. Health 57, 13‒15 (1994)

Carins, B.

G. Cheverfils, E. Caron E, H. Wrigth, G. Sakamto, P. Payment, B. Barbeau, B. Carins, "UV dose required to achieve incremental log inactivation of bacteria protozoa and viruses," IUVA News 8, 38‒45 (2006)

Chen, G.

P. O. Nyangaresi, Y. Qin, G. Chen, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, L. Shen, "Comparison of the performance of pulsed and continuous UVC-LED irradiation in the inactivation of bacteria," Water Res 157, 218‒227 (2019)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheverfils, G.

G. Cheverfils, E. Caron E, H. Wrigth, G. Sakamto, P. Payment, B. Barbeau, B. Carins, "UV dose required to achieve incremental log inactivation of bacteria protozoa and viruses," IUVA News 8, 38‒45 (2006)

Chevremont, A.-C.

A.-C. Chevremont, A.-M. Farnet, B. Coulomb, J.-L. Boudenne, "Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters," Sci. Total Environ. 426, 304‒310 (2012)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, A. S.

J. H. Kim, J. I. Band, A. S. Choi, M. K. Sung, "An analysis on the effect of mold sterilization in apartment using 405 nm visible light LED," J. Korean Inst. Archit. Sust. Environ. Buil. Sys. 13, 590‒598 (2019)

Chun, D. H.

J. O. Kim, S. K. Park, D. M. Jo, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on optical simulation of UV C sterilizer for escalator handrail in Proc. OSK Annual Meeting .

J. O. Kim, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on the optical structure and sterilization evaluation of UV C LED sterilizer of escalator handrail, Proc. KIIEE Annual Spring Conference and General Meeting .

Coulomb, B.

A.-C. Chevremont, A.-M. Farnet, B. Coulomb, J.-L. Boudenne, "Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters," Sci. Total Environ. 426, 304‒310 (2012)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Do, J. S.

J. S. Do, W. S. Bang, "Bactericidal effect of 461 nm blue light emitting diode on pathogenic bacteria," Korean J. Food Preserv 20, 419‒423 (2013)
[Crossref]

E, E. Caron

G. Cheverfils, E. Caron E, H. Wrigth, G. Sakamto, P. Payment, B. Barbeau, B. Carins, "UV dose required to achieve incremental log inactivation of bacteria protozoa and viruses," IUVA News 8, 38‒45 (2006)

Egli, T.

M. Berney, H.-U. Weilenmann, T. Egli, "Adaptation to UVA radiation of E.coli growing in continuous culture," Biol. 86, 149‒159 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emoto, T.

S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
[Crossref]

Farnet, A.-M.

A.-C. Chevremont, A.-M. Farnet, B. Coulomb, J.-L. Boudenne, "Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters," Sci. Total Environ. 426, 304‒310 (2012)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gokhale, S.

D. R. Bhatta, D. Hamal, R. Shrestha, S. H. Subramanya, N. Baral, R. K. Singh, N. Nayak, S. Gokhale, "Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara Nepal: how safe are our hands," Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 7, 97 (2018)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamal, D.

D. R. Bhatta, D. Hamal, R. Shrestha, S. H. Subramanya, N. Baral, R. K. Singh, N. Nayak, S. Gokhale, "Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara Nepal: how safe are our hands," Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 7, 97 (2018)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamamoto, A.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J. K.

J. K. Hong, "Experimental study on the irradiation and surface sterilization effect of ultra violet ray in air conditioning system," Korean J. Air-Cond. Refrig. Eng. 16, 250‒258 (2004)

Hong, S. D.

S.-K. Park, D.-M. Jo, M.-G. Kang, F. Khan, S. D. Hong, C. Y. Kim, Y.-M. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, "Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes: Optimization of efficacy toward foodborne pathogens in water," Biol. 222, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, T. J.

S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
[Crossref]

Ikehara, T.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ismail, K. S.

K. S. Ismail, "A preliminary study of bacterial contamination from elevators," Inter. J. Sci. Res. 2, 1‒2 (2013)
[Crossref]

Jeong, G. J.

J. O. Kim, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on the optical structure and sterilization evaluation of UV C LED sterilizer of escalator handrail, Proc. KIIEE Annual Spring Conference and General Meeting .

J. O. Kim, S. K. Park, D. M. Jo, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on optical simulation of UV C sterilizer for escalator handrail in Proc. OSK Annual Meeting .

Jo, D. M.

J. O. Kim, S. K. Park, D. M. Jo, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on optical simulation of UV C sterilizer for escalator handrail in Proc. OSK Annual Meeting .

Jo, D.-M.

S.-K. Park, D.-M. Jo, M.-G. Kang, F. Khan, S. D. Hong, C. Y. Kim, Y.-M. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, "Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes: Optimization of efficacy toward foodborne pathogens in water," Biol. 222, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kadir, M. R. A.

S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
[Crossref]

Kang, M.-G.

S.-K. Park, D.-M. Jo, M.-G. Kang, F. Khan, S. D. Hong, C. Y. Kim, Y.-M. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, "Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes: Optimization of efficacy toward foodborne pathogens in water," Biol. 222, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, F.

S.-K. Park, D.-M. Jo, M.-G. Kang, F. Khan, S. D. Hong, C. Y. Kim, Y.-M. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, "Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes: Optimization of efficacy toward foodborne pathogens in water," Biol. 222, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C. Y.

S.-K. Park, D.-M. Jo, M.-G. Kang, F. Khan, S. D. Hong, C. Y. Kim, Y.-M. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, "Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes: Optimization of efficacy toward foodborne pathogens in water," Biol. 222, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, J. I. Band, A. S. Choi, M. K. Sung, "An analysis on the effect of mold sterilization in apartment using 405 nm visible light LED," J. Korean Inst. Archit. Sust. Environ. Buil. Sys. 13, 590‒598 (2019)

Kim, J. O.

J. O. Kim, S. K. Park, D. M. Jo, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on optical simulation of UV C sterilizer for escalator handrail in Proc. OSK Annual Meeting .

J. O. Kim, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on the optical structure and sterilization evaluation of UV C LED sterilizer of escalator handrail, Proc. KIIEE Annual Spring Conference and General Meeting .

Kim, K.-H.

Y. Ahmadi, N. Bhardwaj, K.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, "Recent advances in photocatalytic removal of airborne pathogens in air," Sci. Total Environ. 794, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M. S.

J. O. Kim, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on the optical structure and sterilization evaluation of UV C LED sterilizer of escalator handrail, Proc. KIIEE Annual Spring Conference and General Meeting .

J. O. Kim, S. K. Park, D. M. Jo, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on optical simulation of UV C sterilizer for escalator handrail in Proc. OSK Annual Meeting .

Kim, Y.-M.

S.-K. Park, D.-M. Jo, M.-G. Kang, F. Khan, S. D. Hong, C. Y. Kim, Y.-M. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, "Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes: Optimization of efficacy toward foodborne pathogens in water," Biol. 222, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinouchi, Y.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

Y. Ahmadi, N. Bhardwaj, K.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, "Recent advances in photocatalytic removal of airborne pathogens in air," Sci. Total Environ. 794, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, N. H.

C. K. Mok, N. H. Lee, Distribution of ultraviolet intensity and UV leaking of commercial UV sterilizers used in restaurants Korean J. Food Sci. Technol .

Lee, Y. W.

Y. W. Lee, H. D. Yoon, J.-H. Park, U.-C Ryu, "Application of 265-nm UVC LED lighting to sterilization of typical gram negative and positive bacteria," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 72, 1174‒1178 (2018)
[Crossref]

Lim, M.

M. P. Muller, C. MacDougall, M. Lim, Ontario Agency for Health Protection, Promotion, "Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review," J. Hosp. Infect. 92, 7‒13 (2016)

Lu, Y.

P. O. Nyangaresi, Y. Qin, G. Chen, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, L. Shen, "Comparison of the performance of pulsed and continuous UVC-LED irradiation in the inactivation of bacteria," Water Res 157, 218‒227 (2019)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacDougall, C.

M. P. Muller, C. MacDougall, M. Lim, Ontario Agency for Health Protection, Promotion, "Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review," J. Hosp. Infect. 92, 7‒13 (2016)

Malek, N. A. N. N.

S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
[Crossref]

Malik, S. A.

S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
[Crossref]

Meng, L. K.

S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
[Crossref]

Mok, C. K.

C. K. Mok, N. H. Lee, Distribution of ultraviolet intensity and UV leaking of commercial UV sterilizers used in restaurants Korean J. Food Sci. Technol .

Mori, M.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, M. P.

M. P. Muller, C. MacDougall, M. Lim, Ontario Agency for Health Protection, Promotion, "Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review," J. Hosp. Infect. 92, 7‒13 (2016)

Nakano, M.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakaya, Y.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nayak, N.

D. R. Bhatta, D. Hamal, R. Shrestha, S. H. Subramanya, N. Baral, R. K. Singh, N. Nayak, S. Gokhale, "Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara Nepal: how safe are our hands," Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 7, 97 (2018)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nyangaresi, P. O.

P. O. Nyangaresi, Y. Qin, G. Chen, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, L. Shen, "Comparison of the performance of pulsed and continuous UVC-LED irradiation in the inactivation of bacteria," Water Res 157, 218‒227 (2019)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.-H.

Y. W. Lee, H. D. Yoon, J.-H. Park, U.-C Ryu, "Application of 265-nm UVC LED lighting to sterilization of typical gram negative and positive bacteria," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 72, 1174‒1178 (2018)
[Crossref]

Park, S. K.

J. O. Kim, S. K. Park, D. M. Jo, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on optical simulation of UV C sterilizer for escalator handrail in Proc. OSK Annual Meeting .

Park, S.-K.

S.-K. Park, D.-M. Jo, M.-G. Kang, F. Khan, S. D. Hong, C. Y. Kim, Y.-M. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, "Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes: Optimization of efficacy toward foodborne pathogens in water," Biol. 222, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Payment, P.

G. Cheverfils, E. Caron E, H. Wrigth, G. Sakamto, P. Payment, B. Barbeau, B. Carins, "UV dose required to achieve incremental log inactivation of bacteria protozoa and viruses," IUVA News 8, 38‒45 (2006)

Promotion,

M. P. Muller, C. MacDougall, M. Lim, Ontario Agency for Health Protection, Promotion, "Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review," J. Hosp. Infect. 92, 7‒13 (2016)

Protection, Ontario Agency for Health

M. P. Muller, C. MacDougall, M. Lim, Ontario Agency for Health Protection, Promotion, "Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review," J. Hosp. Infect. 92, 7‒13 (2016)

Qin, Y.

P. O. Nyangaresi, Y. Qin, G. Chen, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, L. Shen, "Comparison of the performance of pulsed and continuous UVC-LED irradiation in the inactivation of bacteria," Water Res 157, 218‒227 (2019)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raeiszadeh, M.

M. Raeiszadeh, B. Adeli, "A critical review on ultraviolet disinfection systems against COVID-19 outbreak: applicability validation and safety considerations," ACS Photonics 7, 2941‒2951 (2020)
[Crossref]

Rutala, W. A.

W. A. Rutala, D. J. Webber, "Infection control: the role of disinfection and sterilization," J. Hosp. Infect. 43, S43‒S55 (1999)
[Crossref]

Ryu, U.-C

Y. W. Lee, H. D. Yoon, J.-H. Park, U.-C Ryu, "Application of 265-nm UVC LED lighting to sterilization of typical gram negative and positive bacteria," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 72, 1174‒1178 (2018)
[Crossref]

Ryu, U.-C.

S.-K. Park, D.-M. Jo, M.-G. Kang, F. Khan, S. D. Hong, C. Y. Kim, Y.-M. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, "Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes: Optimization of efficacy toward foodborne pathogens in water," Biol. 222, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. O. Kim, S. K. Park, D. M. Jo, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on optical simulation of UV C sterilizer for escalator handrail in Proc. OSK Annual Meeting .

J. O. Kim, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on the optical structure and sterilization evaluation of UV C LED sterilizer of escalator handrail, Proc. KIIEE Annual Spring Conference and General Meeting .

Sakamto, G.

G. Cheverfils, E. Caron E, H. Wrigth, G. Sakamto, P. Payment, B. Barbeau, B. Carins, "UV dose required to achieve incremental log inactivation of bacteria protozoa and viruses," IUVA News 8, 38‒45 (2006)

Shen, L.

P. O. Nyangaresi, Y. Qin, G. Chen, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, L. Shen, "Comparison of the performance of pulsed and continuous UVC-LED irradiation in the inactivation of bacteria," Water Res 157, 218‒227 (2019)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shrestha, R.

D. R. Bhatta, D. Hamal, R. Shrestha, S. H. Subramanya, N. Baral, R. K. Singh, N. Nayak, S. Gokhale, "Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara Nepal: how safe are our hands," Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 7, 97 (2018)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R. K.

D. R. Bhatta, D. Hamal, R. Shrestha, S. H. Subramanya, N. Baral, R. K. Singh, N. Nayak, S. Gokhale, "Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara Nepal: how safe are our hands," Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 7, 97 (2018)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, E. I.

J. O. Kim, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on the optical structure and sterilization evaluation of UV C LED sterilizer of escalator handrail, Proc. KIIEE Annual Spring Conference and General Meeting .

J. O. Kim, S. K. Park, D. M. Jo, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on optical simulation of UV C sterilizer for escalator handrail in Proc. OSK Annual Meeting .

Subramanya, S. H.

D. R. Bhatta, D. Hamal, R. Shrestha, S. H. Subramanya, N. Baral, R. K. Singh, N. Nayak, S. Gokhale, "Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara Nepal: how safe are our hands," Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 7, 97 (2018)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, M. K.

J. H. Kim, J. I. Band, A. S. Choi, M. K. Sung, "An analysis on the effect of mold sterilization in apartment using 405 nm visible light LED," J. Korean Inst. Archit. Sust. Environ. Buil. Sys. 13, 590‒598 (2019)

Swee, T. T.

S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
[Crossref]

Tachibana, S.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, A.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tasew, H.

T. Assefa, H. Tasew, B. Wondafrash, J. Beker, "Assessment of bacterial hand contamination and associated factors among food handlers working in the student cafeterias of Jimma Main Campus Jimma South West Ethiopia," J. Community Med. Health Educ. 5, (2015)
[Crossref]

Wakikawa, N.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webber, D. J.

W. A. Rutala, D. J. Webber, "Infection control: the role of disinfection and sterilization," J. Hosp. Infect. 43, S43‒S55 (1999)
[Crossref]

Weilenmann, H.-U.

M. Berney, H.-U. Weilenmann, T. Egli, "Adaptation to UVA radiation of E.coli growing in continuous culture," Biol. 86, 149‒159 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wondafrash, B.

T. Assefa, H. Tasew, B. Wondafrash, J. Beker, "Assessment of bacterial hand contamination and associated factors among food handlers working in the student cafeterias of Jimma Main Campus Jimma South West Ethiopia," J. Community Med. Health Educ. 5, (2015)
[Crossref]

Wrigth, H.

G. Cheverfils, E. Caron E, H. Wrigth, G. Sakamto, P. Payment, B. Barbeau, B. Carins, "UV dose required to achieve incremental log inactivation of bacteria protozoa and viruses," IUVA News 8, 38‒45 (2006)

Yoon, H. D.

Y. W. Lee, H. D. Yoon, J.-H. Park, U.-C Ryu, "Application of 265-nm UVC LED lighting to sterilization of typical gram negative and positive bacteria," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 72, 1174‒1178 (2018)
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

P. O. Nyangaresi, Y. Qin, G. Chen, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, L. Shen, "Comparison of the performance of pulsed and continuous UVC-LED irradiation in the inactivation of bacteria," Water Res 157, 218‒227 (2019)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

M. Raeiszadeh, B. Adeli, "A critical review on ultraviolet disinfection systems against COVID-19 outbreak: applicability validation and safety considerations," ACS Photonics 7, 2941‒2951 (2020)
[Crossref]

Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (1)

D. R. Bhatta, D. Hamal, R. Shrestha, S. H. Subramanya, N. Baral, R. K. Singh, N. Nayak, S. Gokhale, "Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara Nepal: how safe are our hands," Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 7, 97 (2018)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biol. (2)

S.-K. Park, D.-M. Jo, M.-G. Kang, F. Khan, S. D. Hong, C. Y. Kim, Y.-M. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, "Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes: Optimization of efficacy toward foodborne pathogens in water," Biol. 222, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Berney, H.-U. Weilenmann, T. Egli, "Adaptation to UVA radiation of E.coli growing in continuous culture," Biol. 86, 149‒159 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inter. J. Sci. Res. (1)

K. S. Ismail, "A preliminary study of bacterial contamination from elevators," Inter. J. Sci. Res. 2, 1‒2 (2013)
[Crossref]

IUVA News (1)

G. Cheverfils, E. Caron E, H. Wrigth, G. Sakamto, P. Payment, B. Barbeau, B. Carins, "UV dose required to achieve incremental log inactivation of bacteria protozoa and viruses," IUVA News 8, 38‒45 (2006)

J. Community Med. Health Educ. (1)

T. Assefa, H. Tasew, B. Wondafrash, J. Beker, "Assessment of bacterial hand contamination and associated factors among food handlers working in the student cafeterias of Jimma Main Campus Jimma South West Ethiopia," J. Community Med. Health Educ. 5, (2015)
[Crossref]

J. Environ. Health (1)

J. Z. Brook, I. Brook, "Recovery of organisms from the handrails of escalators in the public metro rail system in Washington D.C.," J. Environ. Health 57, 13‒15 (1994)

J. Hosp. Infect. (2)

W. A. Rutala, D. J. Webber, "Infection control: the role of disinfection and sterilization," J. Hosp. Infect. 43, S43‒S55 (1999)
[Crossref]

M. P. Muller, C. MacDougall, M. Lim, Ontario Agency for Health Protection, Promotion, "Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review," J. Hosp. Infect. 92, 7‒13 (2016)

J. Korean Inst. Archit. Sust. Environ. Buil. Sys. (1)

J. H. Kim, J. I. Band, A. S. Choi, M. K. Sung, "An analysis on the effect of mold sterilization in apartment using 405 nm visible light LED," J. Korean Inst. Archit. Sust. Environ. Buil. Sys. 13, 590‒598 (2019)

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

Y. W. Lee, H. D. Yoon, J.-H. Park, U.-C Ryu, "Application of 265-nm UVC LED lighting to sterilization of typical gram negative and positive bacteria," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 72, 1174‒1178 (2018)
[Crossref]

Korean J. Air-Cond. Refrig. Eng. (1)

J. K. Hong, "Experimental study on the irradiation and surface sterilization effect of ultra violet ray in air conditioning system," Korean J. Air-Cond. Refrig. Eng. 16, 250‒258 (2004)

Korean J. Food Preserv (1)

J. S. Do, W. S. Bang, "Bactericidal effect of 461 nm blue light emitting diode on pathogenic bacteria," Korean J. Food Preserv 20, 419‒423 (2013)
[Crossref]

Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. (1)

S. A. Malik, T. T. Swee, N. A. N. N. Malek, M. R. A. Kadir, T. Emoto, M. Akutagawa, L. K. Meng, T. J. Hou, T. A. I. T. Alang, "Comparison of standard light-emitting diode (LED) and 385 nm ultraviolet A LED (UVA-LED) for disinfection of Escherichia coli," Mal. J. Fund. App. Sci. 4, 430‒437 (2017)
[Crossref]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, Y. Kinouchi, "Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 1237‒1241 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Total Environ. (2)

Y. Ahmadi, N. Bhardwaj, K.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, "Recent advances in photocatalytic removal of airborne pathogens in air," Sci. Total Environ. 794, (2021)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.-C. Chevremont, A.-M. Farnet, B. Coulomb, J.-L. Boudenne, "Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters," Sci. Total Environ. 426, 304‒310 (2012)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Water Res (1)

P. O. Nyangaresi, Y. Qin, G. Chen, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, L. Shen, "Comparison of the performance of pulsed and continuous UVC-LED irradiation in the inactivation of bacteria," Water Res 157, 218‒227 (2019)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. O. Kim, S. K. Park, D. M. Jo, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on optical simulation of UV C sterilizer for escalator handrail in Proc. OSK Annual Meeting .

J. O. Kim, G. J. Jeong, E. I. Son, D. H. Chun, M. S. Kim, U.-C. Ryu, A study on the optical structure and sterilization evaluation of UV C LED sterilizer of escalator handrail, Proc. KIIEE Annual Spring Conference and General Meeting .

C. K. Mok, N. H. Lee, Distribution of ultraviolet intensity and UV leaking of commercial UV sterilizers used in restaurants Korean J. Food Sci. Technol .

Cited By

Optica participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from Optica Publishing Group journals and other participating publishers are listed here.


Select as filters


Select Topics Cancel
© Copyright 2022 | Optica Publishing Group. All Rights Reserved