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Optica Publishing Group
  • Current Optics and Photonics
  • Vol. 6,
  • Issue 3,
  • pp. 323-331
  • (2022)

Heterogeneously Integrated Thin-film Lithium Niobate Electro-optic Modulator Based on Slot Structure

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

Electro-optic modulator (EOM) takes a vital role in connecting the electric and optical fields. Here, we present a heterogeneously integrated EOM based on the lithium niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) platform. The key modulation waveguide structure is a field-enhanced slot waveguide formed by embedding silicon nanowires in a thin-film lithium niobate (LN), which is different from the previously reported LN ridge or etchless LN waveguides. Based on such slot structure, optical mode field area is reduced and enhanced electric field in the slot region can interact well with LN material with high Electro-optic (EO) coefficient. Therefore, the improvements in both aspects have positive effects on enhancing the modulation performance. From results, the corresponding EOM by adding such modulation waveguide structure achieves better performance, where the key half-wave-voltage-length product (VπL) and 3 dB EO bandwidth are 1.78 V ∙ cm and 40 GHz under the electrode gap width of only 6 μm, respectively. Moreover, Lower VπL can also be achieved. With these characteristics, such field-enhanced waveguide structure could further promote the development of LNOI-based EOM.

© 2022 Optical Society of Korea

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References

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2021 (8)

Y. Jia, L. Wang, F. Chen, "Ion-cut lithium niobate on insulator technology: recent advances and perspectives," Appl. Phys. Rev. 8, (2021)
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, L. Shao, M. Yu, R. Cheng, B. Desiatov, C. J. Xin, Y. Hu, J. Holzgrafe, S. Ghosh, A. Shams-Ansari, E. Puma, N. Sinclair, C. Reimer, M. Zhang, M. Lončar, "Integrated photonics on thin-film lithium niobate," Adv. Opt. Photonics 13, 242‒352 (2021)
[Crossref]

G. Sinatkas, T. Christopoulos, O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, "Electro-optic modulation in integrated photonics," J. Appl. Phys. 130, (2021)
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, C. Wang, P. Kharel, D. Zhu, M. Lončar, "Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators: when performance meets scalability," Optica 8, 652‒667 (2021)
[Crossref]

S. Sun, M. He, M. Xu, S. Gao, S. Yu, X. Cai, "Hybrid silicon and lithium niobate modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 27, (2021)
[Crossref]

H. Luo, Z. Chen, H. Li, L. Chen, Y. Han, Z. Lin, S. Yu, X. Cai, "High-performance polarization splitter-rotator based on lithium niobate-on-insulator platform," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 33, 1423‒1426 (2021)
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, J. Yang, W.-H. Wong, E. Y.-B. Pun, C. Wang, "Broadband adiabatic polarization rotator-splitter based on a lithium niobate on insulator platform," Photoncis Res. 9, 2319‒2324 (2021)
[Crossref]

P. O. Weigel, F. Valdez, J. Zhao, H. Li, S. Mookherjea, "Design of high-bandwidth low-voltage and low-loss hybrid lithium niobate electro-optic modulators," J. Phys. Photonics 3, (2021)
[Crossref]

2020 (8)

N. Boynton, H. Cai, M. Gehl, S. Arterburn, C. Dallo, A. Pomerene, A. Starbuck, D. Hood, D. C. Trotter, T. Friedmann, C. T. DeRose, A. Lentine, "A heterogeneously integrated silicon photonic/lithium niobate travelling wave electro-optic modulator," Opt. Express 28, 1868‒1884 (2020)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Safian, M. Teng, L. Zhuang, S. Chakravarty, "Foundry-compatible thin film lithium niobate modulator with RF electrodes buried inside the silicon oxide layer of the SOI wafer," Opt. Express 28, 25843‒25857 (2020)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Chen, D. Dai, L. Liu, "Polarization coupling of X-cut thin film lithium niobate based waveguide," IEEE Photonics J. 12, (2020)
[Crossref]

Y. Qi, Y. Li, "Integrated lithium niobate photonics," Nanophotonics 9, 1287‒1320 (2020)
[Crossref]

D. Sun, Y. Zhang, D. Wang, W. Song, X. Liu, J. Pang, D. Geng, Y. Sang, H. Liu, "Microstructure and domain engineering of lithium niobate crystal films for integrated photonic applications," Light Sci. Appl. 9, 197 (2020)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, F. Bo, Y. Cheng, J. Xu, "Advances in on-chip photonic devices based on lithium niobate on insulator," Photonics Res. 8, 1910‒1936 (2020)
[Crossref]

Y. Su, Y. Zhang, C. Qiu, X. Guo, L. Sun, "Silicon photonic platform for passive waveguide devices: materials fabrication and applications," Adv. Mater. Technol. 5, (2020)
[Crossref]

Y. Jiao, J. Tol, V. Pogoretskii, J. Engelen, A. A. Kashi, S. Reniers, Y. Wang, X. Zhao, W. Yao, T. Liu, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, X. Zhang, Z. Cao, R. R. Kumar, H. K. Tsang, R. Veldhoven, T. Vries, E. Geluk, J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, M. Smit, K. Williams, "Indium phosphide membrane nanophotonic integrated circuits on silicon," Phys. Status Solidi A 217, (2020)
[Crossref]

2019 (3)

K.-H. Luo, S. Brauner, C. Eigner, P. R. Sharapova, R. Ricken, T. Meier, H. Herrmann, C. Silberhorn, "Nonlinear integrated quantum electro-optic circuits," Sci. Adv. 5, (2019)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, X. Cai, "High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond," Nat. Photonics 13, 359‒364 (2019)
[Crossref]

A. Honardoost, F. A. Juneghani, R. Safian, S. Fathpour, "Towards subterahertz bandwidth ultracompact lithium niobate electrooptic modulators," Opt. Express 27, 6495‒6501 (2019)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (6)

2017 (2)

Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, Y. Ueda, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, E. Yamada, H. Tanobe, S. Kanazawa, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ohiso, T. Fujii, M. Kohtoku, "Over 67 GHz bandwidth and 1.5 V Vπ InP-based optical IQ modulator with n-i-p-n heterostructure," J. Light. Technol. 35, 1450‒1455 (2017)
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, M. Lončar, "Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator," Optica 4, 1536‒1537 (2017)
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

M. Bazzan, C. Sada, "Optical waveguide in lithium niobate: recent developments and applications," Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, (2015)
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, C. Koos, "Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device," Light Sci. Appl. 4, (2015)
[Crossref]

H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, R. T. Chen, "Recent advances in silicon-based passive and active optical interconnects," Opt. Express 23, 2487‒2511 (2015)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, J. Xu, "High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation," Opt. Express 23, 23072‒23078 (2015)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, A. Bogoni, "A fully photonics-based coherent radar system," Nature 507, 341‒345 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Nat. Photonics 4, 518‒526 (2010)
[Crossref]

M. Jeon, S. Yoshiba, K. Kamisako, "Hydrogenated amorphous silicon film as intrinsic passivation layer deposited at various temperatures using RF remote-PECVD technique," Curr. Appl. Phys. 10, S237‒S240 (2010)
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457, 71‒75 (2009)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69‒82 (2000)
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, C. Koos, "Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device," Light Sci. Appl. 4, (2015)
[Crossref]

Al-Rubaye, H.

Ambrosius, H.

Y. Jiao, J. Tol, V. Pogoretskii, J. Engelen, A. A. Kashi, S. Reniers, Y. Wang, X. Zhao, W. Yao, T. Liu, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, X. Zhang, Z. Cao, R. R. Kumar, H. K. Tsang, R. Veldhoven, T. Vries, E. Geluk, J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, M. Smit, K. Williams, "Indium phosphide membrane nanophotonic integrated circuits on silicon," Phys. Status Solidi A 217, (2020)
[Crossref]

Arterburn, S.

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69‒82 (2000)
[Crossref]

Bazzan, M.

M. Bazzan, C. Sada, "Optical waveguide in lithium niobate: recent developments and applications," Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, (2015)
[Crossref]

Berizzi, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, A. Bogoni, "A fully photonics-based coherent radar system," Nature 507, 341‒345 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertrand, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, M. Lončar, "Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages," Nature 562, 101‒104 (2018)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bo, F.

Bogaerts, W.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, C. Koos, "Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device," Light Sci. Appl. 4, (2015)
[Crossref]

Bogoni, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, A. Bogoni, "A fully photonics-based coherent radar system," Nature 507, 341‒345 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolk, J.

Y. Jiao, J. Tol, V. Pogoretskii, J. Engelen, A. A. Kashi, S. Reniers, Y. Wang, X. Zhao, W. Yao, T. Liu, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, X. Zhang, Z. Cao, R. R. Kumar, H. K. Tsang, R. Veldhoven, T. Vries, E. Geluk, J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, M. Smit, K. Williams, "Indium phosphide membrane nanophotonic integrated circuits on silicon," Phys. Status Solidi A 217, (2020)
[Crossref]

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69‒82 (2000)
[Crossref]

Boynton, N.

Brauner, S.

K.-H. Luo, S. Brauner, C. Eigner, P. R. Sharapova, R. Ricken, T. Meier, H. Herrmann, C. Silberhorn, "Nonlinear integrated quantum electro-optic circuits," Sci. Adv. 5, (2019)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, H.

Cai, L.

Cai, X.

S. Sun, M. He, M. Xu, S. Gao, S. Yu, X. Cai, "Hybrid silicon and lithium niobate modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 27, (2021)
[Crossref]

H. Luo, Z. Chen, H. Li, L. Chen, Y. Han, Z. Lin, S. Yu, X. Cai, "High-performance polarization splitter-rotator based on lithium niobate-on-insulator platform," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 33, 1423‒1426 (2021)
[Crossref]

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, X. Cai, "High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond," Nat. Photonics 13, 359‒364 (2019)
[Crossref]

Cao, Z.

Y. Jiao, J. Tol, V. Pogoretskii, J. Engelen, A. A. Kashi, S. Reniers, Y. Wang, X. Zhao, W. Yao, T. Liu, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, X. Zhang, Z. Cao, R. R. Kumar, H. K. Tsang, R. Veldhoven, T. Vries, E. Geluk, J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, M. Smit, K. Williams, "Indium phosphide membrane nanophotonic integrated circuits on silicon," Phys. Status Solidi A 217, (2020)
[Crossref]

Capria, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, A. Bogoni, "A fully photonics-based coherent radar system," Nature 507, 341‒345 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Chandrasekhar, S.

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Wang, C.

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