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Optica Publishing Group
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology
  • Vol. 37,
  • Issue 3,
  • pp. 868-874
  • (2019)

High-Quality-Factor AlGaAs-on-Sapphire Microring Resonators

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Abstract

We realize an AlGaAs-on-sapphire platform through $\mathrm{Al_2O_3}$ -assisted direct wafer bonding and substrate removal processes. The direct wafer bonding process is optimized concerning the intermediate layer deposition and annealing temperature to obtain a high bonding strength between the AlGaAs and sapphire wafers. High quality-factor (Q) microring resonators are fabricated using electron-beam lithography in which the charging effect is mitigated by applying a thin aluminum layer, and a smooth pattern sidewall definition is obtained using a multi-pass (exposure) process. We achieve an intrinsic Q of up to $\sim$ 460,000 which is the highest Q for AlGaAs microring resonators. Taking advantage of such high Q resonators, we demonstrate an ultra-efficient nonlinear four-wave mixing process in this platform and obtain a conversion efficiency of $-$ 19.8 dB with continuous-wave pumping at a power level of 380 $\mu$ W. We also investigate the thermal resonance shift of microring resonators with different substrate layouts and observe superior temperature stability for devices in the AlGaAs-on-sapphire platform. The realization of the AlGaAs-on-sapphire platform also opens new prospects for AlGaAs devices in nonlinear applications in the mid-infrared wavelength range.

© 2018 IEEE

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