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Optica Publishing Group
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology
  • Vol. 38,
  • Issue 10,
  • pp. 2774-2781
  • (2020)

Y-00 Quantum-Noise Randomized Stream Cipher Using Intensity Modulation Signals for Physical Layer Security of Optical Communications

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

The Internet plays an essential role in modern societies and in the amount of sensitive data transported over the optical networks that shows its' importance has increased drastically. Therefore, it is critical to develop data protection schemes for optical fiber communications to provide user security. The Y-00 quantum-noise randomized stream cipher that employs extremely high-order modulation and restricts an attacker's interception of ciphertext is a practical candidate for providing data protection. In this article, we introduce the operation principle of the Y-00 cipher with respect to data encryption and decryption. The Y-00 cipher combines the mathematical encryption of multi-level signaling and physical randomness, and provides a high level of security to the physical layer of optical communications and a high communication performance. We also present the noise masking phenomenon of the Y-00 cipher with intensity modulation (IM). This noise masking is generated by shot noise, i.e., quantum noise and additive noise such as amplified spontaneous emission noise. The noise masking phenomenon fails an attacker's interception of the ciphertext. The secrecy of the IM Y-00 cipher is also discussed, and an approximate analytical solution is introduced for evaluating the probability of the attackers accurately guessing the ciphertext. Finally, the secrecy of a 1,000-km transmission system is experimentally demonstrated with the Y-00 cipher transceiver at data rate of 1.5-Gb/s using the derived analytical solution to deduce the high secrecy of the entire transmission system.

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  2. V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and A. Scire, “Synchronization of chaotic injected-laser systems and its application to optical cryptography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 953–959, 1996.
  3. T. H. Shake, “Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 665–670, 2005.
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  6. G. Barbosa, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Secure communication using mesoscopic coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, no. 22, 2003, Art. no. .
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  8. O. Hirota, M. Sohma, M. Fuse, and K. Kato, “Quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol: Design and experiment by intensity modulation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 72, no. 2, 2005, Art. no. .
  9. K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Quantum quadrature amplitude modulation system and its applicability to coherent state quantum cryptography,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5893, 2005, Art. no. .
  10. G. S. Kanter, D. Reilly, and N. Smith, “Practical physical-layer encryption: the marriage of optical noise with traditional cryptography,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 74–81, 2009.
  11. Y. Doi, S. Akutsu, M. Honda, K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, S. Kawanishi, O. Kenichi, and K. Yamashitaet, “360 km field transmission of 10 Gbit/s stream cipher by quantum noise for optical network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper OWC4.
  12. K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, and K. Yamashita, “10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 2714–2723, 2010.
  13. K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, K. Yamashita, M. Honda, K. Ohhata, S. Akutsu, T. Hosoi, and Y. Doi, “Quantum encryption communication over a 192-km 2.5-Gbit/s line with optical transceivers employing Yuen-2000 protocol based on intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 361–323, 2011.
  14. F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Transmission of Y-00 quantum cipher from transmitter using directly modulated DFB laser for secure access networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Photon. Switching, Ajaccio, France, 2012, Paper Th-S14-O08.
  15. M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, T. Hirooka, and K. Kasai, “QAM quantum stream cipher using digital coherent optical transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 4098–4107, 2014.
  16. F. Futami and O. Hirota, “100 Gbit/s (10 × 10 Gbit/s) Y-00 cipher transmission over 120 km for secure optical fiber communication between data centers,” in Proc. OECC/ACOFT2014, Melbourne, Australia, 2014, Paper MO1A2.
  17. F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/sec free space optical communication by using Y-00 cipher: toward secure aviation systems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9202, 2014, Art. no. .
  18. F. Futami, “Experimental demonstrations of Y-00 cipher for high capacity and secure optical fiber communications,” Quantum Inform. Process., vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 2277–2291, 2014.
  19. F. Futami, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “A novel transceiver of the Y-00 quantum stream cipher with the randomization technique for optical communication with higher security performance,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9980, 2016, Art. no. .
  20. M. Nakazawa, “QAM quantum noise stream cipher transmission over 100 km with continuous variable quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 53, no. 4, 2017, Art. no. .
  21. F. Futami, “Y-00 quantum stream cipher overlay in a coherent 256-Gbit/s polarization multiplexed 16-QAM WDM system,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 26, pp. 33338–33349, 2017.
  22. F. Futami, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, S. Suda, and S. Namiki, “Dynamic routing of Y-00 quantum stream cipher in field-deployed dynamic optical path network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper Tu2G.5.
  23. K. Tanizawa and F. Futami, “214 intensity-level 10-Gbaud Y-00 quantum stream cipher enabled by coarse-to-fine modulation,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 30, no. 22, pp. 1987–1990, 2018.
  24. K. Tanizawa and F. Futami, “Digital coherent PSK Y-00 quantum stream cipher with 217 randomized phase levels,” Opt. Express vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 1071–1079, 2019.
  25. F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “1,000-km transmission of 1.5-Gb/s Y-00 quantum stream cipher using 4096-level intensity modulation signals,” in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., San Jose, CA, USA, 2019, Paper SW3O.4.
  26. K. Tanizawa and F. Futami, “Single channel 48-Gbit/s DP-PSK Y-00 quantum stream cipher transmission over 400- and 800-km SSMF,” Opt. Express vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 25357–25363, 2019.
  27. F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Masking of 4096-level intensity modulation signals by noises for secure communication employing Y-00 cipher protocol,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper Tu.6.C.4.
  28. O. Hirota, “Practical security analysis of a quantum stream cipher by the Yuen 2000 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 76, no. 3, 2007, Art. no. .
  29. T. Shimizu, O. Hirota, and Y. Nagasako, “Running key mapping in quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 77, 2008, Art. no. .
  30. K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Randomization techniques for the intensity modulation-based quantum stream cipher and progress of experiment,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8168, 2011, Art. no. .
  31. K. Kato, “Quantum enigma cipher as a generalization of the quantum stream cipher,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9980, 2016, Art. no. .
  32. K. Kato, “A unified analysis of optical signal modulation formats for quantum enigma cipher,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10409, 2017, Art. no. .
  33. F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part I,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10409, 2017, Art. no. .
  34. F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part II,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10771, 2018, Art. no. .

2019 (2)

2018 (2)

K. Tanizawa and F. Futami, “214 intensity-level 10-Gbaud Y-00 quantum stream cipher enabled by coarse-to-fine modulation,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 30, no. 22, pp. 1987–1990, 2018.

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part II,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10771, 2018, Art. no. .

2017 (4)

K. Kato, “A unified analysis of optical signal modulation formats for quantum enigma cipher,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10409, 2017, Art. no. .

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part I,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10409, 2017, Art. no. .

M. Nakazawa, “QAM quantum noise stream cipher transmission over 100 km with continuous variable quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 53, no. 4, 2017, Art. no. .

F. Futami, “Y-00 quantum stream cipher overlay in a coherent 256-Gbit/s polarization multiplexed 16-QAM WDM system,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 26, pp. 33338–33349, 2017.

2016 (2)

F. Futami, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “A novel transceiver of the Y-00 quantum stream cipher with the randomization technique for optical communication with higher security performance,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9980, 2016, Art. no. .

K. Kato, “Quantum enigma cipher as a generalization of the quantum stream cipher,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9980, 2016, Art. no. .

2014 (3)

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, T. Hirooka, and K. Kasai, “QAM quantum stream cipher using digital coherent optical transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 4098–4107, 2014.

F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/sec free space optical communication by using Y-00 cipher: toward secure aviation systems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9202, 2014, Art. no. .

F. Futami, “Experimental demonstrations of Y-00 cipher for high capacity and secure optical fiber communications,” Quantum Inform. Process., vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 2277–2291, 2014.

2011 (2)

K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, K. Yamashita, M. Honda, K. Ohhata, S. Akutsu, T. Hosoi, and Y. Doi, “Quantum encryption communication over a 192-km 2.5-Gbit/s line with optical transceivers employing Yuen-2000 protocol based on intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 361–323, 2011.

K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Randomization techniques for the intensity modulation-based quantum stream cipher and progress of experiment,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8168, 2011, Art. no. .

2010 (1)

K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, and K. Yamashita, “10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 2714–2723, 2010.

2009 (1)

G. S. Kanter, D. Reilly, and N. Smith, “Practical physical-layer encryption: the marriage of optical noise with traditional cryptography,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 74–81, 2009.

2008 (1)

T. Shimizu, O. Hirota, and Y. Nagasako, “Running key mapping in quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 77, 2008, Art. no. .

2007 (1)

O. Hirota, “Practical security analysis of a quantum stream cipher by the Yuen 2000 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 76, no. 3, 2007, Art. no. .

2005 (4)

T. H. Shake, “Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 665–670, 2005.

E. Corndorf, C. Liang, G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 71, no. 6, 2005, Art. no. .

O. Hirota, M. Sohma, M. Fuse, and K. Kato, “Quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol: Design and experiment by intensity modulation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 72, no. 2, 2005, Art. no. .

K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Quantum quadrature amplitude modulation system and its applicability to coherent state quantum cryptography,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5893, 2005, Art. no. .

2003 (1)

G. Barbosa, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Secure communication using mesoscopic coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, no. 22, 2003, Art. no. .

1996 (1)

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and A. Scire, “Synchronization of chaotic injected-laser systems and its application to optical cryptography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 953–959, 1996.

Akutsu, S.

K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, K. Yamashita, M. Honda, K. Ohhata, S. Akutsu, T. Hosoi, and Y. Doi, “Quantum encryption communication over a 192-km 2.5-Gbit/s line with optical transceivers employing Yuen-2000 protocol based on intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 361–323, 2011.

K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, and K. Yamashita, “10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 2714–2723, 2010.

Y. Doi, S. Akutsu, M. Honda, K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, S. Kawanishi, O. Kenichi, and K. Yamashitaet, “360 km field transmission of 10 Gbit/s stream cipher by quantum noise for optical network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper OWC4.

Annovazzi-Lodi, V.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and A. Scire, “Synchronization of chaotic injected-laser systems and its application to optical cryptography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 953–959, 1996.

Barbosa, G.

G. Barbosa, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Secure communication using mesoscopic coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, no. 22, 2003, Art. no. .

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput., Syst. Signal Process., 1984, pp. 175–179.

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput., Syst. Signal Process., 1984, pp. 175–179.

Corndorf, E.

E. Corndorf, C. Liang, G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 71, no. 6, 2005, Art. no. .

G. Barbosa, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Secure communication using mesoscopic coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, no. 22, 2003, Art. no. .

Doi, Y.

K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, K. Yamashita, M. Honda, K. Ohhata, S. Akutsu, T. Hosoi, and Y. Doi, “Quantum encryption communication over a 192-km 2.5-Gbit/s line with optical transceivers employing Yuen-2000 protocol based on intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 361–323, 2011.

K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, and K. Yamashita, “10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 2714–2723, 2010.

Y. Doi, S. Akutsu, M. Honda, K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, S. Kawanishi, O. Kenichi, and K. Yamashitaet, “360 km field transmission of 10 Gbit/s stream cipher by quantum noise for optical network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper OWC4.

Donati, S.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and A. Scire, “Synchronization of chaotic injected-laser systems and its application to optical cryptography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 953–959, 1996.

Fuse, M.

O. Hirota, M. Sohma, M. Fuse, and K. Kato, “Quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol: Design and experiment by intensity modulation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 72, no. 2, 2005, Art. no. .

Futami, F.

K. Tanizawa and F. Futami, “Digital coherent PSK Y-00 quantum stream cipher with 217 randomized phase levels,” Opt. Express vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 1071–1079, 2019.

K. Tanizawa and F. Futami, “Single channel 48-Gbit/s DP-PSK Y-00 quantum stream cipher transmission over 400- and 800-km SSMF,” Opt. Express vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 25357–25363, 2019.

K. Tanizawa and F. Futami, “214 intensity-level 10-Gbaud Y-00 quantum stream cipher enabled by coarse-to-fine modulation,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 30, no. 22, pp. 1987–1990, 2018.

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part II,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10771, 2018, Art. no. .

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part I,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10409, 2017, Art. no. .

F. Futami, “Y-00 quantum stream cipher overlay in a coherent 256-Gbit/s polarization multiplexed 16-QAM WDM system,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 26, pp. 33338–33349, 2017.

F. Futami, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “A novel transceiver of the Y-00 quantum stream cipher with the randomization technique for optical communication with higher security performance,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9980, 2016, Art. no. .

F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/sec free space optical communication by using Y-00 cipher: toward secure aviation systems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9202, 2014, Art. no. .

F. Futami, “Experimental demonstrations of Y-00 cipher for high capacity and secure optical fiber communications,” Quantum Inform. Process., vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 2277–2291, 2014.

F. Futami and O. Hirota, “100 Gbit/s (10 × 10 Gbit/s) Y-00 cipher transmission over 120 km for secure optical fiber communication between data centers,” in Proc. OECC/ACOFT2014, Melbourne, Australia, 2014, Paper MO1A2.

F. Futami, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, S. Suda, and S. Namiki, “Dynamic routing of Y-00 quantum stream cipher in field-deployed dynamic optical path network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper Tu2G.5.

F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Transmission of Y-00 quantum cipher from transmitter using directly modulated DFB laser for secure access networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Photon. Switching, Ajaccio, France, 2012, Paper Th-S14-O08.

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, and K. Kato, “Y-00 quantum stream cipher for physical layer security of optical communications,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Dublin, Ireland, Sep. 2019, Paper Th.2.E.1.

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “1,000-km transmission of 1.5-Gb/s Y-00 quantum stream cipher using 4096-level intensity modulation signals,” in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., San Jose, CA, USA, 2019, Paper SW3O.4.

F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Masking of 4096-level intensity modulation signals by noises for secure communication employing Y-00 cipher protocol,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper Tu.6.C.4.

Harasawa, K.

K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, K. Yamashita, M. Honda, K. Ohhata, S. Akutsu, T. Hosoi, and Y. Doi, “Quantum encryption communication over a 192-km 2.5-Gbit/s line with optical transceivers employing Yuen-2000 protocol based on intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 361–323, 2011.

K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, and K. Yamashita, “10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 2714–2723, 2010.

Y. Doi, S. Akutsu, M. Honda, K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, S. Kawanishi, O. Kenichi, and K. Yamashitaet, “360 km field transmission of 10 Gbit/s stream cipher by quantum noise for optical network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper OWC4.

Hirooka, T.

Hirota, O.

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part II,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10771, 2018, Art. no. .

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part I,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10409, 2017, Art. no. .

F. Futami, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “A novel transceiver of the Y-00 quantum stream cipher with the randomization technique for optical communication with higher security performance,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9980, 2016, Art. no. .

F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/sec free space optical communication by using Y-00 cipher: toward secure aviation systems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9202, 2014, Art. no. .

K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, K. Yamashita, M. Honda, K. Ohhata, S. Akutsu, T. Hosoi, and Y. Doi, “Quantum encryption communication over a 192-km 2.5-Gbit/s line with optical transceivers employing Yuen-2000 protocol based on intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 361–323, 2011.

K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Randomization techniques for the intensity modulation-based quantum stream cipher and progress of experiment,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8168, 2011, Art. no. .

K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, and K. Yamashita, “10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 2714–2723, 2010.

T. Shimizu, O. Hirota, and Y. Nagasako, “Running key mapping in quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 77, 2008, Art. no. .

O. Hirota, “Practical security analysis of a quantum stream cipher by the Yuen 2000 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 76, no. 3, 2007, Art. no. .

O. Hirota, M. Sohma, M. Fuse, and K. Kato, “Quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol: Design and experiment by intensity modulation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 72, no. 2, 2005, Art. no. .

K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Quantum quadrature amplitude modulation system and its applicability to coherent state quantum cryptography,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5893, 2005, Art. no. .

Y. Doi, S. Akutsu, M. Honda, K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, S. Kawanishi, O. Kenichi, and K. Yamashitaet, “360 km field transmission of 10 Gbit/s stream cipher by quantum noise for optical network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper OWC4.

F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Transmission of Y-00 quantum cipher from transmitter using directly modulated DFB laser for secure access networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Photon. Switching, Ajaccio, France, 2012, Paper Th-S14-O08.

F. Futami and O. Hirota, “100 Gbit/s (10 × 10 Gbit/s) Y-00 cipher transmission over 120 km for secure optical fiber communication between data centers,” in Proc. OECC/ACOFT2014, Melbourne, Australia, 2014, Paper MO1A2.

F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Masking of 4096-level intensity modulation signals by noises for secure communication employing Y-00 cipher protocol,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper Tu.6.C.4.

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “1,000-km transmission of 1.5-Gb/s Y-00 quantum stream cipher using 4096-level intensity modulation signals,” in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., San Jose, CA, USA, 2019, Paper SW3O.4.

Honda, M.

K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, K. Yamashita, M. Honda, K. Ohhata, S. Akutsu, T. Hosoi, and Y. Doi, “Quantum encryption communication over a 192-km 2.5-Gbit/s line with optical transceivers employing Yuen-2000 protocol based on intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 361–323, 2011.

K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, and K. Yamashita, “10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 2714–2723, 2010.

Y. Doi, S. Akutsu, M. Honda, K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, S. Kawanishi, O. Kenichi, and K. Yamashitaet, “360 km field transmission of 10 Gbit/s stream cipher by quantum noise for optical network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper OWC4.

Hosoi, T.

K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, K. Yamashita, M. Honda, K. Ohhata, S. Akutsu, T. Hosoi, and Y. Doi, “Quantum encryption communication over a 192-km 2.5-Gbit/s line with optical transceivers employing Yuen-2000 protocol based on intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 361–323, 2011.

Kanter, G. S.

G. S. Kanter, D. Reilly, and N. Smith, “Practical physical-layer encryption: the marriage of optical noise with traditional cryptography,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 74–81, 2009.

E. Corndorf, C. Liang, G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 71, no. 6, 2005, Art. no. .

Kasai, K.

Kato, K.

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part II,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10771, 2018, Art. no. .

K. Kato, “A unified analysis of optical signal modulation formats for quantum enigma cipher,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10409, 2017, Art. no. .

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part I,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10409, 2017, Art. no. .

K. Kato, “Quantum enigma cipher as a generalization of the quantum stream cipher,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9980, 2016, Art. no. .

F. Futami, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “A novel transceiver of the Y-00 quantum stream cipher with the randomization technique for optical communication with higher security performance,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9980, 2016, Art. no. .

K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Randomization techniques for the intensity modulation-based quantum stream cipher and progress of experiment,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8168, 2011, Art. no. .

O. Hirota, M. Sohma, M. Fuse, and K. Kato, “Quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol: Design and experiment by intensity modulation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 72, no. 2, 2005, Art. no. .

K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Quantum quadrature amplitude modulation system and its applicability to coherent state quantum cryptography,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5893, 2005, Art. no. .

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, and K. Kato, “Y-00 quantum stream cipher for physical layer security of optical communications,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Dublin, Ireland, Sep. 2019, Paper Th.2.E.1.

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “1,000-km transmission of 1.5-Gb/s Y-00 quantum stream cipher using 4096-level intensity modulation signals,” in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., San Jose, CA, USA, 2019, Paper SW3O.4.

F. Futami, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, S. Suda, and S. Namiki, “Dynamic routing of Y-00 quantum stream cipher in field-deployed dynamic optical path network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper Tu2G.5.

Kawanishi, S.

Y. Doi, S. Akutsu, M. Honda, K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, S. Kawanishi, O. Kenichi, and K. Yamashitaet, “360 km field transmission of 10 Gbit/s stream cipher by quantum noise for optical network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper OWC4.

Kenichi, O.

Y. Doi, S. Akutsu, M. Honda, K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, S. Kawanishi, O. Kenichi, and K. Yamashitaet, “360 km field transmission of 10 Gbit/s stream cipher by quantum noise for optical network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper OWC4.

Kumar, P.

E. Corndorf, C. Liang, G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 71, no. 6, 2005, Art. no. .

G. Barbosa, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Secure communication using mesoscopic coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, no. 22, 2003, Art. no. .

Kurosu, T.

F. Futami, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, S. Suda, and S. Namiki, “Dynamic routing of Y-00 quantum stream cipher in field-deployed dynamic optical path network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper Tu2G.5.

Liang, C.

E. Corndorf, C. Liang, G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 71, no. 6, 2005, Art. no. .

Nagasako, Y.

T. Shimizu, O. Hirota, and Y. Nagasako, “Running key mapping in quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 77, 2008, Art. no. .

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, “QAM quantum noise stream cipher transmission over 100 km with continuous variable quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 53, no. 4, 2017, Art. no. .

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, T. Hirooka, and K. Kasai, “QAM quantum stream cipher using digital coherent optical transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 4098–4107, 2014.

Namiki, S.

F. Futami, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, S. Suda, and S. Namiki, “Dynamic routing of Y-00 quantum stream cipher in field-deployed dynamic optical path network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper Tu2G.5.

Ohhata, K.

K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, K. Yamashita, M. Honda, K. Ohhata, S. Akutsu, T. Hosoi, and Y. Doi, “Quantum encryption communication over a 192-km 2.5-Gbit/s line with optical transceivers employing Yuen-2000 protocol based on intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 361–323, 2011.

K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, and K. Yamashita, “10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 2714–2723, 2010.

Reilly, D.

G. S. Kanter, D. Reilly, and N. Smith, “Practical physical-layer encryption: the marriage of optical noise with traditional cryptography,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 74–81, 2009.

Scire, A.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and A. Scire, “Synchronization of chaotic injected-laser systems and its application to optical cryptography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 953–959, 1996.

Shake, T. H.

T. H. Shake, “Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 665–670, 2005.

Shimizu, T.

T. Shimizu, O. Hirota, and Y. Nagasako, “Running key mapping in quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 77, 2008, Art. no. .

Smith, N.

G. S. Kanter, D. Reilly, and N. Smith, “Practical physical-layer encryption: the marriage of optical noise with traditional cryptography,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 74–81, 2009.

Sohma, M.

O. Hirota, M. Sohma, M. Fuse, and K. Kato, “Quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol: Design and experiment by intensity modulation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 72, no. 2, 2005, Art. no. .

Suda, S.

F. Futami, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, S. Suda, and S. Namiki, “Dynamic routing of Y-00 quantum stream cipher in field-deployed dynamic optical path network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper Tu2G.5.

Tanizawa, K.

K. Tanizawa and F. Futami, “Digital coherent PSK Y-00 quantum stream cipher with 217 randomized phase levels,” Opt. Express vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 1071–1079, 2019.

K. Tanizawa and F. Futami, “Single channel 48-Gbit/s DP-PSK Y-00 quantum stream cipher transmission over 400- and 800-km SSMF,” Opt. Express vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 25357–25363, 2019.

K. Tanizawa and F. Futami, “214 intensity-level 10-Gbaud Y-00 quantum stream cipher enabled by coarse-to-fine modulation,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 30, no. 22, pp. 1987–1990, 2018.

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part II,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10771, 2018, Art. no. .

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part I,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10409, 2017, Art. no. .

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “1,000-km transmission of 1.5-Gb/s Y-00 quantum stream cipher using 4096-level intensity modulation signals,” in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., San Jose, CA, USA, 2019, Paper SW3O.4.

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, and K. Kato, “Y-00 quantum stream cipher for physical layer security of optical communications,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Dublin, Ireland, Sep. 2019, Paper Th.2.E.1.

F. Futami, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, S. Suda, and S. Namiki, “Dynamic routing of Y-00 quantum stream cipher in field-deployed dynamic optical path network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper Tu2G.5.

Yamashita, K.

K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, K. Yamashita, M. Honda, K. Ohhata, S. Akutsu, T. Hosoi, and Y. Doi, “Quantum encryption communication over a 192-km 2.5-Gbit/s line with optical transceivers employing Yuen-2000 protocol based on intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 361–323, 2011.

K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, and K. Yamashita, “10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 2714–2723, 2010.

Yamashitaet, K.

Y. Doi, S. Akutsu, M. Honda, K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, S. Kawanishi, O. Kenichi, and K. Yamashitaet, “360 km field transmission of 10 Gbit/s stream cipher by quantum noise for optical network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper OWC4.

Yoshida, M.

Yuen, H. P.

E. Corndorf, C. Liang, G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 71, no. 6, 2005, Art. no. .

G. Barbosa, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Secure communication using mesoscopic coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, no. 22, 2003, Art. no. .

H. P. Yuen, “KCQ: A new approach to quantum cryptography I. General principles and key generation,” 2003. [Online]. Available: https://arXiv:quant-ph/0311061v6

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

G. S. Kanter, D. Reilly, and N. Smith, “Practical physical-layer encryption: the marriage of optical noise with traditional cryptography,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 74–81, 2009.

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

T. H. Shake, “Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 665–670, 2005.

K. Ohhata, O. Hirota, M. Honda, S. Akutsu, Y. Doi, K. Harasawa, and K. Yamashita, “10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 encryption protocol,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 2714–2723, 2010.

K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, K. Yamashita, M. Honda, K. Ohhata, S. Akutsu, T. Hosoi, and Y. Doi, “Quantum encryption communication over a 192-km 2.5-Gbit/s line with optical transceivers employing Yuen-2000 protocol based on intensity modulation,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 361–323, 2011.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, and A. Scire, “Synchronization of chaotic injected-laser systems and its application to optical cryptography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 953–959, 1996.

M. Nakazawa, “QAM quantum noise stream cipher transmission over 100 km with continuous variable quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 53, no. 4, 2017, Art. no. .

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

K. Tanizawa and F. Futami, “214 intensity-level 10-Gbaud Y-00 quantum stream cipher enabled by coarse-to-fine modulation,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 30, no. 22, pp. 1987–1990, 2018.

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

E. Corndorf, C. Liang, G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 71, no. 6, 2005, Art. no. .

O. Hirota, M. Sohma, M. Fuse, and K. Kato, “Quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol: Design and experiment by intensity modulation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 72, no. 2, 2005, Art. no. .

O. Hirota, “Practical security analysis of a quantum stream cipher by the Yuen 2000 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 76, no. 3, 2007, Art. no. .

T. Shimizu, O. Hirota, and Y. Nagasako, “Running key mapping in quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 77, 2008, Art. no. .

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Barbosa, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and H. P. Yuen, “Secure communication using mesoscopic coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, no. 22, 2003, Art. no. .

Proc. SPIE (7)

F. Futami, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “A novel transceiver of the Y-00 quantum stream cipher with the randomization technique for optical communication with higher security performance,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9980, 2016, Art. no. .

K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Quantum quadrature amplitude modulation system and its applicability to coherent state quantum cryptography,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5893, 2005, Art. no. .

K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Randomization techniques for the intensity modulation-based quantum stream cipher and progress of experiment,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8168, 2011, Art. no. .

K. Kato, “Quantum enigma cipher as a generalization of the quantum stream cipher,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9980, 2016, Art. no. .

K. Kato, “A unified analysis of optical signal modulation formats for quantum enigma cipher,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10409, 2017, Art. no. .

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part I,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10409, 2017, Art. no. .

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “Experimental investigation of security parameters of Y-00 quantum stream cipher transceiver with randomization technique: Part II,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 10771, 2018, Art. no. .

Proc. SPIE, (1)

F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/sec free space optical communication by using Y-00 cipher: toward secure aviation systems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9202, 2014, Art. no. .

Quantum Inform. Process. (1)

F. Futami, “Experimental demonstrations of Y-00 cipher for high capacity and secure optical fiber communications,” Quantum Inform. Process., vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 2277–2291, 2014.

Other (9)

F. Futami and O. Hirota, “100 Gbit/s (10 × 10 Gbit/s) Y-00 cipher transmission over 120 km for secure optical fiber communication between data centers,” in Proc. OECC/ACOFT2014, Melbourne, Australia, 2014, Paper MO1A2.

F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Transmission of Y-00 quantum cipher from transmitter using directly modulated DFB laser for secure access networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Photon. Switching, Ajaccio, France, 2012, Paper Th-S14-O08.

Y. Doi, S. Akutsu, M. Honda, K. Harasawa, O. Hirota, S. Kawanishi, O. Kenichi, and K. Yamashitaet, “360 km field transmission of 10 Gbit/s stream cipher by quantum noise for optical network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper OWC4.

C. H. Bennett, and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput., Syst. Signal Process., 1984, pp. 175–179.

H. P. Yuen, “KCQ: A new approach to quantum cryptography I. General principles and key generation,” 2003. [Online]. Available: https://arXiv:quant-ph/0311061v6

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, and K. Kato, “Y-00 quantum stream cipher for physical layer security of optical communications,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Dublin, Ireland, Sep. 2019, Paper Th.2.E.1.

F. Futami, T. Kurosu, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, S. Suda, and S. Namiki, “Dynamic routing of Y-00 quantum stream cipher in field-deployed dynamic optical path network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, Paper Tu2G.5.

F. Futami, K. Tanizawa, K. Kato, and O. Hirota, “1,000-km transmission of 1.5-Gb/s Y-00 quantum stream cipher using 4096-level intensity modulation signals,” in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., San Jose, CA, USA, 2019, Paper SW3O.4.

F. Futami, and O. Hirota, “Masking of 4096-level intensity modulation signals by noises for secure communication employing Y-00 cipher protocol,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper Tu.6.C.4.

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