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Optica Publishing Group
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology
  • Vol. 39,
  • Issue 6,
  • pp. 1800-1807
  • (2021)

Forward Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Analysis of Optical Fibers Coatings

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

The proper function of protective coating layers is essential for the handling and application of brittle optical fibers. The elastic parameters of polymer coatings can be studied through off-line analysis of test samples. However, the monitoring of these properties on a working fiber during service is challenging. In this work, we use forward stimulated Brillouin scattering processes in standard single mode fibers to measure the acoustic velocity in several types of coating layers. Pump light launches short acoustic pulses outward from the core of the fiber. Multiple reflections at the boundaries between cladding and coating, and between coating and air, form a series of delayed acoustic echoes across the core. These echoes are monitored, in turn, by photo-elastic phase modulation of probe light. Data are collected at temperatures between 25–120 °C. The thermal dependence of the acoustic velocities in several coatings and of the F-SBS resonance frequencies is investigated. Observations are corroborated by calculations. The proposed technique is well suited for research and development of coating materials, production line quality control, reliability studies and preventive maintenance of working fibers.

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  30. A. H. Nayfeh and P. B. Nagy, “General study of axisymmetric waves in layered anisotropic fibers and their composites,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 931–994, 1996.
  31. H. J. McSkimin, “Measurement of ultrasonic wave velocities and elastic moduli for small solid specimens at high temperatures,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 287–295, 1959.
  32. H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, “Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 428–436, 1988.

2020 (2)

H. H. Diamandi, “Opto-mechanical interactions in multi-core optical fibers and their applications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1–13, 2020. Art. no. .

C. Pang, “Opto-mechanical time-domain analysis based on coherent forward stimulated brillouin scattering probing,” Optica, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 176–184, 2020.

2019 (1)

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, and A. Zadok, “Distributed opto-mechanical analysis of liquids outside standard fibers coated with polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. – Photon., vol. 4, no. 1, 2019. Art. no. .

2018 (4)

D. M. Chow and L. Thévenaz, “Forward brillouin scattering acoustic impedance sensor using thin polyimide-coated fiber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 43, no. 21, pp. 5467–5470, 2018.

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Highly-coherent stimulated phonon oscillations in a multi-core optical fibers,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, 2018. Art. no. .

G. Bashan, H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, E. Preter, and A. Zadok, “Optomechanical time-domain reflectometry,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

D. Chow, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed forward brillouin sensor based on local light phase recovery,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

2017 (2)

2016 (3)

E. A. Kittlaus, H. Shin, and P. T. Rakich, “Large brillouin amplification in silicon,” Nat. Photon., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 463–467, 2016.

Y. Antman, A. Clain, Y. London, and A. Zadok, “Optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers using forward stimulated brillouin scattering,” Optica, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 510–516, 2016.

M. Pang, W. He, X. Jiang, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-optical bit storage in a fibre-laser by optomechanically bound states of solitons,” Nat. Photon., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 454–458, 2016.

2015 (1)

R. Van Laer, B. Kuyken, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 199–203, 2015.

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, and P. St. J. Russell, “Tightly trapped acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fibers as highly nonlinear artificial raman oscillators,” Nat. Phys., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 276–280, 2009.

2006 (1)

P. Dainese, “Stimulated brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 388–392, 2006.

2002 (2)

A. S. Biryukov, M. E. Sukharev, and E. M. Dianov, “Excitation of sound waves upon propagation of laser pulses in optical fibers,” J. Quant. Elect., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 765–775, 2002.

P. Kronenberg, P. K. Rastogi, P. Giaccari, and H. G. Limberger, “Relative humidity sensor with optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 1385–1387, 2002.

1999 (1)

E. Peral and A. Yariv, “Degradation of modulation and noise characteristics of semiconductor lasers after propagation in optical fiber due to a phase shift induced by stimulated brillouin scattering,” IEEE J. Quant. Elect., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1185–1195, 1999.

1997 (2)

R. Logan, A. A. Maznev, K. A. Nelson, and J. Megusar, “Photothermal/photoacoustic method for in situ evaluation of radiation-hardened polyimide films,” J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 246, no. 2-3, pp. 256–259, 1997.

J. Megusar, “Low temperature fast-neutron and gamma irradiation of kapton polyimide films,” J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 245, no. 2–3, pp. 185–190, 1997.

1996 (1)

A. H. Nayfeh and P. B. Nagy, “General study of axisymmetric waves in layered anisotropic fibers and their composites,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 931–994, 1996.

1995 (1)

P. B. Nagy, “Longitudinal guided wave propagation in a transversely isotropic rod immersed in fluid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 454–457, 1995.

1994 (1)

J. C. Coburn, M. T. Pottiger, S. C. Noe, and S. D. Senturia, “Stress in polyimide coatings,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1271–1283, 1994.

1990 (1)

P. St. J. Russell, D. Culverhouse, and F. Farahi, “Experimental observation of forward stimulated brillouin scattering in dual-mode single-core fibre,” Elect. Lett., vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 1195–1196, 1990.

1988 (1)

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, “Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 428–436, 1988.

1986 (1)

S. I. Numata, S. Oohara, K. Fujisaki, J. I. Imaizumi, and N. Kinjo, “Thermal expansion behavior of various aromatic polyimides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 101–110, 1986.

1985 (1)

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5244–5252, 1985.

1959 (1)

H. J. McSkimin, “Measurement of ultrasonic wave velocities and elastic moduli for small solid specimens at high temperatures,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 287–295, 1959.

Antman, Y.

Baets, R.

R. Van Laer, B. Kuyken, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 199–203, 2015.

Bashan, G.

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, and A. Zadok, “Distributed opto-mechanical analysis of liquids outside standard fibers coated with polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. – Photon., vol. 4, no. 1, 2019. Art. no. .

G. Bashan, H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, E. Preter, and A. Zadok, “Optomechanical time-domain reflectometry,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Highly-coherent stimulated phonon oscillations in a multi-core optical fibers,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, 2018. Art. no. .

Bayer, P. W.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5244–5252, 1985.

Bergman, A.

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Highly-coherent stimulated phonon oscillations in a multi-core optical fibers,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, 2018. Art. no. .

Biryukov, A. S.

A. S. Biryukov, M. E. Sukharev, and E. M. Dianov, “Excitation of sound waves upon propagation of laser pulses in optical fibers,” J. Quant. Elect., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 765–775, 2002.

Blake, J. N.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, “Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 428–436, 1988.

Brenn, A.

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, and P. St. J. Russell, “Tightly trapped acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fibers as highly nonlinear artificial raman oscillators,” Nat. Phys., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 276–280, 2009.

Chow, D.

D. Chow, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed forward brillouin sensor based on local light phase recovery,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

D. Chow, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Frequency-domain technique to measure the inertial response of forward stimulated brillouin scattering for acoustic impedance sensing,” in Proc. 25th Int. Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf., 2017, pp. 1–4.

Chow, D. M.

Clain, A.

Coburn, J. C.

J. C. Coburn, M. T. Pottiger, S. C. Noe, and S. D. Senturia, “Stress in polyimide coatings,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1271–1283, 1994.

Culverhouse, D.

P. St. J. Russell, D. Culverhouse, and F. Farahi, “Experimental observation of forward stimulated brillouin scattering in dual-mode single-core fibre,” Elect. Lett., vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 1195–1196, 1990.

Dainese, P.

P. Dainese, “Stimulated brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 388–392, 2006.

Diamandi, H. H.

H. H. Diamandi, “Opto-mechanical interactions in multi-core optical fibers and their applications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1–13, 2020. Art. no. .

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, and A. Zadok, “Distributed opto-mechanical analysis of liquids outside standard fibers coated with polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. – Photon., vol. 4, no. 1, 2019. Art. no. .

G. Bashan, H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, E. Preter, and A. Zadok, “Optomechanical time-domain reflectometry,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Highly-coherent stimulated phonon oscillations in a multi-core optical fibers,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, 2018. Art. no. .

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, and A. Zadok, “Opto-mechanical inter-core cross-talk in multi-core fibers,” Optica, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 289–297, 2017.

Dianov, E. M.

A. S. Biryukov, M. E. Sukharev, and E. M. Dianov, “Excitation of sound waves upon propagation of laser pulses in optical fibers,” J. Quant. Elect., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 765–775, 2002.

Engan, H. E.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, “Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 428–436, 1988.

Farahi, F.

P. St. J. Russell, D. Culverhouse, and F. Farahi, “Experimental observation of forward stimulated brillouin scattering in dual-mode single-core fibre,” Elect. Lett., vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 1195–1196, 1990.

Fujisaki, K.

S. I. Numata, S. Oohara, K. Fujisaki, J. I. Imaizumi, and N. Kinjo, “Thermal expansion behavior of various aromatic polyimides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 101–110, 1986.

Gauthier, D. J.

Giaccari, P.

Hayashi, N.

N. Hayashi, Y. Mizuno, K. Nakamura, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Experimental study on depolarized GAWBS spectrum for optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 2239–2244, 2017.

N. Hayashi, Y. Mizuno, K. Nakamura, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Characterization of depolarized GAWBS for optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers,” in Proc. 25th Opt. Fibre Sensors Conf., 2017, pp. 1–4.

He, W.

M. Pang, W. He, X. Jiang, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-optical bit storage in a fibre-laser by optomechanically bound states of solitons,” Nat. Photon., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 454–458, 2016.

Imaizumi, J. I.

S. I. Numata, S. Oohara, K. Fujisaki, J. I. Imaizumi, and N. Kinjo, “Thermal expansion behavior of various aromatic polyimides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 101–110, 1986.

Jiang, X.

M. Pang, W. He, X. Jiang, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-optical bit storage in a fibre-laser by optomechanically bound states of solitons,” Nat. Photon., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 454–458, 2016.

Kang, M. S.

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, and P. St. J. Russell, “Tightly trapped acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fibers as highly nonlinear artificial raman oscillators,” Nat. Phys., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 276–280, 2009.

Kim, B. Y.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, “Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 428–436, 1988.

Kinjo, N.

S. I. Numata, S. Oohara, K. Fujisaki, J. I. Imaizumi, and N. Kinjo, “Thermal expansion behavior of various aromatic polyimides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 101–110, 1986.

Kittlaus, E. A.

E. A. Kittlaus, H. Shin, and P. T. Rakich, “Large brillouin amplification in silicon,” Nat. Photon., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 463–467, 2016.

Kronenberg, P.

Kuyken, B.

R. Van Laer, B. Kuyken, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 199–203, 2015.

Levenson, M. D.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5244–5252, 1985.

Limberger, H. G.

Logan, R.

R. Logan, A. A. Maznev, K. A. Nelson, and J. Megusar, “Photothermal/photoacoustic method for in situ evaluation of radiation-hardened polyimide films,” J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 246, no. 2-3, pp. 256–259, 1997.

London, Y.

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, and A. Zadok, “Distributed opto-mechanical analysis of liquids outside standard fibers coated with polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. – Photon., vol. 4, no. 1, 2019. Art. no. .

G. Bashan, H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, E. Preter, and A. Zadok, “Optomechanical time-domain reflectometry,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Highly-coherent stimulated phonon oscillations in a multi-core optical fibers,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, 2018. Art. no. .

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, and A. Zadok, “Opto-mechanical inter-core cross-talk in multi-core fibers,” Optica, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 289–297, 2017.

Y. Antman, A. Clain, Y. London, and A. Zadok, “Optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers using forward stimulated brillouin scattering,” Optica, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 510–516, 2016.

Maznev, A. A.

R. Logan, A. A. Maznev, K. A. Nelson, and J. Megusar, “Photothermal/photoacoustic method for in situ evaluation of radiation-hardened polyimide films,” J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 246, no. 2-3, pp. 256–259, 1997.

McSkimin, H. J.

H. J. McSkimin, “Measurement of ultrasonic wave velocities and elastic moduli for small solid specimens at high temperatures,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 287–295, 1959.

Megusar, J.

R. Logan, A. A. Maznev, K. A. Nelson, and J. Megusar, “Photothermal/photoacoustic method for in situ evaluation of radiation-hardened polyimide films,” J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 246, no. 2-3, pp. 256–259, 1997.

J. Megusar, “Low temperature fast-neutron and gamma irradiation of kapton polyimide films,” J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 245, no. 2–3, pp. 185–190, 1997.

Mizuno, Y.

N. Hayashi, Y. Mizuno, K. Nakamura, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Experimental study on depolarized GAWBS spectrum for optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 2239–2244, 2017.

N. Hayashi, Y. Mizuno, K. Nakamura, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Characterization of depolarized GAWBS for optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers,” in Proc. 25th Opt. Fibre Sensors Conf., 2017, pp. 1–4.

Nagy, P. B.

A. H. Nayfeh and P. B. Nagy, “General study of axisymmetric waves in layered anisotropic fibers and their composites,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 931–994, 1996.

P. B. Nagy, “Longitudinal guided wave propagation in a transversely isotropic rod immersed in fluid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 454–457, 1995.

Nakamura, K.

N. Hayashi, Y. Mizuno, K. Nakamura, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Experimental study on depolarized GAWBS spectrum for optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 2239–2244, 2017.

N. Hayashi, Y. Mizuno, K. Nakamura, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Characterization of depolarized GAWBS for optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers,” in Proc. 25th Opt. Fibre Sensors Conf., 2017, pp. 1–4.

Nayfeh, A. H.

A. H. Nayfeh and P. B. Nagy, “General study of axisymmetric waves in layered anisotropic fibers and their composites,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 931–994, 1996.

Nazarkin, A.

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, and P. St. J. Russell, “Tightly trapped acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fibers as highly nonlinear artificial raman oscillators,” Nat. Phys., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 276–280, 2009.

Nelson, K. A.

R. Logan, A. A. Maznev, K. A. Nelson, and J. Megusar, “Photothermal/photoacoustic method for in situ evaluation of radiation-hardened polyimide films,” J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 246, no. 2-3, pp. 256–259, 1997.

Noe, S. C.

J. C. Coburn, M. T. Pottiger, S. C. Noe, and S. D. Senturia, “Stress in polyimide coatings,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1271–1283, 1994.

Numata, S. I.

S. I. Numata, S. Oohara, K. Fujisaki, J. I. Imaizumi, and N. Kinjo, “Thermal expansion behavior of various aromatic polyimides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 101–110, 1986.

Oohara, S.

S. I. Numata, S. Oohara, K. Fujisaki, J. I. Imaizumi, and N. Kinjo, “Thermal expansion behavior of various aromatic polyimides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 101–110, 1986.

Pang, C.

Pang, M.

M. Pang, W. He, X. Jiang, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-optical bit storage in a fibre-laser by optomechanically bound states of solitons,” Nat. Photon., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 454–458, 2016.

Peral, E.

E. Peral and A. Yariv, “Degradation of modulation and noise characteristics of semiconductor lasers after propagation in optical fiber due to a phase shift induced by stimulated brillouin scattering,” IEEE J. Quant. Elect., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1185–1195, 1999.

Pottiger, M. T.

J. C. Coburn, M. T. Pottiger, S. C. Noe, and S. D. Senturia, “Stress in polyimide coatings,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1271–1283, 1994.

Preter, E.

G. Bashan, H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, E. Preter, and A. Zadok, “Optomechanical time-domain reflectometry,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

Rakich, P. T.

E. A. Kittlaus, H. Shin, and P. T. Rakich, “Large brillouin amplification in silicon,” Nat. Photon., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 463–467, 2016.

Rastogi, P. K.

Senturia, S. D.

J. C. Coburn, M. T. Pottiger, S. C. Noe, and S. D. Senturia, “Stress in polyimide coatings,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1271–1283, 1994.

Set, S. Y.

N. Hayashi, Y. Mizuno, K. Nakamura, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Experimental study on depolarized GAWBS spectrum for optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 2239–2244, 2017.

N. Hayashi, Y. Mizuno, K. Nakamura, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Characterization of depolarized GAWBS for optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers,” in Proc. 25th Opt. Fibre Sensors Conf., 2017, pp. 1–4.

Shaw, H. J.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, “Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 428–436, 1988.

Shelby, R. M.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5244–5252, 1985.

Shin, H.

E. A. Kittlaus, H. Shin, and P. T. Rakich, “Large brillouin amplification in silicon,” Nat. Photon., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 463–467, 2016.

Soto, M. A.

D. Chow, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed forward brillouin sensor based on local light phase recovery,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

D. Chow, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Frequency-domain technique to measure the inertial response of forward stimulated brillouin scattering for acoustic impedance sensing,” in Proc. 25th Int. Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf., 2017, pp. 1–4.

St. J. Russell, P.

M. Pang, W. He, X. Jiang, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-optical bit storage in a fibre-laser by optomechanically bound states of solitons,” Nat. Photon., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 454–458, 2016.

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, and P. St. J. Russell, “Tightly trapped acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fibers as highly nonlinear artificial raman oscillators,” Nat. Phys., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 276–280, 2009.

P. St. J. Russell, D. Culverhouse, and F. Farahi, “Experimental observation of forward stimulated brillouin scattering in dual-mode single-core fibre,” Elect. Lett., vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 1195–1196, 1990.

Sukharev, M. E.

A. S. Biryukov, M. E. Sukharev, and E. M. Dianov, “Excitation of sound waves upon propagation of laser pulses in optical fibers,” J. Quant. Elect., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 765–775, 2002.

Thévenaz, L.

D. Chow, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed forward brillouin sensor based on local light phase recovery,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

D. M. Chow and L. Thévenaz, “Forward brillouin scattering acoustic impedance sensor using thin polyimide-coated fiber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 43, no. 21, pp. 5467–5470, 2018.

S. Zaslawski, Z. Yang, S. Wang, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed forward stimulated brillouin scattering measurement using broadband BOTDR,” in Proc. 7th Eur. Workshop Opt. Fibre Sensors, vol. 11199, 2019, Art. no. .

D. Chow, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Frequency-domain technique to measure the inertial response of forward stimulated brillouin scattering for acoustic impedance sensing,” in Proc. 25th Int. Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf., 2017, pp. 1–4.

Van Laer, R.

R. Van Laer, B. Kuyken, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 199–203, 2015.

van Thourhout, D.

R. Van Laer, B. Kuyken, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 199–203, 2015.

Wang, J.

Wang, S.

S. Zaslawski, Z. Yang, S. Wang, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed forward stimulated brillouin scattering measurement using broadband BOTDR,” in Proc. 7th Eur. Workshop Opt. Fibre Sensors, vol. 11199, 2019, Art. no. .

Yamashita, S.

N. Hayashi, Y. Mizuno, K. Nakamura, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Experimental study on depolarized GAWBS spectrum for optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 2239–2244, 2017.

N. Hayashi, Y. Mizuno, K. Nakamura, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Characterization of depolarized GAWBS for optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers,” in Proc. 25th Opt. Fibre Sensors Conf., 2017, pp. 1–4.

Yang, Z.

D. Chow, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed forward brillouin sensor based on local light phase recovery,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

S. Zaslawski, Z. Yang, S. Wang, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed forward stimulated brillouin scattering measurement using broadband BOTDR,” in Proc. 7th Eur. Workshop Opt. Fibre Sensors, vol. 11199, 2019, Art. no. .

Yariv, A.

E. Peral and A. Yariv, “Degradation of modulation and noise characteristics of semiconductor lasers after propagation in optical fiber due to a phase shift induced by stimulated brillouin scattering,” IEEE J. Quant. Elect., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1185–1195, 1999.

Zadok, A.

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, and A. Zadok, “Distributed opto-mechanical analysis of liquids outside standard fibers coated with polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. – Photon., vol. 4, no. 1, 2019. Art. no. .

G. Bashan, H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, E. Preter, and A. Zadok, “Optomechanical time-domain reflectometry,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Highly-coherent stimulated phonon oscillations in a multi-core optical fibers,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, 2018. Art. no. .

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, and A. Zadok, “Opto-mechanical inter-core cross-talk in multi-core fibers,” Optica, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 289–297, 2017.

Y. Antman, A. Clain, Y. London, and A. Zadok, “Optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers using forward stimulated brillouin scattering,” Optica, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 510–516, 2016.

Zaslawski, S.

S. Zaslawski, Z. Yang, S. Wang, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed forward stimulated brillouin scattering measurement using broadband BOTDR,” in Proc. 7th Eur. Workshop Opt. Fibre Sensors, vol. 11199, 2019, Art. no. .

Zhang, R.

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. – Photon. (1)

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, and A. Zadok, “Distributed opto-mechanical analysis of liquids outside standard fibers coated with polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. – Photon., vol. 4, no. 1, 2019. Art. no. .

Elect. Lett. (1)

P. St. J. Russell, D. Culverhouse, and F. Farahi, “Experimental observation of forward stimulated brillouin scattering in dual-mode single-core fibre,” Elect. Lett., vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 1195–1196, 1990.

IEEE J. Quant. Elect. (1)

E. Peral and A. Yariv, “Degradation of modulation and noise characteristics of semiconductor lasers after propagation in optical fiber due to a phase shift induced by stimulated brillouin scattering,” IEEE J. Quant. Elect., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1185–1195, 1999.

J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. (3)

P. B. Nagy, “Longitudinal guided wave propagation in a transversely isotropic rod immersed in fluid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 454–457, 1995.

A. H. Nayfeh and P. B. Nagy, “General study of axisymmetric waves in layered anisotropic fibers and their composites,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 931–994, 1996.

H. J. McSkimin, “Measurement of ultrasonic wave velocities and elastic moduli for small solid specimens at high temperatures,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 287–295, 1959.

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

S. I. Numata, S. Oohara, K. Fujisaki, J. I. Imaizumi, and N. Kinjo, “Thermal expansion behavior of various aromatic polyimides,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 101–110, 1986.

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, “Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 428–436, 1988.

J. Nucl. Mater. (2)

R. Logan, A. A. Maznev, K. A. Nelson, and J. Megusar, “Photothermal/photoacoustic method for in situ evaluation of radiation-hardened polyimide films,” J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 246, no. 2-3, pp. 256–259, 1997.

J. Megusar, “Low temperature fast-neutron and gamma irradiation of kapton polyimide films,” J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 245, no. 2–3, pp. 185–190, 1997.

J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. (1)

J. C. Coburn, M. T. Pottiger, S. C. Noe, and S. D. Senturia, “Stress in polyimide coatings,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1271–1283, 1994.

J. Quant. Elect. (1)

A. S. Biryukov, M. E. Sukharev, and E. M. Dianov, “Excitation of sound waves upon propagation of laser pulses in optical fibers,” J. Quant. Elect., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 765–775, 2002.

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. H. Diamandi, “Opto-mechanical interactions in multi-core optical fibers and their applications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1–13, 2020. Art. no. .

Nat. Commun. (2)

G. Bashan, H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, E. Preter, and A. Zadok, “Optomechanical time-domain reflectometry,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

D. Chow, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed forward brillouin sensor based on local light phase recovery,” Nat. Commun., vol. 9, 2018. Art. no. .

Nat. Photon. (3)

M. Pang, W. He, X. Jiang, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-optical bit storage in a fibre-laser by optomechanically bound states of solitons,” Nat. Photon., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 454–458, 2016.

R. Van Laer, B. Kuyken, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interaction between light and highly confined hypersound in a silicon photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 199–203, 2015.

E. A. Kittlaus, H. Shin, and P. T. Rakich, “Large brillouin amplification in silicon,” Nat. Photon., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 463–467, 2016.

Nat. Phys. (2)

P. Dainese, “Stimulated brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 388–392, 2006.

M. S. Kang, A. Nazarkin, A. Brenn, and P. St. J. Russell, “Tightly trapped acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fibers as highly nonlinear artificial raman oscillators,” Nat. Phys., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 276–280, 2009.

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5244–5252, 1985.

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. H. Diamandi, Y. London, G. Bashan, A. Bergman, and A. Zadok, “Highly-coherent stimulated phonon oscillations in a multi-core optical fibers,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, 2018. Art. no. .

Other (3)

D. Chow, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Frequency-domain technique to measure the inertial response of forward stimulated brillouin scattering for acoustic impedance sensing,” in Proc. 25th Int. Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf., 2017, pp. 1–4.

N. Hayashi, Y. Mizuno, K. Nakamura, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Characterization of depolarized GAWBS for optomechanical sensing of liquids outside standard fibers,” in Proc. 25th Opt. Fibre Sensors Conf., 2017, pp. 1–4.

S. Zaslawski, Z. Yang, S. Wang, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed forward stimulated brillouin scattering measurement using broadband BOTDR,” in Proc. 7th Eur. Workshop Opt. Fibre Sensors, vol. 11199, 2019, Art. no. .

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