Expand this Topic clickable element to expand a topic
Skip to content
Optica Publishing Group
  • Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Vol. 27,
  • Issue 5,
  • pp. 345-353
  • (2019)

Classification of amino resins and formaldehyde near infrared spectra using K-nearest neighbors

Not Accessible

Your library or personal account may give you access


Amino resins are synthetic adhesives that can be divided into three major types: urea–formaldehyde (UF), melamine–urea–formaldehyde (MUF), or melamine–formaldehyde (MF). When less than 5% of melamine is added to a UF resin, the resin is called a melamine-fortified UF (mUF) resin. The extensive application of these resins in wood-based products is due to their many advantages: ease of use, strong bonding, resistance to wear and abrasion, heat resistance, and relatively low price. Several near infrared (NIR) models have been developed for this type of adhesives and have been used in industrial plants. However, the NIR spectroscopy is sensitive to the type of resin (UF, MUF, MF, or mUF) and even to the synthesis process, therefore different NIR models must be constructed per resin basis. This work presents two methods: (a) a method to distinguish the NIR spectra of formaldehyde from the NIR spectra of amino resins, and (b) a method to classify the NIR spectra of amino resins by class of resin. The method for the separation of formaldehyde from amino resins achieved 100% correct classification for the dataset used. This method was based on defining a baseline cutoff for the NIR spectra at which there were no amino resins bonds overlapping formaldehyde bonds. For the classification of amino resins, this work used the methodology of K-nearest neighbors, up to 91 neighbors, and principal component analysis, up to 10 principal components. The best classification method obtained an accuracy of 96.1% and can be used industrially to automatically select the most suitable NIR model for amino resins, helping to reduce the time taken for an NIR analysis and automatically preventing the wrong selection of NIR models by an operator.

© 2019 The Author(s)

PDF Article

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an Optica member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
Login to access Optica Member Subscription

Select as filters

Select Topics Cancel
© Copyright 2023 | Optica Publishing Group. All Rights Reserved