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First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy

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Abstract

Photoionization and Rydberg spectra of ten lanthanides have been studied using stepwise laser excitation and ionization methods. These spectra were obtained from several different laser populated excited states in each case. Accurate ionization limits were derived from observed photoionization thresholds. Except for praseodymium, the observation of one or more long Rydberg progressions allowed more accurate limits to be determined. The Rydberg convergence values in eV are: Ce, 5.5387(4); Nd, 5.5250(6); Sm, 5.6437(6); Eu, 5.6704(3); Gd, 6.1502(6); Tb, 5.8639(6); Dy, 5.9390(6); Ho, 6.0216(6), and Er 6.1077(10). For praseodymium a threshold value of 5.464(+12-2) was obtained. When plotted against N, the lanthanide ionization limits normalized to correspond to ionization from the lowest level of fNs2 to the lowest level of fNs form two straight lines connected at the half-filled shell.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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