Two-dimensional image moments with respect to Zernike polynomials are defined, and it is shown how to construct an arbitrarily large number of independent, algebraic combinations of Zernike moments that are invariant to image translation, orientation, and size. This approach is contrasted with the usual method of moments. The general problem of two-dimensional pattern recognition and three-dimensional object recognition is discussed within this framework. A unique reconstruction of an image in either real space or Fourier space is given in terms of a finite number of moments. Examples of applications of the method are given. A coding scheme for image storage and retrieval is discussed.
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