Carriers of red–green color-vision deficiencies are generally thought to behave like normal trichromats, although it is known that they may make errors on Ishihara plates. The aim here was to compare the performance of carriers with that of normal females on seven standard color-vision tests, including Ishihara plates. One hundred and twenty-six normal females, 14 protan carriers, and 29 deutan carriers aged 9–66 years were included in the study. Generally, deutan carriers performed worse than protan carriers and normal females on six out of the seven tests. The difference in performance between carriers and normal females was independent of age, but the proportion of carriers that made errors on pseudo-isochromatic tests increased with age. It was the youngest carriers, however, who made the most errors. There was considerable variation in performance among individuals in each group of females. The results are discussed in relation to variability in the number of different L-cone pigments.
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