Abstract

In this work, the diffraction-based discrimination of two-dimensional (2D) orthogonal separable and nonseparable periodic structures and prediction of the reduced Talbot distances for 2D orthogonal nonseparable periodic structures are presented. 2D orthogonal periodic structures are defined and classified into separable (multiplicative or additive) and nonseparable categories with the aid of a spatial spectrum lattice. For both the separable and nonseparable cases, the spatial spectra or far-field impulses are 2D orthogonal lattices. We prove that for a 2D orthogonal separable structure, in addition to the DC impulse, there are other impulses on the coordinate axes. As a result, if all the spectrum impulses of a structure on the coordinate axes, except for the DC impulse, vanish, we conclude that the structure is nonseparable. In the second part of this work, using a unified formulation, the near-field diffraction of the 2D orthogonal separable and nonseparable periodic structures is investigated. In general, the Talbot distance equals the least common multiple of the individual Talbot distances in the orthogonal directions, say, zt=zlcm. For the 2D orthogonal nonseparable periodic structures having Fourier coefficients only with odd indices, we have found surprising results. It is shown that for this kind of structure, the Talbot distance strongly depends on the number theoretic properties of the structure. Depending on the ratio of the structure’s periods in the orthogonal directions, pxpy, the Talbot distance reduces to zlcm2, zlcm4, or zlcm8. In addition, for the 2D orthogonal nonseparable sinusoidal grating, we show that, regardless of the value of pxpy, self-images are formed at distances smaller than the conventional Talbot distances attributed to px and py that we name the reduced Talbot (RT) distances. Halfway between two adjacent RT distances, the formation of negative self-images with a complementary amplitude of the self-images is predicted. Halfway between two adjacent self-image and negative-elf-image, subimages are formed. As another interesting result, we show that the intensity patterns of the subimages are 2D multiplicatively separable with halved periods in both directions. Finally, we show that 2D almost periodic structures with impulses on zone-plate-like concentric circles have self-images under plane wave illumination.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
Visualization 1       Diffraction patterns from two typical 2D MS and NS sinusoidal gratings and the corresponding contrast curves.
Visualization 2       Diffraction patterns from a given 2D NS sinusoidal gratings and the corresponding phase maps. Their contrast curves are shown in the second and third rows, respectively.
Visualization 3       Intensity and phase patterns of diffracted field from a pure amplitude octagonal sinusoidal structure, and the corresponding contrast curves.

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Equations (63)

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