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Polarization dependence of interferences inside rubidium atomic vapor governing microwave vector E-field metrology

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Abstract

The atom-based metrology technique has been widely accepted because of the SI traceability and dependence only on the physical constants rather than on any artefact. The presented work explains the dependence of the probe absorption on the polarization of the driving fields in the new atom-based spectroscopic technique for microwave electrometry. This work explains the nature of decays between different pathways when the fields are not only $\pi$ or $\sigma$ polarized but also at an arbitrary angle between the two orientations. It has been shown that when any of the lasers is linearly polarized at an arbitrary angle $0\lt {\theta_{p,c}}\lt\pm\pi /2$ to the quantization axis, the observation of the absorption from a correct direction becomes extremely important. The findings in this work can be utilized in the correct determination of the polarization of the incident microwave field along with the E-field amplitude measurement. Further, a challenge has been discussed when the radio frequency (RF) field is weak and cannot give the distinguished separation in the absorption peak. It has been shown that the sensitivity of the sensor can be increased in this case by detuning the RF from the on-resonance frequency.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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