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Mid-IR spectroscopy of Er3+ doped low-phonon CsCdCl3 and CsPbCl3 crystals

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Abstract

The mid-IR spectroscopic properties of ${{\rm Er}^{3 +}}$ doped low-phonon ${{\rm CsCdCl}_3}$ and ${{\rm CsPbCl}_3}$ crystals grown by the Bridgman technique have been investigated. Using optical excitations at ${\sim}{800}\;{\rm nm}$ and ${\sim}{660}\;{\rm nm}$, both crystals exhibited IR emissions at ${\sim}{1.55}$, ${\sim}{2.75}$, ${\sim}{3.5}$, and ${\sim}{4.5}\;\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$ at room temperature. The mid-IR emission at 4.5 µm, originating from the $^4{{\rm I}_{9/2}}\; \to {\;^4}{{\rm I}_{11/2}}$ transition, showed a long emission lifetime of ${\sim}{11.6}\;{\rm ms}$ for ${{\rm Er}^{3 +}}$ doped ${{\rm CsCdCl}_3}$, whereas ${{\rm Er}^{3 +}}$ doped ${{\rm CsPbCl}_3}$ exhibited a shorter lifetime of ${\sim}{1.8}\;{\rm ms}$. The measured emission lifetimes of the $^4{{\rm I}_{9/2}}$ state were nearly independent of the temperature, indicating a negligibly small nonradiative decay rate through multiphonon relaxation, as predicted by the energy-gap law for low-maximum-phonon energy hosts. The room temperature stimulated emission cross sections for the $^4{{\rm I}_{9/2}} \to {^4}{{\rm I}_{11/2}}$ transition in ${{\rm Er}^{3 +}}$ doped ${{\rm CsCdCl}_3}$ and ${{\rm CsPbCl}_3}$ were determined to be ${\sim}{0.14} \times {{10}^{- 20}}\;{{\rm cm}^2}$ and ${\sim}{0.41} \times {{10}^{- 20}}\;{{\rm cm}^2}$, respectively. The results of Judd–Ofelt analysis are presented and discussed.

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