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Fabrication of woodpile structures by two-photon polymerization and investigation of their optical properties

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Two-photon polymerization (2PP) is a powerful technique for the fabrication of 3D micro- and submicro-structures. By applying laser powers that are only slightly above the polymerization threshold, 3D structuring of photosensitive materials with a resolution down to 100 nm can be realized. Here we report on woodpile photonic crystal structures fabricated in organic-inorganic hybrid polymers (Ormocers) and investigation of their optical properties. The fabricated crystals possess a photonic band gap in the near infrared spectral region. The polymeric woodpile structures can be used as templates for the fabrication of highly refractive TiO2 replicas. First results in this direction are presented.

©2004 Optical Society of America

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Principle setup for the fabrication of 3D structures by 2PP. A waveplate (WP) together with a polarizing beamsplitter is used as an attenuator, an acousto-optical modulator (AOM) in combination with an aperture as a fast shutter. The beam is expanded by a telescope and then coupled into an x-y galvo scanner. The sample is mounted on a 3D piezo stage for positioning in all directions. A CCD camera placed behind a dichroic mirror is used for online monitoring of the 2PP process.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Screenshot of a movie (2 MB) showing the fabrication process monitored online during two-photon polymerization of a -Venus statue (left, top view). SEM image of the respective Venus statue (right).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Two different sample configurations are used, mainly determined by the phase of the polymer (liquid or solid)
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Left: Sketch of a woodpile structure. w determines the width of the rods, d is the distance between the rods, and c is the height of a unit cell, containing four layers of rods. Right: Reciprocal lattice (first Brillouin zone) of the fcc woodpile structure. A path through the k-space containing points of high symmetry is indicated by the colored line.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. SEM images of woodpile structures fabricated by means of 2PP in Ormocers.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Calculated band structure (left) of a polymeric woodpile crystal with an in layer rod distance of 1.2 μm and measured transmission (right).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Measured transmission of woodpile structures with different in layer rod distances.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Calculated gap map of woodpile structures as a function of the refractive index contrast.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. SEM images SU-8 templates fabricated by means of 2PP.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. SEM image of a fraction of an inverted woodpile structure and the respective EDX spectrum.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Steps needed for the fabrication of 3D microstructures by means of 2PP using Ormocer and SU-8 materials

Equations (1)

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T = T measured ( 1 0.4 λ 4 ) 1 ,
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