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Tapered photonic crystal fibers

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We demonstrate the tapering of a photonic crystal fiber to achieve a microstructure pitch of less than 300 nm. We probe the tapered fiber in the transverse geometry to demonstrate the scaling of the photonic bandgaps associated with the microstructure. We show that the fundamental gap can be shifted down to the communications wavelengths, or even further to the visible spectrum. Our optical measurements are correlated with band structure calculations.

©2004 Optical Society of America

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of a tapered PCF probed in a transverse direction to the axis of the taper. Inset shows SEM image of cleaved tapered PCF, with local outer diameter of 37.5µm and pitch <0.5 µm
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Band diagram for triagonal lattice of air holes in silica with Λ=1.28 µm and hole diameter=0. 9 mm. Crosshatched regions indicate partial bandgaps along symmetry axes.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) SEM micrograph of untapered fiber (OD=108 µm, Λ=1.28 µm) and (b) tapered fiber: OD=47.1±0.6 µm, Λ ~0.56 µm
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SEM micrographs of cleaved tapered fiber ends (a) OD=26.4±0.6µm, Λ~290 nm, (b) 21.3±0.3µm, Λ~217nm, and (c) OD=17.3±0.3µm, Λ~170nm
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Optical microscope image of tapered PCF illuminated by white light from the front; taper OD at the center is ~24 µm. The color of the first order Bragg reflected light varies monotonically to shorter wavelengths as the taper dimensions are reduced.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of transverse probing experiment
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Image of tapered fiber in experimental setup with PC microstructure oriented along Γ-M axis relative to optical axis. (b) Representative measured transmission spectrum for local taper OD=46.7±0.5 µm, with predicted TE and TM gaps superimposed.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Measured transmission spectra in tapered PCF transverse probing experiment.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (572 KB each) 2-D FDTD simulations corresponding to experiment with OD=43.2 µm and CW excitation for (a) 1100 nm (inside stop band) and (b) 1300 nm (outside stop band). [Media 1] [Media 2]
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Fundamental partial gap along the Γ-M axis plotted as a function of local taper OD. Square points indicate experimentally measured wavelength at the minimum of the transmission notch and bars indicate FWHM of the notch.


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