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Nonlinear pulse propagation at zero dispersion wavelength in anti-resonant photonic crystal fibers

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We experimentally and numerically investigate femtosecond pulse propagation in a microstructured optical fiber consisting of a silica core surrounded by air holes which are filled with a high index fluid. Such fibers have discrete transmission bands which exhibit strong dispersion arising from the scattering resonances of the high index cylinders. We focus on nonlinear propagation near the zero dispersion point of one of these transmission bands. As expected from theory, we observe propagation of a red-shifted soliton which radiates dispersive waves. Using frequency resolved optical gating, we measure the pulse evolution in the time and frequency domains as a function of both fiber length and input power. Experimental data are compared with numerical simulations.

©2005 Optical Society of America

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of ARROW-PCF geometry (b) measured (black) and simulated (red) transmission through ARROW-PCF sample and corresponding simulated β2, and (c) electron microscope image of PCF used in experiment.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Experimental setup for dispersion measurement, with a microchip Nd:YAG laser pumping the PCF supercontinuum source. MO=microscope objective, BS=beam splitter, R=retroreflector, M=mirror, and SMF=single mode fiber. The retroreflector is mounted to a motorized stage so that the reference arm path length can be adjusted to optimize the interference fringe spacing. (b) Left axis: relative delay (squares) measured from interference pattern and 4th order polynomial fit (black line). Right axis: β2 derived from group delay measurement (blue line) and from multipole simulations (red line).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental Setup. MO: Microscope Objective; AL: Achromatic Lens
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Movie of the evolution of the FROG Trace with (a) increasing fiber length (0–350 mm) and fixed average power (30mW) (370 kB) and (b) fixed fiber length (180 mm) and increasing average power (0–70 mW) (334 kB).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Spectral and (b) temporal evolution of the pulses as they propagate inside the ARROW-PCF. The average input power is fixed at 30 mW. Left pictures: Results obtained from NLSE simulations. Right pictures: Data retrieved from the measured FROG-Traces.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Spectral and (b) temporal intensity and phase of the ultrashort laser pulses after propagation in a 250 mm long ARROW-PCF. Red line: Direct measurement of the spectral intensity. Blue lines: Retrieved from the measured FROG-Trace. Black lines: Results of the NLSE simulations.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Spectral and (b) temporal evolution of the pulses in the ARROW-PCF as a function of input power. The fiber length is fixed at 180 mm. Left pictures: Results obtained from NLSE simulations. Right pictures: Data retrieved from the measured FROG traces.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Black line: Expected soliton frequency shift after Eq. (4). Blue line: Extracted from the NLSE simulations. Red dots: Measured. (b) Phase difference between a soliton centered at λs=783 nm and radiation at wavelength λ and corresponding measured spectrum. Dotted line: Phase difference without including the nonlinear term.

Equations (6)

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L NL = 1 γ · P ̂ and L D = τ 0 2 β 2
N = L D L NL
L D = τ 0 3 β 3 and N = L D L NL
Δ ω = 1 β 3 [ τ 0 2 γ P ̂ 2 · 1.5 2 + sgn ( β 3 ) β 2 ]
Δ Φ = β NSR β S ( ω NSR ω S ) v s γ · P ̂ .
Δ Φ = n = 2 1 n ! β n ( ω NSR ω S ) n γ · P ̂ .


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