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Scalable ultrahigh-speed optical transmultiplexer using a time lens

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Abstract

We present a scalable approach to optical time division multiplexing using an all-optical transmultiplexer incorporating a time lens. With simply a single nonlinear device we numerically demonstrate direct conversion from time-division multiplexing (TDM) to wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) with an industry standard 100-GHz channel spacing. Data rates at 1.28 Tb/s are realized in simulation. Additionally, various pump shapes are investigated to minimize distortions and reverse operation of the device (WDM to TDM conversion) is shown.

©2011 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Due to the dramatic increase in users and services accessing network connections, there is an unprecedented demand for ultrahigh-bandwidth methods of information transfer. Optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) is an optical communication method that allows for high data-rates within a relatively small spectral bandwidth [16]. Ultrahigh-bandwidth OTDM requires all-optical processing to achieve demultiplexing. Early demonstrations using nonlinear fiber highlighted the potential of OTDM with data rates up to 500 Gb/s [7]. Promising recent demonstrations have incorporated various chip-scale nonlinear devices such as chalcogenide glass and silicon waveguides [812]. Previous work has shown OTDM symbol rates up to 1.28 Tbaud and single channel data rates of up to 10.2 Tb/s [6]. However, based on these demonstrations, full demultiplexing of an OTDM data stream typically requires the use of a large number of devices operating in parallel (generally n devices to process n channels). For example, breaking a 1.28-Tbaud time division multiplexed (TDM) signal into 128x10-Gbaud wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) channels generally requires the use of 128 devices operating in unison. Therefore, as OTDM data rates increase the complexity and power requirements of all-optical demultiplexers likewise increase.

Here we describe a device that alleviates the scaling penalty and bandwidth usage by implementing the concept of a time lens to perform the signal processing [13,14]. Through the use of a single pulsed laser, dispersion, and four-wave mixing (FWM) it is possible to process all n channels simultaneously in a single device. This leads to a simple, compact, power efficient and therefore scalable design. Furthermore, the proposed device can function in both directions either converting from TDM to WDM or from WDM to TDM making it an ideal ultrahigh-bandwidth optical transmultiplexer. In this paper we present the theory of operation of this device. Through an independent research effort, this approach was also recently experimentally demonstrated by Mulvad et al. [15,16].

2. Space-time duality

The development of time-lens based ultrafast optical devices relies on the principles of the space-time duality. This duality originates from the analogy between paraxial diffraction and narrowband dispersion from the respective approximations of the wave equation in space and time [17,18]. For this reason, many spatial imaging systems have direct temporal analogues. For example, a spatial lens can perform the Fourier transform of an object positioned one focal length from the lens. Likewise, a time lens can perform the Fourier transform of a section of a time domain signal after propagation through a dispersive focal length (Fig. 1 ) [19,20]. In the spatial system, the lens provides a quadratic spatial phase shift to the signal. Similarly, a time lens applies a quadratic temporal phase shift to a time domain signal. Temporal imaging concepts have been used for various experiments including optical waveform measurement, packet compression, and distortion compensation [1727]. Here we investigate the use of the temporal Fourier processor to convert between optical TDM and WDM formats.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Spatial and temporal Fourier processors. A spatial Fourier processor with focal length (f) is analogous to a temporal Fourier processor with dispersive focal length (β 2*L) to perform an all-optical Fourier Transform.

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3. Proposed system

A powerful and flexible approach to generating a temporal lens utilizes the nonlinear optical process of four-wave mixing (FWM) with an ultrafast pump pulse [27]. In this approach, the initially transform-limited pump pulse is chirped by twice the dispersive focal length of the system to generate the quadratic temporal phase required for the lens. Through the FWM interaction an idler wave is generated that possesses the information of the signal combined with the quadratic temporal phase shift of the pump. Therefore, isolation of the generated idler yields a lensed version of the input signal waveform.

In a temporal Fourier processor, the signal is first sent through the dispersive focal length of the system and then mixed with the chirped pump pulse. The FWM-generated idler is isolated with a spectral filter and passed through a second dispersive focal length yielding the Fourier transform of the input signal. Through this process the temporal signal is mapped to the frequency domain by the time-to-frequency conversion factor, which is given by the dispersive focal length of the system

ΔtΔω=|β2L|,
where Δω is the spectral shift corresponding to a temporal shift Δt, β 2 is the group velocity dispersion of the dispersive device, and L is the length of dispersive device [20]. The dispersion for this system is typically implemented using optical fiber. For use as a transmultiplexer, the OTDM data-rate and desired WDM channel spacing fix the dispersive focal length of the fiber to
L=|12πRΔυβ2|,
where R is the OTDM data rate, Δυ is the desired WDM channel spacing, and β 2 is the group-velocity dispersion coefficient of the fiber.

Conversion from OTDM to WDM using the proposed transmultiplexer is depicted in Fig. 2 . A high-repetition-rate ultrafast pump laser is combined with the OTDM signal after propagating through their respective lengths of dispersion. The two signals experience FWM in a section of highly nonlinear fiber or integrated nonlinear waveguide. At the output, after a final length of dispersion, the WDM signal is produced as the FWM generated idler.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Time lens transmultiplexer design. After suitable dispersion, a 1.28-Tb/s TDM signal is mixed with a 10-GHz pump in a single device yielding full demultiplexing to 128x10-Gb/s WDM channels

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Previous approaches have achieved multiple channel demultiplexing in a single device [2836]. Recently a demonstration using multicasting parametric synchronous sampling (MPASS) achieved multi-channel demultiplexing at 320-Gb/s, however the MPASS approach requires a preliminary multicasting stage and uses a tremendous amount of spectral bandwidth [36]. Additionally, an approach by Morioka et al. implements a similar system to that proposed here [29]. However, the improper dispersive design of this approach leads to the requirement of a large amount of spectral bandwidth to avoid crosstalk between the WDM channels. For example, Fig. 3 shows the results of a simulation of demultiplexing a 160 Gb/s OTDM signal to 16x10Gb/s WDM channels with 100-GHz spacing using this previous approach. As is shown crosstalk between WDM channels yields a highly distorted eye diagram.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 WDM output eye diagram for conversion from a 160 Gb/s TDM channel to 16-10 Gb/s WDM channels with 100-GHz channel spacing using the approach of Morioka et al. [28].

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Here we eliminate the performance limitations of existing methods through application of the space-time duality to guide our system design. Specifically the incorporation of the initial dispersive focal length for the incoming signal allows for proper “focusing” of the temporal Fourier processor and leads to minimal cross-talk between adjacent channels despite using a relatively small industry standard channel spacing (e.g. 100 GHz) in the WDM output. The ability to directly generate a WDM signal with this small channel spacing is crucial for full demultiplexing of ultra-high speed OTDM signals up to and beyond 1.28 Tb/s within practical spectral bandwidths

4. Results

We perform simulations for demultiplexing OTDM data rates of 160 Gb/s, 320 Gb/s, 640 Gb/s, and 1.28 Tb/s into parallel 10-Gb/s WDM channels (TDM→WDM). For this simulation the effects of dispersion were included up to third-order in the frequency domain. The nonlinear FWM interaction was implemented in the time domain. In this way both the effects of degenerate and non-degenerate FWM are observed. To maintain generality, this simulation assumes ideal FWM without the effects of bandwidth limitations. Based on our previous investigations, this assumption of ideal FWM accurately predicts silicon nanowaveguide time-lens performance for the bandwidths considered here [20,23]. A 100-GHz WDM channel spacing was simulated to conform with industry standards. A Gaussian pulse shape is assumed for the return-to-zero (RZ) data pulses with a 33% fill factor for the respective bit slot. For the pump pulse, a spectral super-Gaussian of order 16 is used. For the 1.28 Tb/s data rate, the simulated filter slope was approximately 2.5 dB/nm at the −10dB point. This slope is readily achievable in practice. For example, commercial off the shelf band-WDM filters have a slope of approximately 14dB/nm at the −10dB point. The pump pulse spectral width was varied to optimize the system performance for the desired data rate. The pump pulse full-width half maximum spectral widths were 0.778 THz, 1.56 THz, 3.11 THz, and 6.22 THz for the 160 Gb/s, 320 Gb/s, 640 Gb/s and 1.28 Tb/s data rates respectively. The pump spectral width and spectral slope greatly impacts the operation of the system and is described in detail in section 5.2.

Stemming from Eq. (2), each data rate has a specific dispersive focal length. Third-order dispersion (TOD) management is critical to achieve error-free operation. The 160-Gb/s data rate is achieved using standard Corning SMF-28 single mode fiber to perform the dispersion. The 320-Gb/s and 640-Gb/s results require a TOD limited fiber (e.g. Corning model: DCM-D-080-04) that mitigates the TOD by a factor of 12 [20]. For the 1.28-Tb/s data rate a fiber that reduces TOD by a factor of 48 relative to SMF-28 is required.

The eye diagrams for the TDM→WDM simulations are displayed in Fig. 4 . The cumulative eye diagrams are produced by isolating each generated WDM channel of the spectrum individually and overlaying the eye-diagram of every channel. A random return-to-zero on-off keying input bit stream of 217 bits was simulated. A threshold was placed on the output bit streams for each wavelength channel to determine the status of the bit. These bit streams were then compared to their corresponding input TDM bit slots and no errors were found in the conversion process. Figure 5 shows the spectra of the generated WDM signals for each data rate. In all cases a channel spacing of 100 GHz is generated. Therefore the full WDM spectral range is 1.6 THz, 3.2 THz, 6.4 THz, and 12.8 THz for the OTDM data rates of 160 Gb/s, 320 Gb/s, 640 Gb/s and 1.28 Tb/s respectively. As is shown, each WDM channel is well separated from the adjacent channels leading to minimal crosstalk as observed in the eye diagrams.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 WDM output eye diagrams with each 10-Gb/s WDM channel overlayed. Three adjacent bits are shown with time relative to the center bit for input OTDM data rates of (a) 160-Gb/s, (b) 320-Gb/s, (c) 640-Gb/s, (d) 1.28-Tb/s

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 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Generated WDM output spectrum with 100 GHz channel spacing for input OTDM data rates of (a)160 Gb/s, (b) 320 Gb/s, (c) 640 Gb/s, (d) 1.28 Tb/s

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5. Discussion

5.1 Comparison with other ultrahigh-speed demultiplexers

Various devices exist to perform demultiplexing of OTDM signals. The primary reason behind investigating a time lens for this operation is the ability to reduce both the number of devices and the requisite spectral bandwidth compared to other approaches. Due to the time to frequency conversion factor of the temporal Fourier processor (Eq. 1), the time lens design allows greater control over the total bandwidth of the generated WDM channels while avoiding errors due to crosstalk. As an example of this benefit, we summarize the requirements for full FWM demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tb/s signal to multiple 40-Gb/s or 10-Gb/s channels in Table 1 . In the table we list the required number of nonlinear devices and the approximate required spectral bandwidth including the input OTDM signal, FWM pump laser, and output WDM signal. As is shown, the time lens approach allows for spectrally efficient operation with a single nonlinear device.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Resource comparison of current methods for 1.28-Tb/s demultiplexing using FWM

5.2 Spectrum of the pump laser

The pump pulse spectral width is critical for operation with low distortion. If the pump pulses are spectrally narrow, there is a significant drop in the output power of the channels on the edge of the WDM spectrum. This is due to reduced power in the converted data pulses that temporally overlap with the pump pulse tails. In comparison, if the pump pulses are spectrally broad the eye diagrams show distortions resulting from the overlap of adjacent pump pulses. As shown in Fig. 6 , initial tests using Gaussian pump pulses revealed that this scheme generated undesired temporal overlap between adjacent pump pulses after dispersion.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Spectrogram plots after initial dispersion for time lens pump pulses with (a) Gaussian and (b) super-Gaussian spectral shapes.

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The temporal overlap leads to the generation of side pulses between the bit slots (see Fig. 7 ). The strength of these side pulses depends on the sharpness of the spectral cutoff imposed on the pump. The origin of this distortion can be understood as follows. The overlapping regions of adjacent pump pulses mix in the HNLF with TDM signals at the edge of the pump and through non-degenerate FWM produce a signal at the same frequency as the desired output from TDM signals near the center of the pump pulse. For certain WDM channels, this distortion is stronger than others due to the relative power of the overlapping pump pulses. For this reason, we choose to implement pump pulses with a super-Gaussian spectral shape which mitigates this form of distortion (see Fig. 4).

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 1.28 Tb/s TDM→WDM operation using a Gaussian spectrum for the pump pulse. Nondegenerate FWM occurs in the large regions of temporal overlap between the dispersed pump pulses and leads to the observed distortions between bits.

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5.3 WDM to TDM conversion

As depicted in Fig. 8 , one additional feature of this system is that the ability to operate in the reverse direction and convert from WDM to TDM (WDM→TDM) [37]. For example, 128 10-Gb/s signals of equal frequency spacing can enter the system and leave as a single 1.28 Tb/s channel. The simulated WDM→TDM output eye diagrams for each data rate are displayed in Fig. 9 . The cumulative eye diagrams are produced by filtering the output signal and overlaying adjacent bits. For input signals of equal amplitude there is an 80% power fluctuation in the output TDM bit stream. This power fluctuation has been reduced to < 20% in our simulations by proper scaling of the input WDM channels. Aside from the scaling, the parameters of the simulation were identical to the TDM→WDM case including a super-Gaussian pump spectrum. The generated OTDM bit stream was compared to the input bit sequence and resulted in no errors over a thousand bits to confirm proper WDM→TDM conversion.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 WDM to TDM conversion with the time lens transmultiplexer. After suitable dispersion, 128 10-Gb/s WDM channels are mixed with a 10-GHz pump in a single device yielding full multiplexing to 1.28-Tb/s TDM signal.

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 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Output eye diagrams for conversion from WDM to TDM using the transmultiplexer. Three adjacent bits are shown with time relative to the center bit for the data rates (a) 160 Gb/s, (b) 320 Gb/s, (c) 640 Gb/s, and (d) 1.28 Tb/s.

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6. Conclusion

Simulations were performed for TDM→WDM and WDM→TDM signal conversion using a four-wave mixing time lens based temporal Fourier processor. OTDM data rates of 160 Gb/s, 320 Gb/s, 640 Gb/s and 1.28 Tb/s are simulated with a WDM data rate of 10 Gb/s per channel. Proper design of the dispersion lengths for the time lens allowed for a 100 GHz WDM channel spacing to be acquired. This allowed for a WDM bandwidth of only 12.8 THz to be used for demultiplexing the 1.28-Tb/s data rates. This approach to FWM demultiplexing of OTDM signals provides an unmatched combination of spectral efficiency and number of required nonlinear devices. This approach in conjuction with recently demonstrated ultrahigh-bandwidth chip-scale FWM [3840] holds great promise for enabling compact and efficient ultrahigh-bandwidth OTDM systems.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by start-up funds from The Johns Hopkins University.

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References

  • View by:

  1. M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, “TDM single channel 640Gbit/s transmission experiment over 60km using 400fs pulse train and walk-off free dispersion flattened nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 34(9), 907–908 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Morioka, “Ultrafast and wideband all-optical processing technologies towards flexible photonic networks,” Opt. Rev. 11(3), 153–161 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1438–1443 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1438 .
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  6. T. Richter, E. Palushani, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Nölle, R. Ludwig, J. K. Fischer, and C. Schubert, “Single wavelength channel 10.2 Tb/s TDM-data capacity using 16-QAM and coherent detection,n” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPA9.
  7. T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, and M. Saruwatari, “Error-free 500Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 833–834 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta’eed, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultra-high nonlinear As2 S3 planar waveguide for 160-Gb/s optical time-division demultiplexing by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1496–1498 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, D.-Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2182 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. F. Li, M. Pelusi, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3905–3910 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-4-3905 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17252–17261 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-16-17252 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. Ji, M. Pu, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical waveform sampling and error-free demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s serial data in a nanoengineered silicon waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 426–431 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. A. Foster, “High-speed optical signal processing using temporal imaging,” presented at the 6th APS/DLS New Laser Scientist Conference, Rochester, New York, USA, 28–29 Oct. 2010.
  14. K. G. Petrillo and M. A. Foster, “Scalable 1.28-Tb/s transmultiplexer using a time-lens,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JTuI77.
  15. H. C. H. Mulvad, E. Palushani, M. Galili, J. Xu, H. Hu, A. Clausen, L. K. Oxenløwe, and P. Jeppesen, “OTDM-WDM conversion based on time-domain optical Fourier transformation with spectral compression,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThN2.
  16. L. K. Oxenløwe, “Ultra-fast optical signal processing using optical time lenses and highly nonlinear silicon nanowires,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CThA5.
  17. B. H. Kolner, “Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1951–1963 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. van Howe and C. Xu, “Ultrafast optical signal processing based upon space-time dualities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2649–2662 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(3), 270–272 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. C. V. Bennett and B. H. Kolner, “Upconversion time microscope demonstrating 103 x magnification of femtosecond waveforms,” Opt. Lett. 24(11), 783–785 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. Nakazawa and T. Hirooka, “Distortion-free optical transmission using time-domain optical Fourier transformation and transform-limited optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(9), 1842–1855 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 581–585 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4324 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-resolution spectroscopy using a frequency magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5691–5697 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-17-7-5691 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Spectral phase conjugation via temporal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20605–20614 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-20605 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1047–1049 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. J. P. R. Lacey, M. V. Chan, R. S. Tucker, A. J. Lowery, and M. A. Summerfield, “All-optical WDM to TDM transmultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1612–1613 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30(23), 1959–1960 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  30. K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100Gbit/s multiple-channel output all-optical demultiplexing based on TDM-WDM conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32(21), 1989–1990 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  31. K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100-Gb/s multiple-channel output all-optical OTDM demultiplexing using multichannel four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 890–892 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  32. H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and T. Ozeki, “80Gbit/s simultaneous photonic demultiplexing based on OTDM-to-WDM conversion by four-wave mixing with supercontinuum light source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 640–641 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  33. K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, K. Mori, and T. Morioka, “160 Gbit/s all-optical time-division demultiplexing utilizing modified multiple-output OTDM demultiplexer (MOXIC),” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1190–1191 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  34. P. J. Almeida, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, “OTDM add-drop multiplexer based on time-frequency signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2720–2732 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  35. K. J. Lee, S. Liu, F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, and D. J. Richardson, “OTDM to WDM format conversion based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10282–10288 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-10-10282 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, C. F. Marki, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Optical Demultiplexing of 320 Gb/s to 8 x 40 Gb/s in Single Parametric Gate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 434–442 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  37. X. Wu, A. Bogoni, S. R. Nuccio, O. F. Yilmaz, M. Scaffardi, and A. E. Willner, “High-Speed Optical WDM-to-TDM Conversion Using Fiber Nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1441–1447 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  38. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. V. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s using long serpentine As(2)S(3) planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15047–15052 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-15-23-15047 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1904 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (7)

F. Li, M. Pelusi, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3905–3910 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-4-3905 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17252–17261 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-16-17252 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1438–1443 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1438 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Lee, S. Liu, F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, and D. J. Richardson, “OTDM to WDM format conversion based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10282–10288 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-10-10282 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, C. F. Marki, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Optical Demultiplexing of 320 Gb/s to 8 x 40 Gb/s in Single Parametric Gate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 434–442 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, A. Bogoni, S. R. Nuccio, O. F. Yilmaz, M. Scaffardi, and A. E. Willner, “High-Speed Optical WDM-to-TDM Conversion Using Fiber Nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1441–1447 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1904 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 581–585 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4324 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-resolution spectroscopy using a frequency magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5691–5697 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-17-7-5691 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Spectral phase conjugation via temporal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20605–20614 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-20605 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, D.-Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2182 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1047–1049 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

V. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s using long serpentine As(2)S(3) planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15047–15052 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-15-23-15047 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta’eed, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultra-high nonlinear As2 S3 planar waveguide for 160-Gb/s optical time-division demultiplexing by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1496–1498 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. van Howe and C. Xu, “Ultrafast optical signal processing based upon space-time dualities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2649–2662 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Almeida, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, “OTDM add-drop multiplexer based on time-frequency signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2720–2732 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

T. Morioka, “Ultrafast and wideband all-optical processing technologies towards flexible photonic networks,” Opt. Rev. 11(3), 153–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, K. Mori, and T. Morioka, “160 Gbit/s all-optical time-division demultiplexing utilizing modified multiple-output OTDM demultiplexer (MOXIC),” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1190–1191 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and T. Ozeki, “80Gbit/s simultaneous photonic demultiplexing based on OTDM-to-WDM conversion by four-wave mixing with supercontinuum light source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 640–641 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, “TDM single channel 640Gbit/s transmission experiment over 60km using 400fs pulse train and walk-off free dispersion flattened nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 34(9), 907–908 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100-Gb/s multiple-channel output all-optical OTDM demultiplexing using multichannel four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 890–892 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100Gbit/s multiple-channel output all-optical demultiplexing based on TDM-WDM conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32(21), 1989–1990 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, and M. Saruwatari, “Error-free 500Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 833–834 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (4)

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(3), 270–272 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. H. Kolner, “Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1951–1963 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. P. R. Lacey, M. V. Chan, R. S. Tucker, A. J. Lowery, and M. A. Summerfield, “All-optical WDM to TDM transmultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1612–1613 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30(23), 1959–1960 (1994).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

Almeida, P. J.

Banyai, W. C.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(3), 270–272 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. V.

Bloom, D. M.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(3), 270–272 (1994).
[Crossref]

Boerner, C.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bogoni, A.

X. Wu, A. Bogoni, S. R. Nuccio, O. F. Yilmaz, M. Scaffardi, and A. E. Willner, “High-Speed Optical WDM-to-TDM Conversion Using Fiber Nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1441–1447 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bres, C.-S.

Bulla, D.

Bulla, D. A. P.

Chan, M. V.

J. P. R. Lacey, M. V. Chan, R. S. Tucker, A. J. Lowery, and M. A. Summerfield, “All-optical WDM to TDM transmultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1612–1613 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chavez-Boggio, J. M.

Choi, D.-Y.

Chujo, W.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and T. Ozeki, “80Gbit/s simultaneous photonic demultiplexing based on OTDM-to-WDM conversion by four-wave mixing with supercontinuum light source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 640–641 (2001).
[Crossref]

Clausen, A. T.

Densmore, A.

Eggleton, B. J.

Ferber, S.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[Crossref]

Foster, M. A.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1904 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 581–585 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4324 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-resolution spectroscopy using a frequency magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5691–5697 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-17-7-5691 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Spectral phase conjugation via temporal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20605–20614 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-20605 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1047–1049 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Futami, F.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1904 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 581–585 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Spectral phase conjugation via temporal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20605–20614 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-20605 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4324 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-resolution spectroscopy using a frequency magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5691–5697 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-17-7-5691 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1047–1049 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galili, M.

H. Ji, M. Pu, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenlowe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical waveform sampling and error-free demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s serial data in a nanoengineered silicon waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 426–431 (2011).
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H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1438–1443 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1438 .
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T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17252–17261 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-16-17252 .
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M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, D.-Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2182 .
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H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
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Geraghty, D. F.

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M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(3), 270–272 (1994).
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Gruner-Nielsen, L.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
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Hansen Mulvad, H. C.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
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Hirooka, T.

Hu, H.

Hvam, J. M.

Ibsen, M.

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Jeppesen, P.

Ji, H.

Kauffman, M. T.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(3), 270–272 (1994).
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Kawanishi, S.

K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100-Gb/s multiple-channel output all-optical OTDM demultiplexing using multichannel four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 890–892 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100Gbit/s multiple-channel output all-optical demultiplexing based on TDM-WDM conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32(21), 1989–1990 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, and M. Saruwatari, “Error-free 500Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 833–834 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30(23), 1959–1960 (1994).
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Kitoh, T.

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, and M. Saruwatari, “Error-free 500Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 833–834 (1996).
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C. V. Bennett and B. H. Kolner, “Upconversion time microscope demonstrating 103 x magnification of femtosecond waveforms,” Opt. Lett. 24(11), 783–785 (1999).
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H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuo, B. P.-P.

Kuzucu, O.

Lacey, J. P. R.

J. P. R. Lacey, M. V. Chan, R. S. Tucker, A. J. Lowery, and M. A. Summerfield, “All-optical WDM to TDM transmultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1612–1613 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lamont, M. R. E.

M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta’eed, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultra-high nonlinear As2 S3 planar waveguide for 160-Gb/s optical time-division demultiplexing by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1496–1498 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. J.

Li, F.

Lipson, M.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1904 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-resolution spectroscopy using a frequency magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5691–5697 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-17-7-5691 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Spectral phase conjugation via temporal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20605–20614 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-20605 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 581–585 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4324 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1047–1049 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

Lowery, A. J.

J. P. R. Lacey, M. V. Chan, R. S. Tucker, A. J. Lowery, and M. A. Summerfield, “All-optical WDM to TDM transmultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1612–1613 (1994).
[Crossref]

Luan, F.

Ludwig, R.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

Ma, R.

Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

Marembert, V.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marki, C. F.

Mori, K.

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, K. Mori, and T. Morioka, “160 Gbit/s all-optical time-division demultiplexing utilizing modified multiple-output OTDM demultiplexer (MOXIC),” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1190–1191 (2002).
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Morioka, T.

T. Morioka, “Ultrafast and wideband all-optical processing technologies towards flexible photonic networks,” Opt. Rev. 11(3), 153–161 (2004).
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K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, K. Mori, and T. Morioka, “160 Gbit/s all-optical time-division demultiplexing utilizing modified multiple-output OTDM demultiplexer (MOXIC),” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1190–1191 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100Gbit/s multiple-channel output all-optical demultiplexing based on TDM-WDM conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32(21), 1989–1990 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, and M. Saruwatari, “Error-free 500Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 833–834 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30(23), 1959–1960 (1994).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

Mulvad, H. C.

Mulvad, H. C. H.

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa and T. Hirooka, “Distortion-free optical transmission using time-domain optical Fourier transformation and transform-limited optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(9), 1842–1855 (2005).
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M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, “TDM single channel 640Gbit/s transmission experiment over 60km using 400fs pulse train and walk-off free dispersion flattened nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 34(9), 907–908 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nuccio, S. R.

X. Wu, A. Bogoni, S. R. Nuccio, O. F. Yilmaz, M. Scaffardi, and A. E. Willner, “High-Speed Optical WDM-to-TDM Conversion Using Fiber Nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1441–1447 (2010).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

Oxenlowe, L. K.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Ozeki, T.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and T. Ozeki, “80Gbit/s simultaneous photonic demultiplexing based on OTDM-to-WDM conversion by four-wave mixing with supercontinuum light source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 640–641 (2001).
[Crossref]

Palushani, E.

Parmigiani, F.

Pelusi, M.

Pelusi, M. D.

Petropoulos, P.

Peucheret, C.

Pu, M.

Radic, S.

Richardson, D. J.

Rode, A.

Sahara, A.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, “TDM single channel 640Gbit/s transmission experiment over 60km using 400fs pulse train and walk-off free dispersion flattened nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 34(9), 907–908 (1998).
[Crossref]

Salem, R.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1904 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 581–585 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4324 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-resolution spectroscopy using a frequency magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5691–5697 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-17-7-5691 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Spectral phase conjugation via temporal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20605–20614 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-20605 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1047–1049 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saruwatari, M.

K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100-Gb/s multiple-channel output all-optical OTDM demultiplexing using multichannel four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 890–892 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100Gbit/s multiple-channel output all-optical demultiplexing based on TDM-WDM conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32(21), 1989–1990 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, and M. Saruwatari, “Error-free 500Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 833–834 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30(23), 1959–1960 (1994).
[Crossref]

Scaffardi, M.

X. Wu, A. Bogoni, S. R. Nuccio, O. F. Yilmaz, M. Scaffardi, and A. E. Willner, “High-Speed Optical WDM-to-TDM Conversion Using Fiber Nonlinearities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1441–1447 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Langhorst, C.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schröder, J.

Schubert, C.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sotobayashi, H.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and T. Ozeki, “80Gbit/s simultaneous photonic demultiplexing based on OTDM-to-WDM conversion by four-wave mixing with supercontinuum light source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 640–641 (2001).
[Crossref]

Summerfield, M. A.

J. P. R. Lacey, M. V. Chan, R. S. Tucker, A. J. Lowery, and M. A. Summerfield, “All-optical WDM to TDM transmultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1612–1613 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ta’eed, V.

Ta’eed, V. G.

M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta’eed, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultra-high nonlinear As2 S3 planar waveguide for 160-Gb/s optical time-division demultiplexing by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1496–1498 (2007).
[Crossref]

Takara, H.

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, K. Mori, and T. Morioka, “160 Gbit/s all-optical time-division demultiplexing utilizing modified multiple-output OTDM demultiplexer (MOXIC),” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1190–1191 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, and M. Saruwatari, “Error-free 500Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 833–834 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100Gbit/s multiple-channel output all-optical demultiplexing based on TDM-WDM conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32(21), 1989–1990 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30(23), 1959–1960 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tucker, R. S.

J. P. R. Lacey, M. V. Chan, R. S. Tucker, A. J. Lowery, and M. A. Summerfield, “All-optical WDM to TDM transmultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 30(19), 1612–1613 (1994).
[Crossref]

Turner, A. C.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1047–1049 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1904 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Spectral phase conjugation via temporal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20605–20614 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-20605 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-resolution spectroscopy using a frequency magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5691–5697 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?&uri=oe-17-7-5691 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4324 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Spatial and temporal Fourier processors. A spatial Fourier processor with focal length (f) is analogous to a temporal Fourier processor with dispersive focal length (β 2*L) to perform an all-optical Fourier Transform.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Time lens transmultiplexer design. After suitable dispersion, a 1.28-Tb/s TDM signal is mixed with a 10-GHz pump in a single device yielding full demultiplexing to 128x10-Gb/s WDM channels
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 WDM output eye diagram for conversion from a 160 Gb/s TDM channel to 16-10 Gb/s WDM channels with 100-GHz channel spacing using the approach of Morioka et al. [28].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 WDM output eye diagrams with each 10-Gb/s WDM channel overlayed. Three adjacent bits are shown with time relative to the center bit for input OTDM data rates of (a) 160-Gb/s, (b) 320-Gb/s, (c) 640-Gb/s, (d) 1.28-Tb/s
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Generated WDM output spectrum with 100 GHz channel spacing for input OTDM data rates of (a)160 Gb/s, (b) 320 Gb/s, (c) 640 Gb/s, (d) 1.28 Tb/s
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Spectrogram plots after initial dispersion for time lens pump pulses with (a) Gaussian and (b) super-Gaussian spectral shapes.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 1.28 Tb/s TDM→WDM operation using a Gaussian spectrum for the pump pulse. Nondegenerate FWM occurs in the large regions of temporal overlap between the dispersed pump pulses and leads to the observed distortions between bits.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 WDM to TDM conversion with the time lens transmultiplexer. After suitable dispersion, 128 10-Gb/s WDM channels are mixed with a 10-GHz pump in a single device yielding full multiplexing to 1.28-Tb/s TDM signal.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Output eye diagrams for conversion from WDM to TDM using the transmultiplexer. Three adjacent bits are shown with time relative to the center bit for the data rates (a) 160 Gb/s, (b) 320 Gb/s, (c) 640 Gb/s, and (d) 1.28 Tb/s.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Resource comparison of current methods for 1.28-Tb/s demultiplexing using FWM

Equations (2)

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Δ t Δ ω = | β 2 L | ,
L = | 1 2 π R Δ υ β 2 | ,

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