Abstract

The wire medium consisting of an array of parallel thin metallic wires was previously studied by using an effective medium with spatial dispersion. In this paper, the validity of conventional effective model was examined analytically and numerically by studying a canonical structure of the wire medium. It is noted that the conventional model fails for high transversal spatial harmonics, which consequently results in discrepancy in the scattering between the effective model and the physical structure. In this study, we propose a new effective model to include higher order spatial dispersions: instead of the second-order expansion, the proposed dispersion equation is based on the fourth–order expansion of the dispersion equation of the photonic states. Compared with the 3D full-wave simulation results of the wire medium, the proposed model has demonstrated significant improvement in numerical accuracy in characterizing the EM behavior in this type of metamaterials.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The wire medium has been known for a long time [13] as a type of artificial materials, which consists of thin metallic wires (See Fig. 1) and possesses plasma-like frequency dependent permittivity.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Physical wire medium formed by an array of thin wires periodically arranged in rectangular lattice. a and b denote the lattice constants in y- and z- directions respectively. The thin wires are aligned in x-direction, and are uniform, with radii r and length d.

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In [4], the exact dispersion equation of ideally conducting thin wire array is obtained in closed form and is solved numerically. The only assumption is that the radii of wires are assumed to be much smaller than the lattice periods and the wavelength. The dispersion equation can be written as

1πlnb2πr+1bpy(0)sinpy(0)acospy(0)acosqya+n0(1bpy(n)sinpy(n)acospy(n)acosqya12π|n|)=0,
where the x-axis is oriented along the wires, and q=(qx,qy,qz)T represents the wave vector of an extraordinary mode. Parameters a and b denote the lattice periods, and r denotes the radius of the wire. The symbol py(0) is the y component of the nth Floquet mode wave vector
py(n)=j(qz+2πnb)2+qx2k2,Re{()}>0,
where k=ωε0μ0 is the wave number in the free space.

Then in [4], Eq. (1) is expanded by using the second-order Taylor expansion of sin and cos functions of small arguments, yielding

qx2+qy2+qz2=k2kp2.
Denote the wave vector in free space as k=(kx,ky,kz) . According to the boundary condition at the interface, qy=ky,qz=kz.

From Eq. (3), a uniaxial effective model with strong spatial dispersion was proposed to character the wire medium under a further assumption of a,bλ [5]

ε¯¯=ε(k,qx)xx+yy+zz,
ε(k,qx)=ε0(1kp2k2qx2),

The notation kp plays the role of an equivalent “plasma frequency” which depends on the parameters a, b and r

kp2=2π/(ab)logab2πr+F(a/b),
where

F(ξ)=12logξ+n=1+(coth(πnξ)1n)+π6ξ.

For the commonly used case of the square grid (a = b), F(1)=0.5275.

By adopting an additional boundary condition [6], the transmission through an effective wire medium slab was theoretically studied [7]. Through comparison of the transmission- and reflection- coefficients, the spatial dispersion as shown in Eq. (4) in the effective wire medium is verified by numerical simulations [7].

It is possible to realize sub-wavelength imaging by using the wire medium [8]. Further study shows that the imaging system can be designed with literarily no limit of resolution if the thin wires are ideally conducting [9]. Besides, the wire medium slabs are able to transmit images to any distances, provided that the length d of the wires should be an integer number of half-wavelengths. This condition is necessary in order for the medium to fulfill the Fabry-Perot condition and thus eliminate unwanted reflections [7, 9]. However, if the thin wires are not made of PEC, theoretical and numerical studies show that the limit of resolution of wire medium slabs is determined by the skin depth of the metal [10].

Incorporating Eq. (4), a spatially dispersive FDTD is developed and its applications in sub-wavelength imaging are demonstrated both numerically [11, 12] and experimentally [9, 13, 14]. Studies in [15, 16] show that the transmission coefficient is a key factor in the image quality and the bandwidth of such an imaging system. The tapered array of wire medium with the separation between adjacent wires being radially enlarged is studied [17, 18]. Magnification or concentration of sub-wavelength field pattern in the microwave regime is demonstrated experimentally and numerically. Other interesting applications can be found in [19, 20].

The above literatures show that the transmission coefficient T is an important parameter of the wire medium, especially for a sub-wavelength imaging device where the transmission coefficient directly affects the quality of the image. However, it is noted that the conventional effective model becomes inaccuracy as the transverse spatial harmonics increase. Therefore, the discrepancy between the EM behaviors of the effective model and the physical structure occurs. In this study, we propose a new effective model to include higher order spatial dispersions: instead of the second-order expansion, the proposed dispersion equation is obtained based on the fourth–order expansion of the exact dispersion equation of the photonic states. Surface fitting is applied using the data from a 3-D full wave simulation. It is demonstrated that the proposed model has significant improvement in numerical accuracy when it is applied in characterizing metamaterials. This paper is organized as follows. In Sec. 2, the validity of the effective wire medium in terms of transmission coefficient is examined by comparing the theoretical result of the effective medium with the full wave simulation result of physical wire medium formed by parallel thin PEC wires. A criterion in the deviation of T of the effective model from that of the corresponding physical structure is given. Based on this criterion, the condition where the effective medium model becomes inaccurate is provided, and the origin of the discrepancy between the two results is discussed. In Sec. 3, a modified effective model based on a higher-order dispersive equation is proposed. Validation of the proposed model is presented in Sec. 4 before conclusions are drawn.

2. The validity of the effective wire medium

The PEC thin wire array (shown in Fig. 1) is simulated by using the FDTD method incorporating the sub-cell technique of thin wire [21]. The system is illuminated by a TM mode plane wave with an Hz excitation at operating frequency f0=3GHz, with corresponding wave number denoted as  k0. The length of the thin wires is d=λ/2, where λ is the wavelength in free space. A fixed filling ratio πr2/a2=0.001 is adopted, indicating the physical thin wire array strictly meet the only assumption ra,b,λ in [4]. A square lattice period  a=b is considered in this paper. According to Eq. (5), the lattice becomes denser proportionally with the increment of kp. For example, kp=9.683k0 corresponds to a dimension of  a=b=λ/40. The transmission coefficient Tthinwirearray is calculated from the FDTD simulation result of the 3-D physical thin wire array by using Eq. (7):

Tthinwirearray=|Hz_imageplane||Hz_sourceplane|.

The source and image planes are defined at different sides of the thin wire array in x-direction. The Hz_imageplane in Eq. (7) is the mean Hz on the image plane with the presence of thin wire array, while Hz_sourceplane is the mean Hz on the source plane in a counterpart domain without the wires, i.e., the free space model.

Teffective is obtained analytically following Eq. (10) in [7] for the effective model, and is compared with the FDTD result of Tthinwirearray. Two types of wire media with kp=4.8415k0 and kp=9.683k0 are studied with the result as a function of ky are presented in Fig. 2. For simplification, kz is set to zero both in the derivation of the analytical results and in the FDTD simulation.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 The transmission coefficient as a function of the transverse component of wave component kyd/π for  k0=π/d calculated by using FDTD and analytical method. (a) kp=4.8415k0; (b) kp=9.683k0.

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It is revealed that T drops faster with the increment of ky in the physical thin wire array than that in the effective medium. Moreover, for the wire medium with a largerkp, Teffective in the effective model deviates slower from the FDTD result Tthinwirearray with the increment ofky.

In order to evaluate the validity of the effective medium model, we define the deviation ratio DR:

DR=|TthinwirearrayTeffective|Tthinwirearray×100%,
The numerical error in FDTD is controlled under 0.05%. An accuracy criterion can be defined as the follows: the effective medium is regarded as sufficiently accurate to describe the physical thin wire array if DR is smaller than 2%. Otherwise, the effective model is considered as being not sufficiently accurate. By using this criterion, the maximum ky in the valid zone can be obtained for the effective medium with a fixed kp and is denoted by kymax. Namely, the effective medium is sufficiently accurate when ky is smaller than kymax. The kp-related curve of kymax is plotted in Fig. 3.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 The condition where the conventional effective model is sufficiently accurate for  k0=π/d.

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Figure 3 shows that the relation between kymax and kp is nearly linear with a ratio of 0.71 during the kp range of [2.42k014.52k0]. That is, for a given kp, the effective model can be considered as adequately accurate for harmonics ky0.71kp (equivalently kya<0.11π). This is a stricter criterion than the kya<π in [7]. On the other hand, the transmission of the evanescent waves (ky>k0) can be calculated more accurately by using the effective model when the period lattice is smaller.

In the authors' opinion, there are two main reasons for such discrepancies in the result of T from the effective medium model and the physical structure. First, the analytical transmission coefficient of TM mode in [7] is deduced based on a homogeneous and uniaxial effective medium (see Eq. (4)). As a result, a TM excitation cannot excite a TE mode in the effective medium. Since the physical thin wire array is inhomogeneous in the transverse section, a TM excitation will generate TE mode propagation through the wire medium. In order to show the coupling of the TM and TE modes, the ratio of the average Ez and the average Hz on the image plane is plotted in Fig. 4. It can be seen that the coupling in wire medium increases with the increment of and with the decrement of . This coupling is a factor causing the deviation of the transmission from the effective model with the physical wire medium. This coupling cannot be considered in an effective homogeneous model unless the permittivity (or the permeability) as a non-diagonal tensor (electro- or magnetic- gyration) is introduced.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 The coupling between the TE and TM waves in a physical thin wire array as a function of ky.

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Second, the dispersion equation Eq. (3) is obtained by using the second-order Taylor expansion of sin and cos functions in Eq. (1) for small arguments. Since the permittivity of the effective model (see Eq. (4)) is derived from the 2nd order approximation (Eq. (3)), it is well understood that the effective model is sufficiently accurate only for small argument of ky (kya<0.11π).

3. The proposed new effective uniaxial medium model

It is of significance for a sub-wavelength imaging system to be described accurately in calculating the transmission of the evanescent waves (ky>k) with an enlarged range of ky. That is because the high-order spatial harmonics determines the details of an image in a sub‑wavelength imaging system. Therefore, a more accurate effective medium model is desirable.

Before proposing a new model of effective medium, it is worth briefly reviewing the derivation of Teffective in [7]. Denote kx=jγx=jky2k2, and the propagation constant of TM wave in the wire medium as γTM.

qx=jγTM,
By combining Eq. (3) with Eq. (9), γTM can be written as
γTM=kp2+ky2k2,
where qz=kz=0 has been assumed. By solving the system of equations for the total magnetic field (ref [7].), the expression of Teffective can be obtained as follows:
Teffective=11+γTMky2γx(γTM2+k2)ctanh(γTMd/2).
It is worth noting that Eq. (11) is transformed into Eq. (10) in [7] by inserting Eq. (10).

Obviously, by using higher-order Taylor expansion of sin and cos functions for small arguments of Eq. (1), a more accurate dispersion equation can be obtained, which corresponds to a propagation constant γTM in a more complicated form. In the following, the fourth-order Taylor expansion is applied to expand the sin and cos functions in Eq. (1). Naturally, Teffective as a function of γTM is expected to agree with Tthinwirearray better than the conventional one. However, a complete solving of a fourth-order dispersion equation in obtaining γTM is cumbersome, and the expression of γTM is implicit. By solving a quadratic equation with respect to qx adopting the 1st order Taylor expansion approximation, γTM can be expressed explicitly using a polynomial with undetermined coefficients. Then after obtaining discrete data of γTM through Tthinwirearray in Eq. (11) (for square lattice), a surface fitting tool of the commercial software, i.e. Origin, is applied to fit the surface of γTM as a function of ky and kp. Through fitting, the most important terms in the polynomial are found and a neat form for γTM is obtained as

γTM=kp2+ky2k2+(ky2+kp2)(Aky2kp2+Bky2k2),
where A=0.35112 and B=5.22602e-4 respectively. The form of γTM ensures that TM and TEM (corresponding to qx=k) modes exist in wire medium, which is the necessary condition for Eq. (11) (ref [5]. and [7]). A good agreement between γTMand γTM_thinwire is shown in Fig. 5.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Comparison of the fitted surface γTM and the source data for the surface fitting γTM_FDTD obtained through FDTD simulation of physical thin wire array.

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Next, the modified Teffective is obtained by submitting γTM into Eq. (11), and it is compared with Tthinwirearray (see Fig. 6) in two types of wire media with kp=4.8415k0 and kp=9.683k0. By using the accuracy criterion proposed above, kymax is obtained and plotted in Fig. 7. It is obvious that valid range of the proposed effective model is significantly extended (kykp, equivalently kya<0.16π).

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 The analytical results of the proposed effective media, referenced by the transmission of the thin wire array calculated by FDTD. (a)kp=4.8415k0; (b)kp=9.683k0.

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 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Comparison of the conditions where the effective models become inaccurate.

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Because of the symmetry of the structure in the y- and z- directions, Eq. (12) can be easily generalized to a more general form

γTM=kp2+ky2+kz2k2+(ky2+kz2+kp2)(Aky2+kz2kp2+Bky2+kz2k2),
where A and B are provided above. Based on Eq. (13), the improved dispersion equation can be obtained as

qx2+(qy2+qz2+kp2)(Aqy2+qz2kp2+Bqy2+qz2k2+1)=k2.

Thus, by incorporating the assumption of Eq. (4a), and the dispersion equation for extraordinary plane waves (Ex0) in this uniaxial dielectrics [5]

ε0(qy2+qz2)=ε(k2qx2),
the improved effective model for the thin wire array can be expressed as

ε(k,qx,qy,qz)=ε0(1Aqy2+qz2kp2+Bqy2+qz2k2+1kp2k2qx2).

4. Validation

First, examples of oblique incidence are considered. Plane waves polarized in the x-direction is illuminated on the wire medium with ky=kz=(2/2)kt, where kt denotes the transverse wave component. Two wire media with kp=4.8415k0 and kp=9.683k0 are examined. Figure 8 demonstrates that the proposed effective model is sufficiently accurate in a general way.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 The analytical transmission of the conventional and the proposed effective media, referenced by the FDTD result. The wire array is illuminated by a plane wave with ky=kz0. (a) kp=4.8415k0; (b) kp=9.683k0.

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The above numerical experiments are based on wire medium of square lattice with the filling ratio fixed at 0.001. Next, the wire medium based on square lattice with different filling ratios (correspondingly, different kp) and that based on rectangular lattice (b = 1.5a) are investigated with results plotted in Figs. 9 and 10 respectively. It clearly shows that the effective model describes the characteristics of wire medium accurately for various types of wire media.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 The analytical results of the conventional and the proposed effective media, referenced by the FDTD result of the thin wire array. The wire array is with filling ratio of (a) 0.0005101 and (b) 0.0015623.

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 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 The analytical results of the conventional and the proposed effective media, referenced by the FDTD result of the thin wire array, which is in a rectangular lattice ab.

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5. Conclusion

In this paper, full wave simulation of the wave behavior in the parallel thin wire array is used to investigate the effectiveness of the effective model in a quantitative manner. Based on the Helmholtz equation and by assuming a homogeneous uniaxial electric property in the effective medium, a higher-order expansion is applied to the exact dispersion equation for the physical thin wire array. By surface fitting with the data from the FDTD results, a 4th order dispersion equation is finally obtained, which corresponds to an improved effective medium model. Comparing to the conventional model, the range of transverse spatial harmonics kt in which the transmission can be calculated with sufficient accuracy analytically is extended from [0,0.11π/a] to [0,0.16π/a]. This improvement is of significance in determining the image quality in the sub-wavelength imaging applications. It has also been demonstrated that this proposed model is applicable for generalized cases, i.e., for wave incidence with arbitrary incident direction and with various type of wire media.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 61102022) and by the Fundamental Research Foundation of Beijing Institute of Technology of China (Grant no. 20120542014).

References and links

1. J. Brown, “Artificial dielectrics,” Progress in Dielectrics 2, 195–225 (1960).

2. W. Rotman, “Plasma simulations by artificial dielectrics and parallel-plate media,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10(1), 82–95 (1962). [CrossRef]  

3. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. P. A. Belov, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, “Dispersion and reflection properties of artificial media formed by regular lattices of ideally conducting wires,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16(8), 1153–1170 (2002). [CrossRef]  

5. P. A. Belov, R. Marques, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B 67(11), 113103 (2003). [CrossRef]  

6. M. G. Silveirinha, “Additional boundary condition for the wire medium,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1766–1780 (2006). [CrossRef]  

7. P. A. Belov and M. G. Silveirinha, “Resolution of subwavelength transmission devices formed by a wire medium,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(5), 056607 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 193105 (2005). [CrossRef]  

9. P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, “Subwavelength microwave imaging using an array of parallel conducting wires as a lens,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 033108 (2006). [CrossRef]  

10. M. G. Silveirinha, P. A. Belov, and C. R. Simovski, “Ultimate limit of resolution of subwavelength imaging devices formed by metallic rods,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1726–1728 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Spatially dispersive finite-difference time-domain analysis of sub-wavelength imaging by the wire medium slabs,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5154–5167 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Modelling of wave propagation in wire media using spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method: numerical aspects,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(6), 1506–1513 (2007). [CrossRef]  

13. P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, A. Alomainy, and Y. Hao, “Experimental study of the subwavelength imaging by a wire medium slab,” in Antenna Technology: Small and Smart Antennas Metamaterials and Applications, 2007. IWAT '07. International Workshop on, 459–462, (2007).

14. P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008). [CrossRef]  

15. A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Tailoring silver nanorod arrays for subwavelength imaging of arbitrary coherent sources,” Phys. Rev. B 82(11), 113408 (2010). [CrossRef]  

16. A. Rahman, S. Y. Kosulnikov, Y. Hao, C. Parini, and P. A. Belov, “Subwavelength optical imaging with an array of silver nanorods,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051601 (2011). [CrossRef]  

17. P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 104102 (2007). [CrossRef]  

18. Y. Zhao, “Investigation of image magnification properties of hyperlenses formed by a tapered array of metallic wires using a spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method in cylindrical coordinates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 14(3), 035102 (2012).

19. A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Periscope-like endoscope for transmission of a near field in the infrared range,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 142–144 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. A. Rahman, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Subwavelength image splitter with a metallic wire array,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153102 (2010). [CrossRef]  

21. R. M. Mäkinen, J. S. Juntunen, and M. A. Kivikoski, “An improved thin-wire model for FDTD,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(5), 1245–1255 (2002). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. J. Brown, “Artificial dielectrics,” Progress in Dielectrics 2, 195–225 (1960).
  2. W. Rotman, “Plasma simulations by artificial dielectrics and parallel-plate media,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10(1), 82–95 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. A. Belov, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, “Dispersion and reflection properties of artificial media formed by regular lattices of ideally conducting wires,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16(8), 1153–1170 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. A. Belov, R. Marques, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B 67(11), 113103 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. G. Silveirinha, “Additional boundary condition for the wire medium,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1766–1780 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. A. Belov and M. G. Silveirinha, “Resolution of subwavelength transmission devices formed by a wire medium,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(5), 056607 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 193105 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, “Subwavelength microwave imaging using an array of parallel conducting wires as a lens,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 033108 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. G. Silveirinha, P. A. Belov, and C. R. Simovski, “Ultimate limit of resolution of subwavelength imaging devices formed by metallic rods,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1726–1728 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Spatially dispersive finite-difference time-domain analysis of sub-wavelength imaging by the wire medium slabs,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5154–5167 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Modelling of wave propagation in wire media using spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method: numerical aspects,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(6), 1506–1513 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, A. Alomainy, and Y. Hao, “Experimental study of the subwavelength imaging by a wire medium slab,” in Antenna Technology: Small and Smart Antennas Metamaterials and Applications, 2007. IWAT '07. International Workshop on, 459–462, (2007).
  14. P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Tailoring silver nanorod arrays for subwavelength imaging of arbitrary coherent sources,” Phys. Rev. B 82(11), 113408 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Rahman, S. Y. Kosulnikov, Y. Hao, C. Parini, and P. A. Belov, “Subwavelength optical imaging with an array of silver nanorods,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051601 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 104102 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Zhao, “Investigation of image magnification properties of hyperlenses formed by a tapered array of metallic wires using a spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method in cylindrical coordinates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 14(3), 035102 (2012).
  19. A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Periscope-like endoscope for transmission of a near field in the infrared range,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 142–144 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. A. Rahman, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Subwavelength image splitter with a metallic wire array,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. M. Mäkinen, J. S. Juntunen, and M. A. Kivikoski, “An improved thin-wire model for FDTD,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(5), 1245–1255 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y. Zhao, “Investigation of image magnification properties of hyperlenses formed by a tapered array of metallic wires using a spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method in cylindrical coordinates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 14(3), 035102 (2012).

2011 (1)

A. Rahman, S. Y. Kosulnikov, Y. Hao, C. Parini, and P. A. Belov, “Subwavelength optical imaging with an array of silver nanorods,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051601 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Tailoring silver nanorod arrays for subwavelength imaging of arbitrary coherent sources,” Phys. Rev. B 82(11), 113408 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Periscope-like endoscope for transmission of a near field in the infrared range,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 142–144 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rahman, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Subwavelength image splitter with a metallic wire array,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. G. Silveirinha, P. A. Belov, and C. R. Simovski, “Ultimate limit of resolution of subwavelength imaging devices formed by metallic rods,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1726–1728 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Modelling of wave propagation in wire media using spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method: numerical aspects,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(6), 1506–1513 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Spatially dispersive finite-difference time-domain analysis of sub-wavelength imaging by the wire medium slabs,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5154–5167 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Belov and M. G. Silveirinha, “Resolution of subwavelength transmission devices formed by a wire medium,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(5), 056607 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, “Subwavelength microwave imaging using an array of parallel conducting wires as a lens,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 033108 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. G. Silveirinha, “Additional boundary condition for the wire medium,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1766–1780 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 193105 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. A. Belov, R. Marques, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B 67(11), 113103 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

P. A. Belov, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, “Dispersion and reflection properties of artificial media formed by regular lattices of ideally conducting wires,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16(8), 1153–1170 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. M. Mäkinen, J. S. Juntunen, and M. A. Kivikoski, “An improved thin-wire model for FDTD,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(5), 1245–1255 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

W. Rotman, “Plasma simulations by artificial dielectrics and parallel-plate media,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10(1), 82–95 (1962).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

J. Brown, “Artificial dielectrics,” Progress in Dielectrics 2, 195–225 (1960).

Belov, P.

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Belov, P. A.

A. Rahman, S. Y. Kosulnikov, Y. Hao, C. Parini, and P. A. Belov, “Subwavelength optical imaging with an array of silver nanorods,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051601 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Periscope-like endoscope for transmission of a near field in the infrared range,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 142–144 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Tailoring silver nanorod arrays for subwavelength imaging of arbitrary coherent sources,” Phys. Rev. B 82(11), 113408 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. G. Silveirinha, P. A. Belov, and C. R. Simovski, “Ultimate limit of resolution of subwavelength imaging devices formed by metallic rods,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1726–1728 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Modelling of wave propagation in wire media using spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method: numerical aspects,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(6), 1506–1513 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Spatially dispersive finite-difference time-domain analysis of sub-wavelength imaging by the wire medium slabs,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5154–5167 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, “Subwavelength microwave imaging using an array of parallel conducting wires as a lens,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 033108 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov and M. G. Silveirinha, “Resolution of subwavelength transmission devices formed by a wire medium,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(5), 056607 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 193105 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, R. Marques, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B 67(11), 113103 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, “Dispersion and reflection properties of artificial media formed by regular lattices of ideally conducting wires,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16(8), 1153–1170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brown, J.

J. Brown, “Artificial dielectrics,” Progress in Dielectrics 2, 195–225 (1960).

Hao, Y.

A. Rahman, S. Y. Kosulnikov, Y. Hao, C. Parini, and P. A. Belov, “Subwavelength optical imaging with an array of silver nanorods,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051601 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Tailoring silver nanorod arrays for subwavelength imaging of arbitrary coherent sources,” Phys. Rev. B 82(11), 113408 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Periscope-like endoscope for transmission of a near field in the infrared range,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 142–144 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rahman, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Subwavelength image splitter with a metallic wire array,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153102 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Modelling of wave propagation in wire media using spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method: numerical aspects,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(6), 1506–1513 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, “Subwavelength microwave imaging using an array of parallel conducting wires as a lens,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 033108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Spatially dispersive finite-difference time-domain analysis of sub-wavelength imaging by the wire medium slabs,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5154–5167 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikonen, P.

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 193105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Juntunen, J. S.

R. M. Mäkinen, J. S. Juntunen, and M. A. Kivikoski, “An improved thin-wire model for FDTD,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(5), 1245–1255 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kivikoski, M. A.

R. M. Mäkinen, J. S. Juntunen, and M. A. Kivikoski, “An improved thin-wire model for FDTD,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(5), 1245–1255 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kosulnikov, S. Y.

A. Rahman, S. Y. Kosulnikov, Y. Hao, C. Parini, and P. A. Belov, “Subwavelength optical imaging with an array of silver nanorods,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mäkinen, R. M.

R. M. Mäkinen, J. S. Juntunen, and M. A. Kivikoski, “An improved thin-wire model for FDTD,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(5), 1245–1255 (2002).
[Crossref]

Marques, R.

P. A. Belov, R. Marques, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B 67(11), 113103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Maslovski, S. I.

P. A. Belov, R. Marques, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B 67(11), 113103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nefedov, I. S.

P. A. Belov, R. Marques, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B 67(11), 113103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Parini, C.

A. Rahman, S. Y. Kosulnikov, Y. Hao, C. Parini, and P. A. Belov, “Subwavelength optical imaging with an array of silver nanorods,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051601 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Periscope-like endoscope for transmission of a near field in the infrared range,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 142–144 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rahman, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Subwavelength image splitter with a metallic wire array,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153102 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahman, A.

A. Rahman, S. Y. Kosulnikov, Y. Hao, C. Parini, and P. A. Belov, “Subwavelength optical imaging with an array of silver nanorods,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051601 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Tailoring silver nanorod arrays for subwavelength imaging of arbitrary coherent sources,” Phys. Rev. B 82(11), 113408 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Rahman, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Subwavelength image splitter with a metallic wire array,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153102 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Periscope-like endoscope for transmission of a near field in the infrared range,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 142–144 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotman, W.

W. Rotman, “Plasma simulations by artificial dielectrics and parallel-plate media,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10(1), 82–95 (1962).
[Crossref]

Silveirinha, M.

P. A. Belov, R. Marques, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B 67(11), 113103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Silveirinha, M. G.

M. G. Silveirinha, P. A. Belov, and C. R. Simovski, “Ultimate limit of resolution of subwavelength imaging devices formed by metallic rods,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1726–1728 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. G. Silveirinha, “Additional boundary condition for the wire medium,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1766–1780 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov and M. G. Silveirinha, “Resolution of subwavelength transmission devices formed by a wire medium,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(5), 056607 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simovski, C.

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Simovski, C. R.

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. G. Silveirinha, P. A. Belov, and C. R. Simovski, “Ultimate limit of resolution of subwavelength imaging devices formed by metallic rods,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1726–1728 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 193105 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, R. Marques, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B 67(11), 113103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sudhakaran, S.

P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, “Subwavelength microwave imaging using an array of parallel conducting wires as a lens,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 033108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tretyakov, S.

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tretyakov, S. A.

P. A. Belov, R. Marques, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B 67(11), 113103 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, “Dispersion and reflection properties of artificial media formed by regular lattices of ideally conducting wires,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16(8), 1153–1170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tse, S.

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Viitanen, A. J.

P. A. Belov, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, “Dispersion and reflection properties of artificial media formed by regular lattices of ideally conducting wires,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16(8), 1153–1170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, “Investigation of image magnification properties of hyperlenses formed by a tapered array of metallic wires using a spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method in cylindrical coordinates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 14(3), 035102 (2012).

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Modelling of wave propagation in wire media using spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method: numerical aspects,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(6), 1506–1513 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Spatially dispersive finite-difference time-domain analysis of sub-wavelength imaging by the wire medium slabs,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5154–5167 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (2)

M. G. Silveirinha, “Additional boundary condition for the wire medium,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1766–1780 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Modelling of wave propagation in wire media using spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method: numerical aspects,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(6), 1506–1513 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

R. M. Mäkinen, J. S. Juntunen, and M. A. Kivikoski, “An improved thin-wire model for FDTD,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(5), 1245–1255 (2002).
[Crossref]

IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

W. Rotman, “Plasma simulations by artificial dielectrics and parallel-plate media,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10(1), 82–95 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1)

P. A. Belov, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, “Dispersion and reflection properties of artificial media formed by regular lattices of ideally conducting wires,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16(8), 1153–1170 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

A. Rahman, S. Y. Kosulnikov, Y. Hao, C. Parini, and P. A. Belov, “Subwavelength optical imaging with an array of silver nanorods,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051601 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Y. Zhao, “Investigation of image magnification properties of hyperlenses formed by a tapered array of metallic wires using a spatially dispersive Finite-Difference Time-Domain method in cylindrical coordinates,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 14(3), 035102 (2012).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (6)

A. Rahman, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Subwavelength image splitter with a metallic wire array,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153102 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, S. Tse, P. Ikonen, M. G. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, Y. Hao, and C. Parini, “Transmission of images with subwavelength resolution to distances of several wavelengths in the microwave range,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193108 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Rahman, P. A. Belov, and Y. Hao, “Tailoring silver nanorod arrays for subwavelength imaging of arbitrary coherent sources,” Phys. Rev. B 82(11), 113408 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, R. Marques, S. I. Maslovski, I. S. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Strong spatial dispersion in wire media in the very large wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B 67(11), 113103 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 193105 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, “Subwavelength microwave imaging using an array of parallel conducting wires as a lens,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 033108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

P. A. Belov and M. G. Silveirinha, “Resolution of subwavelength transmission devices formed by a wire medium,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(5), 056607 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Progress in Dielectrics (1)

J. Brown, “Artificial dielectrics,” Progress in Dielectrics 2, 195–225 (1960).

Other (1)

P. A. Belov, Y. Zhao, A. Alomainy, and Y. Hao, “Experimental study of the subwavelength imaging by a wire medium slab,” in Antenna Technology: Small and Smart Antennas Metamaterials and Applications, 2007. IWAT '07. International Workshop on, 459–462, (2007).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Physical wire medium formed by an array of thin wires periodically arranged in rectangular lattice. a and b denote the lattice constants in y- and z- directions respectively. The thin wires are aligned in x-direction, and are uniform, with radii r and length d.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The transmission coefficient as a function of the transverse component of wave component k y d /π for   k 0 =π/d calculated by using FDTD and analytical method. (a)  k p =4.8415 k 0 ; (b) k p =9.683 k 0 .
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The condition where the conventional effective model is sufficiently accurate for   k 0 =π/d .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The coupling between the TE and TM waves in a physical thin wire array as a function of ky.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of the fitted surface γ TM and the source data for the surface fitting γ TM_FDTD obtained through FDTD simulation of physical thin wire array.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The analytical results of the proposed effective media, referenced by the transmission of the thin wire array calculated by FDTD. (a) k p =4.8415 k 0 ; (b) k p =9.683 k 0 .
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of the conditions where the effective models become inaccurate.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The analytical transmission of the conventional and the proposed effective media, referenced by the FDTD result. The wire array is illuminated by a plane wave with k y = k z 0 . (a) k p =4.8415 k 0 ; (b) k p =9.683 k 0 .
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The analytical results of the conventional and the proposed effective media, referenced by the FDTD result of the thin wire array. The wire array is with filling ratio of (a) 0.0005101 and (b) 0.0015623.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The analytical results of the conventional and the proposed effective media, referenced by the FDTD result of the thin wire array, which is in a rectangular lattice ab .

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 π ln b 2πr + 1 b p y (0) sin p y (0) a cos p y (0) acos q y a + n0 ( 1 b p y (n) sin p y (n) a cos p y (n) acos q y a 1 2π| n | ) =0,
p y (n) =j ( q z + 2πn b ) 2 + q x 2 k 2 , Re{ ( ) }>0 ,
q x 2 + q y 2 + q z 2 = k 2 k p 2 .
ε ¯ ¯ =ε( k, q x )xx+yy+zz ,
ε( k, q x )= ε 0 ( 1 k p 2 k 2 q x 2 ) ,
k p 2 = 2π/( ab ) log ab 2πr +F(a/b ) ,
F(ξ)= 1 2 logξ+ n=1 + ( coth( πnξ )1 n ) + π 6 ξ .
T thin wire array = | H z_imageplane | | H z_sourceplane | .
DR= | T thin wire array T effective | T thin wire array ×100% ,
q x =j γ TM ,
γ TM = k p 2 + k y 2 k 2 ,
T effective = 1 1+ γ TM k y 2 γ x ( γ TM 2 + k 2 ) ctanh( γ TM d /2 ) .
γ TM = k p 2 + k y 2 k 2 +( k y 2 + k p 2 )( A k y 2 k p 2 +B k y 2 k 2 ) ,
γ TM = k p 2 + k y 2 + k z 2 k 2 +( k y 2 + k z 2 + k p 2 )( A k y 2 + k z 2 k p 2 +B k y 2 + k z 2 k 2 ) ,
q x 2 +( q y 2 + q z 2 + k p 2 )( A q y 2 + q z 2 k p 2 +B q y 2 + q z 2 k 2 +1 )= k 2 .
ε 0 ( q y 2 + q z 2 )=ε( k 2 q x 2 ) ,
ε( k, q x , q y , q z )= ε 0 ( 1 A q y 2 + q z 2 k p 2 +B q y 2 + q z 2 k 2 +1 k p 2 k 2 q x 2 ) .

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