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Optica Publishing Group

Background clean-up in Brillouin microspectroscopy of scattering medium

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Abstract

Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging tool for microscopic optical imaging as it allows for non-contact, non-invasive, direct assessment of the elastic properties of materials. However, strong elastic scattering and stray light from various sources often contaminate the Brillouin spectrum. A molecular absorption cell was introduced into the virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) based Brillouin spectroscopy setup to absorb the Rayleigh component, which resulted in a substantial improvement of the Brillouin spectrum quality.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Brillouin spectroscopy is a powerful technique for material characterization [1, 2], providing unique information about the mechanical properties of a substance [1], and has found wide usage in remote sensing [3], material science [4, 5] and biomedical applications [6, 7]. Brillouin scattering originates from the inelastic interaction between the incident electromagnetic wave and the acoustic phonons within the material. As a result, the incident optical frequency experiences a shift proportional to the speed of sound in the medium. Thus, the medium’s elastic modulus, which is directly related with the speed of sound in the medium, can be determined simply by measuring the Brillouin shift. Compared to other imaging techniques that are capable of quantifying material’s mechanical properties (e.g., [810]), Brillouin spectroscopy offers a non-contact, non-invasive, and label-free contrast mechanism with microscopic spatial resolution. The microscopic elasticity of the living organisms enables investigations of cell mechanics with a sub-micron resolution, which is essential for understanding biological development and disease pathophysiology [11].

In Brillouin spectroscopy, the measured frequency shifts are small (in the range of GHz). Recently, by taking advantage of single- or multi-stage virtually imaged phased array (VIPA [12]), Scarcelli and Yun employed Brillouin spectroscopy to acquire 2D in situ images of biological tissues [13, 14]. Compared with conventional scanning Fabry-Perot interferometers, VIPA spectrometers enable better signal-to-noise ratio over a shorter acquisition time, while maintaining good spectral resolution [4]. However, a relatively weak signal level makes it difficult to be distinguished from the elastic scattering background. This becomes a significant issue when imaging biological tissues, where strong elastic scattering often saturates the CCD detector. Moreover, this problem is further compounded when paired with the usual imperfections of a typical optical setup, which often couples in stray light and diffracted beams. Scarcelli and Yun [14] addressed these difficulties by introducing a multi-stage VIPA setup, which provides an additional 25 dB of background suppression. However, in most practical applications involving confocal imaging of highly scattering samples, even stronger background suppression is necessary. One possible strategy to surmount this problem would be to add additional VIPAs, and, while this would reduce the background, it would also further complicate the optical setup as well as significantly reduce the useful Brillouin signal. It would be highly desirable to employ a very narrow notch filter prior to the VIPA spectrometer, allowing only inelastic components to transmit.

In this study, we demonstrate that gaseous absorption cells are capable of acting as the desired notch filters, thus making VIPA-based Brillouin spectrometers simpler and more efficient. If the incident radiation is in a resonance with a narrow-band atomic or molecular transition, selective absorption will reduce the transmitted intensity of the incident light, leaving the off-resonant radiation mostly unperturbed [15]. The excited molecule can then decay by spontaneous fluorescent emission or other non-emitting mechanisms. Compared to the incident photons, the emitted photons can often be less energetic and are likely to propagate in random directions. For this study, we chose iodine vapor due to the many vibronic transitions around 532 nm from the ground state, X1g+, to the 2nd excited state, B30u+, where the typical linewidth for a transition is less than 0.05 cm−1 (<1.5 GHz) [16], which is perfectly suitable for Brillouin spectroscopy. We note that the atomic/molecular absorption cells were first employed in Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy applications in the 1970s [17, 18] and have been in use throughout the 1980s and 1990s. For example, the iodine absorption cell was employed when measuring low-frequency Raman shifts [19], and a rubidium absorption cell was used in Fourier transform Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy [20]. In this study, we, for the first time, utilize a VIPA spectrometer in conjunction with a molecular absorption cell, which allows the acquisition of in-vivo mechanical property specific microscopic images. In this report, for the sake of simplicity, we only demonstrate spectroscopic applications to illustrate the proof of principle.

2. Experimental approach

Figure 1(a) portrays the basic experimental arrangement. A 532-nm single mode solid-state laser (Lasermate Group Inc.; model: GMSL-532-100FHA) was employed as the pump. The center wavelength is specified as 532.1070 nm ± 0.3 pm in vacuum with its maximum output power at ~100 mW. The nominal output linewidth is ~640 kHz. An optical isolator (Electro-Optics Technology, Inc., Model: BB-8-05-I-090) prevented unwanted feedback from the rest of the optical setup. A non-polarizing 50/50 beam splitter was placed in the beam path to reflect the backscattered light towards a single mode fiber (Fibercore Inc., Model: SM600, length: 1 m). A microscope objective lens (Nikon Inc., CFI Plan Fluor 20x, N.A. = 0.5) served to both focus the pump onto the sample and to collect the back-scattered light. The power at the sample was less than 40 mW for all the measurements. The sample solution was placed in a quartz cuvette (Starna Cells Inc.). The setup provided a confocal imaging arrangement for future microscopic imaging. The output of the fiber was coupled into a 2-stage VIPA spectrometer.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Schematics of the experimental setup. (b) A more detailed illustration for the 2-stage VIPA spectrometer. (c) (Top) A conceptual diagram showing the working principle of a molecular absorption notch filter; here the absorption band suppresses the Rayleigh scattered light, where “S” and “AS” denote the Stokes and anti-Stokes components, respectively; (Bottom) the measured extinction of the iodine cell as a function of temperature.

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Figure 1(b) depicts the 2-stage VIPA spectrometer in greater detail. The fiber output was collimated by a positive lens and coupled to a 75-mm long cylindrical-shaped (25.4-mm diameter) iodine absorption cell (Opthos Instruments, Inc.). No buffer gas has been added into the cell. The vapor pressure was controlled through the cell’s temperature, which was monitored by K-type thermocouples. A 532-nm line filter was placed behind the iodine cell to filter the undesired emissions. The rest of the 2-stage VIPA spectrometer followed the design set forth by Scarcelli and Yun [14]. The VIPAs (Light Machinery Inc., model: OP-5642) were specifically designed for 532-nm applications with a nominal free spectral range (FSR) of 33.3 GHz. To minimize the parasitic diffraction, 2-inch optical lenses were used within the entire VIPA spectrometer. A CCD camera (Moravian Instruments, model: G2-8300) was employed to collect the signal. We have also tested the single-stage VIPA spectrometer setup (not shown in the figure), which was accomplished by removing the second VIPA (VIPA2) and its corresponding cylindrical lens, while maintaining the rest optical setup.

Figure 1(c) illustrates both the fundamental principle of the molecular absorption cell, and its extinction properties as a function of temperature. Here, the wavelength of our pump laser coincides with absorption line 660 (18793.205 cm−1) as noted in [16]. In this way, the iodine vapor is optically thick for the elastically scattered photons, while optically transparent for Brillouin scattered photons in most cases. There is also a possibility that one of the Brillouin components (Stokes or anti-Stokes) coincides with another absorption band, such as the situation shown in Fig. 1(c). For example, the anti-Stokes peaks may hit absorption lines 661 and 662, which correspond to ~5.87 GHz and ~8.24 GHz in frequency. The Stokes peaks may be absorbed by lines 659 and 658, equivalent with ~2.65 GHz and ~23.32 GHz in frequency. However, it is unlikely that the Stokes and anti-Stokes peaks are simultaneously and strongly affected by the iodine vapor, unless the heating temperature is relatively high (> 70 °C), and Doppler and pressure broadenings become severe. The Brillouin shift could still be measured from the unattenuated peak.

To verify the extinction ability of the iodine cell, we measured the extinction efficiency as a function of the iodine cell temperature. The iodine cell was heated up to 150 °C, and cooled ambiently at a cooling rate less than 2 °C / min. The transmitted power decreased as the iodine cell was heated due to the increase in the iodine vapor density. The power suppression was over −50 dB when the iodine cell was heated above 100 °C, where absorption line broadening dominates (e.g., Doppler broadening and pressure broadening [21]).

3. Experimental results

We first tested the capabilities of the 2-stage VIPA spectrometer both with and without the assistance of the iodine cell. The results are shown in Fig. 2(a) and 2(b). Here, we chose acetone as the sample, and an integration time of 20 s was used for both acquisitions. In Fig. 2(a), the Brillouin components were well separated from the elastic components, but the elastic component and the surrounding pixels give relatively strong signal. To the contrary, with assistance of the iodine cell, the elastically scattered component was substantially absorbed as shown in Fig. 2(b), though still remained visible as a reference.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) The CCD image of the VIPA spectrometer for acetone, without the iodine cell (35 mW, 20 sec); (b) The CCD image for acetone, with the iodine cell heated at 60 °C (35 mW, 20 sec); (c) Quantatitive pixel readings within the blue box shown in (b); (d) Contour plot of the same data in (b). The data plotted in (c) are indicated with arrows.

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Figure 2(c) and 2(d) depicts the suppression efficiency as a function of the iodine cell temperature. For this experiment, we heated the iodine cell to over 150 °C, and let it cool down naturally. A small rectangular box of the CCD image was selected along the diagonal line shown in Fig. 2(b). The pixel readings were interpolated and added along the direction of the short edge of the rectangle. Figure 2(c) shows the results at some typical heating temperatures. For temperatures below 60 °C, two periodic triplet structures are apparent within those plots, where each of those triplet structures contains the elastically scattered components (central peak), as well as the anti-Stokes (left) and Stokes (right) components for Brillouin scattering. The intensity of both the Rayleigh and Brillouin components decreased with increasing temperature. However, the Rayleigh component is suppressed much more strongly and more quickly as the temperature increases. At 60 °C, the elastically scattered peak was almost unnoticeable, leaving only the Brillouin peaks. Figure 2(d) summarizes the data shown in Fig. 2(c) and extends it to other temperatures. Due to the absorption line broadening, at the temperatures above 110 °C, all the spectral components disappear below the noise limit of our detection. The Stokes component is still discernable at 100 °C, whereas the anti-Stokes peak, which partially overlaps with one of the absorption lines, disappears above ~75 °C. In contrast, the elastic component disappears above ~60 °C. Due to a slight wavelength drift of the laser source, the position of the Brillouin and elastic peaks do not remain the same during the entire experiment. The 40 °C data was taken 40 minutes later than the 100 °C data. A 16-pixels drift has been identified between them, which corresponds to ~370 MHz in frequency.

The presence of elastic scattering significantly complicates the situation. To induce some scattering, we added some coffee cream (mainly, lipid droplets in water) to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). With as little as 4 μL of coffee cream added to 4 mL of DMSO, the solution became highly scattering, as shown in Fig. 3(a). Figure 3(b) and 3(c) show the Brillouin scattering results for the mixture. To minimize absorption, we positioned the focal plane of the objective at the cuvette-sample interface. As shown in Fig. 3(b), the CCD reading for the two-stage VIPA spectrometer without the iodine cell shows substantial background. In contrast, Fig. 3(c) shows a CCD image with the assistance of the iodine cell, which was kept at ~80 °C. The contamination of elastically scattered photons was reduced, and the Brillouin peaks are clearly shown. Figure 3(d) quantitatively illustrates the ratio between the elastic and Brillouin signals as a function of the iodine cell’s temperature. Here, the signal strength refers to the total number of photons for each peak. For all samples, this ratio decreases with the increasing temperature.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) Pure DMSO (right) and DMSO with 4 μL coffee cream (left). (b, c) The CCD readings of the 2-stage VIPA spectrometer with (b) and without (c) the iodine cell. (d) The signal ratio between elastically scattered and Brillouin scattered components.

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The single-stage VIPA setup was also tested. Figures 4(a) and 4(b) shows the CCD images of the single-stage VIPA spectrometer with a 2 s integration time. Here, three heating temperatures were tested: 120 °C, 80 °C, and 40 °C. Unlike the 2-stage VIPA, the single-stage VIPA spectrometer has a higher transmission rate [14], making Stokes peak still visible at 120 °C. A dip in the anti-Stokes peak (marked by an arrow) is possibly induced by absorption line 662 of the iodine vapor as noted in [16]. Figure 4(b) shows the average signal along the horizontal direction in Fig. 4(a). Based on the Stokes peak, the Brillouin shift was measured to be 8.395 ± 0.008 GHz with a linewidth of 1.674 ± 0.037 GHz, which is in good agreement with previous reports [22]. In the case of the DMSO solution with added scattering agents (coffee cream), the Brillouin components become visible when the iodine cell is heated up to 80 °C. The corresponding Brillouin shift was measured to be 8.535 ± 0.034 GHz with a linewidth of 1.986 ± 0.219 GHz.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a-b) The CCD image of the single-stage VIPA spectrometer for pure DMSO; the Brillouin shift is 8.320 ± 0.008 GHz, with a linewidth (FWHM) of 1.745 ± 0.035 GHz. (c) The single-stage VIPA spectrum for the DMSO solution with added scatterers.

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4. Discussion

The recent development of VIPA spectrometers has greatly enhanced the signal acquisition efficiency and simplified the Brillouin spectroscopy setup. In this report, we have successfully demonstrated that molecular absorption cells can be implemented as valuable notch filters in VIPA spectrometers. The background associated with elastic scattering is substantially lowered, and the relatively weak Brillouin peaks are easily identifiable. With the assistance of molecular absorption cells, Brillouin spectroscopy could be used to study turbid samples, including collagen fibers, bones [23], high density lipid solutions, and blood [14]. Moreover, when utilizing absorption cells, single-stage VIPA spectrometers are capable of characterizing turbid samples; this reduces acquisition time and substantially simplifies the optical system.

The use of absorption cells as notch filters could be extended to other pump wavelengths. For example, rubidium vapor provides absorption lines at 780 nm and 795 nm, while potassium vapor is highly absorptive at 764 nm and 770 nm. These wavelengths are ideal for biomedical applications as they are well within the transparency window for optimized penetration depth for living organisms. However, the iodine vapor provides the highest figure of merit among popular atomic/molecular filters (e.g., I2, Hg, Cs, Pb, Ba, K, etc.) [24].

The application of absorption cells requires strict stabilization of the laser source. The solid-state laser source employed in this study showed satisfied short- and long-term stabilities. For future routine uses, the diode laser sources are preferred, due to their superior tunabilities and stabilities. The frequency locking procedures will be performed for further stabilization [25].

In this study, the absorption bands for molecular iodine vapor are densely distributed around the pump wavelength (~532 nm). Therefore, Brillouin peaks are likely to be absorbed, which would affect the shape and accurate identification of those peaks. To calculate the exact Brillouin shift, a full knowledge of the absorption spectrum for the absorbing agent is required. This can be studied with tunable diode lasers with ultrahigh spectral resolutions. As a result, compensating algorithms can be established, and the Brillouin shift can be determined with better accuracy.

5. Summary

We have demonstrated a simple and efficient Brillouin microspectroscopy setup, which allows for an accurate assessment of Brillouin spectra of highly scattering samples. It consists of an iodine cell and a single-stage VIPA spectrometer. The set-up is less expensive than multiple-stage VIPA spectrometer, is easy to align and provides a flexibility in controlling the background to signal ratio. We anticipate the wide use of this experimental arrangement in future applications of Brillouin spectroscopy.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the start-up funds available through Texas A&M University. Authors also acknowledge the support of the NIH (Grant #R21EB011703) and the NSF (ECS Grant #10665620, DBI Grant #10665621, and CBET Grant #10665623).

References and links

1. L. Brillouin, “Diffusion de la lumière et des rayons X par un corps transparent homogène. Influence de l’agitation thermique,” Ann. Phys. (Paris) 17, 88–122 (1922).

2. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).

3. G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991). [CrossRef]  

4. K. J. Koski and J. L. Yarger, “Brillouin imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061903 (2005). [CrossRef]  

5. M. H. Manghnani, S. N. Tkachev, P. V. Zinin, C. Glorieoux, P. Karvankova, and S. Veprek, “Elastic properties of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN/a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054308 (2005). [CrossRef]  

6. O. Stachs, S. Reiss, R. Guthoff, and H. Stolz, “Spatially-resolved Brillouin spectroscopy for in vivo determination of the biomechanical properties of crystalline lenses,” in Ophthalmic Technologies Xxii, F. Manns, P. G. Soderberg, and A. Ho, eds. (SPIE, 2012).

7. G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. V. J. Robertson and K. G. Baker, “A review of therapeutic ultrasound: effectiveness studies,” Phys. Ther. 81(7), 1339–1350 (2001). [PubMed]  

9. D. W. Ball, “Photoacoustic Spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy 21, 14 (2006).

10. S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Tondre, R. Wong, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “AFM-based analysis of human metastatic cancer cells,” Nanotechnology 19(38), 384003 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. M. Shirasaki, “Virtually imaged phased array,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 35, 113–125 (1999).

13. G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Multistage VIPA etalons for high-extinction parallel Brillouin spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10913–10922 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. P. Piironen and E. W. Eloranta, “Demonstration of a high-spectral-resolution lidar based on an iodine absorption filter,” Opt. Lett. 19(3), 234–236 (1994). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. J. Simmons and J. Hougen, “Atlas of the l2 Spectrum from 19 000 to 18 000 cm−1,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stan. A Phys. Chem. 81A, 80 (1977).

17. G. E. Devlin, J. L. Davis, L. Chase, and S. Geschwind, “Absorption of unshifted scattered light by a molecular i2 filter in Brillouin and Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(5), 138–141 (1971). [CrossRef]  

18. P. Schoen and D. Jackson, “The iodine filter in Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5(6), 519–521 (1972). [CrossRef]  

19. K. F. Wall and R. K. Chang, “Separation of the low-frequency mode from the inelastic continuum scattering of a SERS active electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 129(2), 144–148 (1986). [CrossRef]  

20. P. J. Horoyski and M. L. W. Thewalt, “Fourier transform Raman and Brillouin Spectroscopy using atomic vapor filters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48(7), 843–847 (1994). [CrossRef]  

21. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

22. V. Syal, S. Chauhan, and R. Gautam, “Ultrasonic velocity measurements of carbohydrates in binary mixtures of DMSO + H2O at 25° C,” Ultrasonics 36(1-5), 619–623 (1998). [CrossRef]  

23. P. Fratzl, H. Gupta, E. Paschalis, and P. Roschger, “Structure and mechanical quality of the collagen–mineral nano-composite in bone,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(14), 2115–2123 (2004). [CrossRef]  

24. A. P. Yalin, “Gas phase and plasma diagnostics based on resonant atomic vapor filters,” in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 2000).

25. C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62(1), 1–20 (1991). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. L. Brillouin, “Diffusion de la lumière et des rayons X par un corps transparent homogène. Influence de l’agitation thermique,” Ann. Phys. (Paris) 17, 88–122 (1922).
  2. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).
  3. G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. J. Koski and J. L. Yarger, “Brillouin imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061903 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. H. Manghnani, S. N. Tkachev, P. V. Zinin, C. Glorieoux, P. Karvankova, and S. Veprek, “Elastic properties of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN/a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054308 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. O. Stachs, S. Reiss, R. Guthoff, and H. Stolz, “Spatially-resolved Brillouin spectroscopy for in vivo determination of the biomechanical properties of crystalline lenses,” in Ophthalmic Technologies Xxii, F. Manns, P. G. Soderberg, and A. Ho, eds. (SPIE, 2012).
  7. G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. V. J. Robertson and K. G. Baker, “A review of therapeutic ultrasound: effectiveness studies,” Phys. Ther. 81(7), 1339–1350 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  9. D. W. Ball, “Photoacoustic Spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy 21, 14 (2006).
  10. S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Tondre, R. Wong, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “AFM-based analysis of human metastatic cancer cells,” Nanotechnology 19(38), 384003 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Shirasaki, “Virtually imaged phased array,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 35, 113–125 (1999).
  13. G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Multistage VIPA etalons for high-extinction parallel Brillouin spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10913–10922 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. P. Piironen and E. W. Eloranta, “Demonstration of a high-spectral-resolution lidar based on an iodine absorption filter,” Opt. Lett. 19(3), 234–236 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. Simmons and J. Hougen, “Atlas of the l2 Spectrum from 19 000 to 18 000 cm−1,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stan. A Phys. Chem. 81A, 80 (1977).
  17. G. E. Devlin, J. L. Davis, L. Chase, and S. Geschwind, “Absorption of unshifted scattered light by a molecular i2 filter in Brillouin and Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(5), 138–141 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. Schoen and D. Jackson, “The iodine filter in Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5(6), 519–521 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. F. Wall and R. K. Chang, “Separation of the low-frequency mode from the inelastic continuum scattering of a SERS active electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 129(2), 144–148 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. J. Horoyski and M. L. W. Thewalt, “Fourier transform Raman and Brillouin Spectroscopy using atomic vapor filters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48(7), 843–847 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).
  22. V. Syal, S. Chauhan, and R. Gautam, “Ultrasonic velocity measurements of carbohydrates in binary mixtures of DMSO + H2O at 25° C,” Ultrasonics 36(1-5), 619–623 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Fratzl, H. Gupta, E. Paschalis, and P. Roschger, “Structure and mechanical quality of the collagen–mineral nano-composite in bone,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(14), 2115–2123 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. P. Yalin, “Gas phase and plasma diagnostics based on resonant atomic vapor filters,” in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 2000).
  25. C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62(1), 1–20 (1991).
    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Tondre, R. Wong, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “AFM-based analysis of human metastatic cancer cells,” Nanotechnology 19(38), 384003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

D. W. Ball, “Photoacoustic Spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy 21, 14 (2006).

2005 (2)

K. J. Koski and J. L. Yarger, “Brillouin imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061903 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. H. Manghnani, S. N. Tkachev, P. V. Zinin, C. Glorieoux, P. Karvankova, and S. Veprek, “Elastic properties of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN/a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054308 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Fratzl, H. Gupta, E. Paschalis, and P. Roschger, “Structure and mechanical quality of the collagen–mineral nano-composite in bone,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(14), 2115–2123 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

V. J. Robertson and K. G. Baker, “A review of therapeutic ultrasound: effectiveness studies,” Phys. Ther. 81(7), 1339–1350 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Shirasaki, “Virtually imaged phased array,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 35, 113–125 (1999).

1998 (1)

V. Syal, S. Chauhan, and R. Gautam, “Ultrasonic velocity measurements of carbohydrates in binary mixtures of DMSO + H2O at 25° C,” Ultrasonics 36(1-5), 619–623 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

1991 (2)

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62(1), 1–20 (1991).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

K. F. Wall and R. K. Chang, “Separation of the low-frequency mode from the inelastic continuum scattering of a SERS active electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 129(2), 144–148 (1986).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. Schoen and D. Jackson, “The iodine filter in Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5(6), 519–521 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

G. E. Devlin, J. L. Davis, L. Chase, and S. Geschwind, “Absorption of unshifted scattered light by a molecular i2 filter in Brillouin and Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(5), 138–141 (1971).
[Crossref]

1922 (1)

L. Brillouin, “Diffusion de la lumière et des rayons X par un corps transparent homogène. Influence de l’agitation thermique,” Ann. Phys. (Paris) 17, 88–122 (1922).

Baker, K. G.

V. J. Robertson and K. G. Baker, “A review of therapeutic ultrasound: effectiveness studies,” Phys. Ther. 81(7), 1339–1350 (2001).
[PubMed]

Ball, D. W.

D. W. Ball, “Photoacoustic Spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy 21, 14 (2006).

Brillouin, L.

L. Brillouin, “Diffusion de la lumière et des rayons X par un corps transparent homogène. Influence de l’agitation thermique,” Ann. Phys. (Paris) 17, 88–122 (1922).

Carnes, M.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. K.

K. F. Wall and R. K. Chang, “Separation of the low-frequency mode from the inelastic continuum scattering of a SERS active electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 129(2), 144–148 (1986).
[Crossref]

Chase, L.

G. E. Devlin, J. L. Davis, L. Chase, and S. Geschwind, “Absorption of unshifted scattered light by a molecular i2 filter in Brillouin and Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(5), 138–141 (1971).
[Crossref]

Chauhan, S.

V. Syal, S. Chauhan, and R. Gautam, “Ultrasonic velocity measurements of carbohydrates in binary mixtures of DMSO + H2O at 25° C,” Ultrasonics 36(1-5), 619–623 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cross, S. E.

S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Tondre, R. Wong, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “AFM-based analysis of human metastatic cancer cells,” Nanotechnology 19(38), 384003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, J. L.

G. E. Devlin, J. L. Davis, L. Chase, and S. Geschwind, “Absorption of unshifted scattered light by a molecular i2 filter in Brillouin and Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(5), 138–141 (1971).
[Crossref]

Devlin, G. E.

G. E. Devlin, J. L. Davis, L. Chase, and S. Geschwind, “Absorption of unshifted scattered light by a molecular i2 filter in Brillouin and Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(5), 138–141 (1971).
[Crossref]

Discher, D.

D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, C.

D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eloranta, E. W.

Fratzl, P.

P. Fratzl, H. Gupta, E. Paschalis, and P. Roschger, “Structure and mechanical quality of the collagen–mineral nano-composite in bone,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(14), 2115–2123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fredberg, J. J.

D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fry, E. S.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gautam, R.

V. Syal, S. Chauhan, and R. Gautam, “Ultrasonic velocity measurements of carbohydrates in binary mixtures of DMSO + H2O at 25° C,” Ultrasonics 36(1-5), 619–623 (1998).
[Crossref]

Geschwind, S.

G. E. Devlin, J. L. Davis, L. Chase, and S. Geschwind, “Absorption of unshifted scattered light by a molecular i2 filter in Brillouin and Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(5), 138–141 (1971).
[Crossref]

Gimzewski, J. K.

S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Tondre, R. Wong, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “AFM-based analysis of human metastatic cancer cells,” Nanotechnology 19(38), 384003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glorieoux, C.

M. H. Manghnani, S. N. Tkachev, P. V. Zinin, C. Glorieoux, P. Karvankova, and S. Veprek, “Elastic properties of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN/a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054308 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guilak, F.

D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, H.

P. Fratzl, H. Gupta, E. Paschalis, and P. Roschger, “Structure and mechanical quality of the collagen–mineral nano-composite in bone,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(14), 2115–2123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Harding, J. M.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hickman, G. D.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62(1), 1–20 (1991).
[Crossref]

Horoyski, P. J.

Ingber, D.

D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, D.

P. Schoen and D. Jackson, “The iodine filter in Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5(6), 519–521 (1972).
[Crossref]

Janmey, P.

D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, Y.-S.

S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Tondre, R. Wong, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “AFM-based analysis of human metastatic cancer cells,” Nanotechnology 19(38), 384003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamm, R. D.

D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karvankova, P.

M. H. Manghnani, S. N. Tkachev, P. V. Zinin, C. Glorieoux, P. Karvankova, and S. Veprek, “Elastic properties of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN/a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054308 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kattawar, G. W.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Koski, K. J.

K. J. Koski and J. L. Yarger, “Brillouin imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Manghnani, M. H.

M. H. Manghnani, S. N. Tkachev, P. V. Zinin, C. Glorieoux, P. Karvankova, and S. Veprek, “Elastic properties of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN/a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054308 (2005).
[Crossref]

Paschalis, E.

P. Fratzl, H. Gupta, E. Paschalis, and P. Roschger, “Structure and mechanical quality of the collagen–mineral nano-composite in bone,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(14), 2115–2123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Piironen, P.

Pineda, R.

G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pressman, A.

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rao, J.

S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Tondre, R. Wong, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “AFM-based analysis of human metastatic cancer cells,” Nanotechnology 19(38), 384003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robertson, V. J.

V. J. Robertson and K. G. Baker, “A review of therapeutic ultrasound: effectiveness studies,” Phys. Ther. 81(7), 1339–1350 (2001).
[PubMed]

Roschger, P.

P. Fratzl, H. Gupta, E. Paschalis, and P. Roschger, “Structure and mechanical quality of the collagen–mineral nano-composite in bone,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(14), 2115–2123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Scarcelli, G.

G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Multistage VIPA etalons for high-extinction parallel Brillouin spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10913–10922 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid-Schönbein, G. W.

D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schoen, P.

P. Schoen and D. Jackson, “The iodine filter in Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5(6), 519–521 (1972).
[Crossref]

Shirasaki, M.

M. Shirasaki, “Virtually imaged phased array,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 35, 113–125 (1999).

Syal, V.

V. Syal, S. Chauhan, and R. Gautam, “Ultrasonic velocity measurements of carbohydrates in binary mixtures of DMSO + H2O at 25° C,” Ultrasonics 36(1-5), 619–623 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thewalt, M. L. W.

Tkachev, S. N.

M. H. Manghnani, S. N. Tkachev, P. V. Zinin, C. Glorieoux, P. Karvankova, and S. Veprek, “Elastic properties of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN/a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054308 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tondre, J.

S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Tondre, R. Wong, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “AFM-based analysis of human metastatic cancer cells,” Nanotechnology 19(38), 384003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veprek, S.

M. H. Manghnani, S. N. Tkachev, P. V. Zinin, C. Glorieoux, P. Karvankova, and S. Veprek, “Elastic properties of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN/a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054308 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wall, K. F.

K. F. Wall and R. K. Chang, “Separation of the low-frequency mode from the inelastic continuum scattering of a SERS active electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 129(2), 144–148 (1986).
[Crossref]

Weinbaum, S.

D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62(1), 1–20 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wong, R.

S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Tondre, R. Wong, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “AFM-based analysis of human metastatic cancer cells,” Nanotechnology 19(38), 384003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yarger, J. L.

K. J. Koski and J. L. Yarger, “Brillouin imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. H.

G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Multistage VIPA etalons for high-extinction parallel Brillouin spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10913–10922 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zinin, P. V.

M. H. Manghnani, S. N. Tkachev, P. V. Zinin, C. Glorieoux, P. Karvankova, and S. Veprek, “Elastic properties of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN/a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054308 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

D. Discher, C. Dong, J. J. Fredberg, F. Guilak, D. Ingber, P. Janmey, R. D. Kamm, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, and S. Weinbaum, “Biomechanics: Cell research and applications for the next decade,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(5), 847–859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. (Paris) (1)

L. Brillouin, “Diffusion de la lumière et des rayons X par un corps transparent homogène. Influence de l’agitation thermique,” Ann. Phys. (Paris) 17, 88–122 (1922).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. J. Koski and J. L. Yarger, “Brillouin imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061903 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. E. Devlin, J. L. Davis, L. Chase, and S. Geschwind, “Absorption of unshifted scattered light by a molecular i2 filter in Brillouin and Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(5), 138–141 (1971).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. F. Wall and R. K. Chang, “Separation of the low-frequency mode from the inelastic continuum scattering of a SERS active electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 129(2), 144–148 (1986).
[Crossref]

Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. (1)

M. Shirasaki, “Virtually imaged phased array,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 35, 113–125 (1999).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

G. Scarcelli, R. Pineda, and S. H. Yun, “Brillouin optical microscopy for corneal biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 185–190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. H. Manghnani, S. N. Tkachev, P. V. Zinin, C. Glorieoux, P. Karvankova, and S. Veprek, “Elastic properties of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN/a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054308 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

P. Fratzl, H. Gupta, E. Paschalis, and P. Roschger, “Structure and mechanical quality of the collagen–mineral nano-composite in bone,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(14), 2115–2123 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Schoen and D. Jackson, “The iodine filter in Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5(6), 519–521 (1972).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Tondre, R. Wong, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “AFM-based analysis of human metastatic cancer cells,” Nanotechnology 19(38), 384003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Ther. (1)

V. J. Robertson and K. G. Baker, “A review of therapeutic ultrasound: effectiveness studies,” Phys. Ther. 81(7), 1339–1350 (2001).
[PubMed]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

G. D. Hickman, J. M. Harding, M. Carnes, A. Pressman, G. W. Kattawar, and E. S. Fry, “Aircraft laser sensing of sound velocity in water: Brillouin scattering,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36(3), 165–178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62(1), 1–20 (1991).
[Crossref]

Spectroscopy (1)

D. W. Ball, “Photoacoustic Spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy 21, 14 (2006).

Ultrasonics (1)

V. Syal, S. Chauhan, and R. Gautam, “Ultrasonic velocity measurements of carbohydrates in binary mixtures of DMSO + H2O at 25° C,” Ultrasonics 36(1-5), 619–623 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

A. P. Yalin, “Gas phase and plasma diagnostics based on resonant atomic vapor filters,” in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 2000).

O. Stachs, S. Reiss, R. Guthoff, and H. Stolz, “Spatially-resolved Brillouin spectroscopy for in vivo determination of the biomechanical properties of crystalline lenses,” in Ophthalmic Technologies Xxii, F. Manns, P. G. Soderberg, and A. Ho, eds. (SPIE, 2012).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).

J. Simmons and J. Hougen, “Atlas of the l2 Spectrum from 19 000 to 18 000 cm−1,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stan. A Phys. Chem. 81A, 80 (1977).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematics of the experimental setup. (b) A more detailed illustration for the 2-stage VIPA spectrometer. (c) (Top) A conceptual diagram showing the working principle of a molecular absorption notch filter; here the absorption band suppresses the Rayleigh scattered light, where “S” and “AS” denote the Stokes and anti-Stokes components, respectively; (Bottom) the measured extinction of the iodine cell as a function of temperature.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The CCD image of the VIPA spectrometer for acetone, without the iodine cell (35 mW, 20 sec); (b) The CCD image for acetone, with the iodine cell heated at 60 °C (35 mW, 20 sec); (c) Quantatitive pixel readings within the blue box shown in (b); (d) Contour plot of the same data in (b). The data plotted in (c) are indicated with arrows.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Pure DMSO (right) and DMSO with 4 μL coffee cream (left). (b, c) The CCD readings of the 2-stage VIPA spectrometer with (b) and without (c) the iodine cell. (d) The signal ratio between elastically scattered and Brillouin scattered components.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a-b) The CCD image of the single-stage VIPA spectrometer for pure DMSO; the Brillouin shift is 8.320 ± 0.008 GHz, with a linewidth (FWHM) of 1.745 ± 0.035 GHz. (c) The single-stage VIPA spectrum for the DMSO solution with added scatterers.

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