Abstract

This work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel photosensitive and all-optically fast-controllable photonic bandgap (PBG) device based on a dye-doped blue phase (DDBP), embedded with a low-concentration azobenzene liquid crystal (azo-LC). PBG of the DDBP can be reversibly fast-tuned off and on with the successive illumination of a weak UV and green beams. UV irradiation can transform the trans azo-LCs into bend cis isomers, which can easily disturb LCs at the boundary between the double twisting cylinders (DTCs) and the disclinations, and, then, quickly destabilize BPI to become a BPIII-like texture with randomly-oriented DTCs. Doing so may quickly destroy the BP PBG structure. However, with the successive illumination of a green beam, the BPI PBG device can be fast-turned on, owing to the fast disappearance of the disturbance of the azo-LCs on the boundary LCs via the green-beam-induced cistrans back isomerization. The response time and irradiated energy density for turning off (on) the BP PBG device under the UV (green) beam irradiation are only 120 ms (120 ms) and 0.764 mJ/cm2 (2.12 mJ/cm2), respectively, which are a thousand-fold reduction in photoswitching a traditional cholesteric LC (CLC) PBG device based on similar experimental conditions (i.e., materials used, azo-LC concentration (1 wt%), spectral position of PBG peak, sample thickness, and temperature difference for a working temperature lower than the clearing one). The BP PBG device can significantly contribute to efforts to develop a photosensitive and all-optically fast-controlling LC laser.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Photonic crystals (PhCs) have received considerable attention recently owing to their peculiarities in structure and features and potential use in fields of photonics, microwave, chemistry, and biomedicine [1]. PhCs possess a spatially periodic structure with a sufficiently high modulation of refractive index, thus representing a fascinating feature of photonic bandgaps (PBGs). Photons with wavelengths within the PBGs are prohibited from propagating inside the PhCs. Accordingly, PhCs are highly promising for various passive and active photonic device applications, including waveguides, mirrors, beam splitters, couplers, filters, sensors, switches, isolators, modulators, microresonators, and microlasers [29]. However, most dielectric PhCs are limited by their insufficient flexibility in external controllability and complex fabrication (especially for three-dimensional (3D) PhCs [7]). Above constraints seriously limit PhCs-related applications. Such limited applications are owing to that their PBGs are inflexibly determined by structural parameters (e.g., periodicity), which are difficult to alter if PhC fabrication has been completed. Hence, several special soft matters, including cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) and blue phases (BPs), are superior to typical PhCs because in addition to their self-assembly as periodic photonic structures, they also exhibit long length-scaled softness, high susceptibilities, and highly flexible modulatability of phases or morphologies, explaining why the PBG structures of these materials respond quickly to external stimuli [10].

BPs are mesophases between cholesteric and isotropic phases [1012]. With simple mixing of a nematics and a highly concentrated chiral matter, BPs can self-organize into a 3D crystal structure through naturally ordered stack of double-twisted cylinders (DTCs), in which disclination lines may inevitably form between the DTCs [12]. Three phases, i.e. BPIII, BPII, and BPI, likely exhibit in order when the temperature of the chiral nematics is decreased from isotropic to cholesteric phases. BPIII is amorphous with local cubic lattice structures, whereas both BPI and BPII have 3D periodic structures with body-centered cubic and simple cubic symmetries, respectively. For BPI and BPII, the lattice constant magnitudes are in the order of the visible region wavelength, thereby exhibiting selective Bragg reflection [1123]. In contrast to the CLCs with only one-dimensional (1D) periodicity, the specific crystal lattices allow BPs to exhibit 3D PhC features [1023], which are promising for use in the complete 3D confinement of photons. Given their PBG feature, BPs have been used to develop several photonic devices, including color filters [1315, 17] and lasers [1823].

In BP lasers, a slight amount of laser dye, as the active medium, is doped into mirrorless 3D BP resonators [1823]. The fluorescence emission, induced by the optically pumped laser dyes, can be enhanced owing to the elongated dwelling time of the fluorescence photons via their multiple reflection at the band edges of the PBG of BP [1823]. This active photonic device has the advantages of easy fabrication, miniature cavity size, low threshold, and highly flexible controllability of externality in the lasing features (e.g., lasing wavelength or threshold) by using thermal and electric approaches [22, 23]. Key photonic devices, i.e. all-optical photonic devices, must be developed for photonic applications [17, 2435]. Several interesting products associated with optically controlled PBG photonic devices have been developed by using highly concentrated photosensitive dye-doped liquid crystal (LC)-associated PBG materials [24, 25, 3235]. However, either the long response time or the strong irradiated energy density of light (i.e. low photosensitivity) seriously limits the photonic applications of these PBG devices, thereby necessitating the development of all-optical controlling PBG photonic devices with superior characteristics (e.g., rapid response and high photosensitivity) for photonic applications.

This work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel photosensitive and all-optically fast-controllable dye-doped BP (DDBP) PBG device and laser embedded with a low-concentration (1 wt%) azobenzene LCs (azo-LCs). Experimental results indicate that both PBG and lasing emission of the DDBP cell can be turned off and on quickly with successive irradiation of continuous wave (CW) UV- and green beams with low energy density dosages. Weak UV-beam irradiation can induce the trans →□cis isomerization of azo-LCs that can easily disturb LCs at the boundary of the DTCs and the disclinations of BPI, quickly inducing the instability of BPI with no laborious untwisting of DTCs into a BPIII-like structure with randomly-oriented DTCs. Doing so may turn off the BP PBG and laser quickly. Conversely, the BPI crystal structure and PBG of the BP can recover quickly via the rapid disappearance of this disturbing factor by the green-beam-irradiation-induced cistrans back isomerizations of azo-LCs. The required response time and energy density for photocontrolling the BP PBG device are both a thousand-fold reduction in photoswitching a conventional DDCLC PBG device based on similar experimental conditions (i.e. materials used, azo-LC concentration (1 wt%), spectral position of PBG peak, sample thickness, and temperature difference for working temperature lower than the clearing one).

2. Sample preparation and experimental setups

The DDBP or DDCLC used in this study include 98.5 wt% chiral nematics, 0.5 wt% laser dye (P567, from Exciton) and 1.0 wt% azo-LC (azo-LC 1205, from BEAM Co.). The chiral nematics in the DDBP and DDCLC are composed of nematics, MDA 00-3461 (ne = 1.7718, no = 1.5140 at 20 °C and at 589.3 nm), and left-handed chiral material, S811, (both purchased from Merck) with weight ratios of 60:40 and 72:28, respectively. The uniformly mixed DDBP and DDCLC mixtures are injected into two empty cells, and self-diffuse uniformly in individual cell entirely via capillary effect, forming the DDBP and DDCLC cells, respectively. Each empty cell is pre-assembled by stacking two ITO-coated glass slides that are separated by 12 μm-thick plastic spacers. The empty cells used for the fabrication of DDBP and DDCLC cells are not surface-treated and homogeneously aligned, respectively. The cells are placed inside a hot stage (TS-102V, from INSTEC Co.) that controls the working temperature of the cells. The LC texture in each cell can be identified under the reflection (R)- and transmission (T)-type polarizing optical microscope (POM), respectively, with crossed polarizers (IX-71, from Olympus). The clearing points of the DDBP and the DDCLC are measured at approximately Tc(BP) = 50 °C and Tc(CLC) = 59 °C, respectively.

The reflection and fluorescence (or lasing) emission spectra of the DDBP or DDCLC cells are measured using a reflective fiber (R600-7-SR-125F, from Ocean Optics), in which the incident white light is guided to normally illuminate the cell, and the light reflected or emitted from the cell is received by a fiber-based spectrometer (Jaz-Combo-2, resolution ≅ 1.0 nm, Ocean Optics). One pumped laser beam, derived from a Q-switched Nd:YAG second harmonic generation pulse laser (532 nm wavelength, 8 ns pulse duration, and 10 Hz repetition rate) is utilized as a pumped source for exciting the cells. The pumped pulses beam is divided into two beams with identical energies by a non-polarizing beam splitter, in which one beam is focused by a lens (focal length f = 20 cm) on the cell that is pre-settled in the hot stage, and the other is detected by an energy meter (1916C, from Newport) to measure the incident pumped energy. The fiber-based spectrometer is placed to face the normal of the cell plane with a 1.5 cm distance from the cell to record the lasing output. A notch filter for 532 nm is placed between the fiber and the cell to filter off the background signal from the scattering light of the pulses. A combined half-wave plate and linear polarizer is set in front of the beam splitter to adjust the incident pulse energy. A non-polarized CW UV beam (peak wavelength: 365 nm) with a fixed intensity of IUV = 6.37 mW/cm2 and a CW green beam (from a 532 nm diode-pumped solid-state laser) with a fixed intensity of IG = 17.67 mW/cm2 are installed to illuminate the cell for examining the experiment about the all-optical controlling of the PBG and the lasing output. A light shutter is employed to precisely control the irradiation time of the UV or green beam on the cell.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Optical characteristics and structure of DDBP

According to Fig. 1, the DDBP cell initially lies in the planar CLC phase at 25 °C. Following heating to 52 °C, the phase in the DDBP cell becomes isotropic, which reflects the dark image of the cell under the T- or R-type POM with crossed polarizers. The cell is then cooled at a rather slow rate of 0.1 °C/min. During cooling of the cell from 49 °C to 42 °C, the LC phase is maintained in BP. When the temperature decreases to 41 °C, a focal conic texture begins to form and replace BP. Next, experiments on the all-optically controllable PBG and lasing emission of the DDBP are conducted, in which the working temperature of the cell is fixed at 46 °C, i.e. the middle of the temperature range of BP (42 °C to 49 °C).

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Recorded images of DDBP in imperfect planar CLC phase at T = 25 C, in isotropic phase at T ≥ 52 C, and in BPI at T = 49 C ~42 C in cooling process under the T- and R-type POM with crossed polarizers. At T < 41 C, the focal conic texture appears to replace the BPI. The working temperature of the cell is fixed at 46 °C for performing the all-optical controlling experiments of PBG and lasing emission of the DDBP. The length for the white bar is 200 μm.

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This work also identifies the phase and the lattice planes of DDBP by using a light diffraction scheme (Kossel diagram) [11]. Figure 2 illustrates the measured Kossel diagram of the frustrated platelets of the DDBP at T = 46 °C. The central wavelength of the light beam used for obtaining the Kossel diagram is 456 nm. According to the diffraction pattern, the lattice parameter of DDBP is (110). The black, red, and green curves in Fig. 3(a) display the measured reflection spectra of DDBP and the corresponding recorded images of BP in the dark, after UV irradiation, and after green beam irradiation (following the UV irradiation), respectively. The PBG of DDBP with a central wavelength of approximately 563 nm measured in the dark (as shown in the black curve of Fig. 3(a)) is responsible for the observed yellow-green frustrated platelets in the BP texture. The calculated central wavelength of this PBG can be determined by Bragg’s equation

λ=2nah2+k2+l2,
where n denotes the average index of refraction of the BP material; a represents the lattice constant of the BP crystal structure; and (h k l) refer to the Miller indices of the lattice planes [12]. In this experiment, the Miller indices of the BP material at 46 °C can be determined to be (110) via the Kossel diagram shown in Fig. 2. By substituting n ≅ 1.6, λ = 563 nm, and (h k l) = (110) into Eq. (1), the lattice constant of the BP material can be calculated approximately to be 249 nm, which length is extremely close to the helical pitch of the material in CLC state. For this reason, the BP structure resulting in the measured Bragg reflection in this work must be BPI, owing to this consistency between the lattice constant and the helical pitch [10].

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Measured Kossel diagram of the BPI at 46 °C in the present experiment. The pattern is induced by the diffraction of an incident blue light beam with a central wavelength of 456 nm from the sets of crystal planes of (110) in the BPI crystal structure.

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 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) Measured reflection spectra of the DDBP and corresponding recorded BP images in the dark, after the irradiation of the UV beam with 0.764 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms (IUV = 6.37 mW/cm2), and after the irradiation of the green beam with 2.12 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms (IG = 17.67 mW/cm2), following the UV irradiation (black, red, and green curves, respectively). The blue and purple curves represent the measured reflection spectra after the second and third cycles of successive irradiation of UV-green-beams on the DDBP. (b) Variations of the PBG reflection peak intensity of the DDBP with the illumination times of the UV and green beams (black and red dots, respectively). The DDBP is irradiated by the UV light with 6.37 mW/cm2 and then by the green light with 17.67 mW/cm2, following the UV irradiation.

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3.2 All-optically fast-controllable PBG of DDBP

As anticipated, the PBG of DDBP is modulated by the light irradiation, owing to that the deformed molecular shape of the photo-irradiated azo-LCs likely alters the BPI lattice structure. The vanished PBG, as denoted by the red curve, and the corresponding dark image of the DDBP [Fig. 3(a)] appears to suggest the disappearance of the crystal structure after the cell is irradiated by the UV beam at 0.764 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms (IUV = 6.37 mW/cm2). This finding clearly indicates that the destruction of the BPI crystal structure can be quickly induced under the weak UV irradiation in a short time of 120 ms. Following successive irradiation by the green beam at 2.12 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms (IG = 17.67 mW/cm2), the measured reflection spectrum of the DDBP becomes the green curve. Interestingly, both the PBG of BPI and the POM pattern of frustrated platelets reappear, implying the fast recovery of the BPI crystal structure after the weak green-beam irradiation for 120 ms following the UV irradiation. Figure 3(b) illustrates the variations of the peak intensity of PBG for the DDBP cell with increasing illumination times of the successive UV and green-beam irradiations. According to this figure, the response times for turning the DDBP photonic device on or off is approximately 120 ms, which is considerably faster than those of other optically controllable non-BP-based LC photonic devices under irradiation of an CW beam [2435]. This is despite the fact that these previous studies used higher concentrations of photosensitive material in the LC host and stronger energy density of the CW light irradiation.

3.3 Physical model for all-optical fast-controllability of DDBP PBG

The all-optical fast-controllability of the PBG in DDBP can be explained qualitatively based on the model shown in Fig. 4(a). With a crystal structure with a bcc symmetry, BPI can be regarded as 3D-crossed stacks of DTCs in the slow-cooling process, in which disclination lines are inevitably formed between DTCs [1012]. In a dark state, the doped rod-like trans azo-LC molecules (orange rods) can distribute themselves everywhere in the BP. The trans isomers can align themselves locally along the long axes of the neighboring LC molecules (violet rods) owing to the guest-host effect. When the UV photon stream irradiates the DDBP cell, the trans azo-LC molecules, regardless of their positions within the DTCs and the disclination lines or at the boundaries between the DTCs and disclinations, absorb the photons and transform to curve cis isomers via the UV beam irradiation-induced trans-cis isomerization and then disturb the LCs. The efficiently disturbed effect of the LCs by the curve cis isomers at the boundaries is substantially stronger than that within the DTCs. This phenomenon is owing to that the constraint of the twisting force on the LCs in the DTCs is significantly greater than that at the boundary. Without the requirement of laboriously untying the DTCs, the curve cis isomers may disturb the LC molecules at these boundaries (boundary LCs) quickly and efficiently [See the insets of Fig. 4(a)]. Consequently, the entire BPI crystal structure (over the irradiated region) destabilizes quickly and, then, collapses quickly to a state of randomly arranged DTC orientations.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) Mechanisms for all-optical fast-controllability of the DDBP crystal structure (BPI) under the successive irradiation of the UV and green beams. The gray cylinders and black lines are the double-twisted cylinders and disclination lines of the BPI, respectively. The violet rod-like molecules are the LCs, and the orange rod-like and curve molecules are the trans and cis azo-LCs, respectively. (b) The topmost photograph is the DDBP image observed under the POM with crossed polarizers after the UV irradiation. The middle and bottommost POM images of DDPB are observed when the transmission axis of the analyzer is slightly rotated with an identical angle (10°) counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively. The scale bar is 100 μm.

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The model structure with randomly oriented DTCs is BPIII-like rather than isotropic phase. This structure can be verified with the assistance of the POM observation of the LC texture after the UV irradiation. Figure 4(b) summarizes related results. DDBP after UV irradiation exhibits a dark state under crossed polarizers, apparently suggesting an isotropic phase for DDBP. However, the DDBP exhibits a difference in brightness when slightly rotating the transmission axis of the analyzer with an identical angle (10°) in counterclockwise and clockwise directions. This result is largely owing to the optical rotation of randomly-oriented DTCs in a BPIII-like texture rather than an isotropic state [36]. The bent cis isomers at the boundaries may transform back to the rod-like trans isomers via the green-beam-irradiation-induced cis-trans back isomerization, resulting in the quick disappearance of the disturbing factor of the azo-LCs on the boundary LCs, leading to the fast reconstruction of the BPI crystal structure and quick regeneration of the PBG of DDBP.

Reproducibility in the all-optical controllability of BP PBG is also examined. The blue and purple curves in Fig. 3(a) denote the measured reflection spectra after the second and third cycles of successive UV and green beam irradiations, respectively. The PBG of DDBP appears to remain the same in spectral profile and position as that shown after the first cycle of light irradiation. Analytical results (not shown) also indicate that the DDBP device is reliable in its all-optical controlling feature after more than tens of cycle of successive UV and green light irradiation.

3.4 Comparison of DDBP and DDCLC in terms of photocontrolling features

This work also compares the photocontrolling features (including controlling speed and photosensitivity) of DDBP and DDCLC photonic devices. The DDBP and DDCLC cells are fabricated using similar materials and are examined under similar experimental conditions. As mentioned earlier in the Experimental section, although the materials and the weight percentages of the azo-LC doped in the DDBP and DDCLC hosts are the same (1.0 wt%), the weight ratios of NLC and chiral material in the two systems are not. Figure 5 displays the variations in the reflection spectra of DDCLC under different conditions of irradiated time (tUV) and irradiated energy density (DUV) of UV light and working temperature. Figure 5(a) shows the variation of DDCLC PBG when the DDCLC cell is irradiated by the UV beam at DUV = 0~1274 mJ/cm2 (tUV = 0~210 s) at 46 °C. Apparently, the PBG cannot be optically turned off even if the irradiated energy density and irradiated time of the UV light are as high as 1274 mJ/cm2 and as long as 210 s, respectively. This finding is likely owing to that the working temperature (46 °C) is markedly much lower than the clearing temperature of DDCLC (Tc(CLC) = 59 °C). The working temperature of DDCLC is then increased and fixed at 55 °C to compare the experimental results for photocontrolling DDCLC and DDBP. Consequently, the working temperatures for the two cells are both 4 °C lower than their individual clearing temperature, i.e. ΔT = Tc(CLC)−55 °C = Tc(BP)−46 °C = 4 °C. Figure 5(b) shows a similar outcome in which the PBG of DDCLC cannot be optically turned off at DUV = 0~573.3 mJ/cm2 (tUV = 0~90 s) at 55 °C. Table 1 also summarizes the experimental conditions used in the previous experiments based on DDBP and DDCLC. DDBP is more highly light-sensitive in terms of PBG control than that of the DDCLC system because the energy density of the UV irradiation on the DDBP (DBP(46 °C) = 764.4 μJ/cm2) is approximately thousand-fold weaker than that used in DDCLC (DCLC(55°C) = 573.3 mJ/cm2). Moreover, the controlling time for DDBP (120 ms) is approximately thousand-fold faster than that for DDCLC (> 90 s). Notably, DDCLC can still not be turned off although the energy density and the exposure time of the UV irradiation used are markedly higher and longer than those used in photocontrolling DDBP.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Variations of the reflection spectrum of the DDCLC with increasing tUV from 0 s to 210 s and 90 s, respectively, at conditions of (a) DUV = 0~1274 mJ/cm2 and T = 46 °C and (b) DUV = 0 ~573.5 mJ/cm2 and T = 55 °C.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Summarization for the experimental conditions of DDBP and DDCLC cells. λc: central wavelength of the reflection band; Tc: clearing temperature; T: working temperature; tUV and DUV: exposure time and energy density of UV-irradiation, respectively.

The superiority of the DDBP system over DDCLC in terms of the photocontrolling feature is largely owing to the intrinsic difference in the 1D helical CLC structure and 3D BPI crystal structures. The former helical structure is devised globally and continuously by the strongly interactive LC and chiral molecules, whereas the latter is constructed locally and discontinuously by the loose stacking of weakly interactive DTCs. Disturbing and further untwisting the relatively stable and tight helical structure of the CLC into isotropic state are considerably more difficult than destroying the relatively unstable and loose DTC-stacked crystal structure of the BPI without having to laboriously untwist the DTCs into a BPIII-like state with randomly-oriented DTCs. Therefore, the photocontrolling features for the BP system obtained are considerably superior to those based on the CLC system.

3.5 All-optically fast-controllable DDBP laser

An all-optically fast-controllable laser can be developed by fully exploiting the abovementioned all-optically fast-controllable feature of DDBP. Figure 6 illustrates the premeasured absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of the 0.5 wt% P597 doped in MDA00-3461. The peak wavelengths of the fluorescence emission and absorption spectra are located at 550 and 525 nm, respectively. The fluorescence emission and absorption of the laser dye become negligible for wavelengths longer than 650 and 545 nm, respectively. As expected, the lasing emission for the DDBP occurs while considering that the entire PBG of DDBP is located at approximately 545 nm to 585 nm [Fig. 3(a)]. Under this condition, the fluorescence emission is strong, and the reabsorption effect for the emitted fluorescence photons is avoided entirely.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Measured absorption and fluorescence emission spectra (red and blue curves, respectively) of 0.5wt% P567-doped NLC cell.

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Figure 7(a) illustrates the spectral variation of the measured fluorescence emission of the DDBP with the pumped energy (E) from 11 μJ/pulse to 12.3 μJ/pulse. As the pumped energy exceeds the 11 μJ/pulse, a sharp emission peak appears at 569 nm and becomes sharper with an increasing pumped energy. Figure 7(b) illustrates the variations in the peak intensity of the fluorescence output and the corresponding full-widths at half-maximum (FWHM) with the pumped energy. The peak intensity of the fluorescence output increases, and the FWHM decreases nonlinearly with an increasing pumped energy. An energy threshold (Eth) of approximately 11 μJ/pulse is obtained, and the FWHM is as narrow as approximately 1.0 nm at E ≥ 12.1 μJ/pulse. Above data stand for the lasing phenomenon. Figure 8 shows the measured spectra for the left- and right-circularly polarized fluorescence emissions of DDBP (black and red curves, respectively) at E = 12.3 μJ/pulse if a left- and right-circular polarizers are placed between the DDBP cell and the spectrometer, respectively. This finding suggests that the lasing polarization of the DDBP laser is left-handed circularly-polarized [19]. Moreover, the lasing peak is spectrally coincident with the long-wavelength edge of the PBG of DDBP. Hence, these lasing-associated experimental results clearly explain that the DDBP lasing emission is attributed to the bandedge lasing mechanism [19, 37].

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Variations in (a) the measured fluorescence emission spectrum of the DDBP cell and (b) its corresponding peak intensity and FWHM with the pumped energy as the cell is in the dark (before the UV irradiation).

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 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Measured spectra of the left- and right-circularly polarized (LCP and RCP, respectively) fluorescence emission of the DDBP at E = 12.3 μJ/pulse if a left- and right-circular polarizer are placed in front of the recorded spectrometer, respectively.

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Figures 9 and 10 show the variations in the fluorescence emission spectrum of the DDBP laser and its peak intensity, as well as the corresponding FWHM with the pumped energy, after successive illumination with the UV beam at 0.764 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms (IUV = 6.37 mW/cm2) and the green beam at 2.12 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms (IG = 17.67 mW/cm2) on the cell. Apparently, no sharp lasing signal can be generated, regardless of the strength of the pumped energy [Fig. 9(a)], and no evidence suggests that lasing occurs [Fig. 9(b)] after UV irradiation. Additionally, the lasing emission of the DDBP laser can be turned on after illumination with the green beam following the UV irradiation. A sharp lasing emission reappears [Fig. 10(a)], and evidence of the lasing occurrence is re-obtained [Fig. 10(b)] after the green beam irradiation. The fast turning-off and turning-on features of the DDBP laser are attributed to the quick destruction and recovery of BPI PBG of the DDBP cell. This is owing to the weak UV beam irradiation-induced trans-cis isomerizations and the weak green beam-induced cis-trans back isomerizations of the azo-LC, respectively, as explained earlier in the model of Fig. 4.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Variations in the measured (a) fluorescence emission spectrum of the DDBP cell and (b) its corresponding peak intensity and FWHM with the pumped energy after the irradiation of the UV beam with 0.764 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms.

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 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 Variations in the measured (a) fluorescence emission spectrum of the DDBP cell and (b) its corresponding peak intensity and FWHM with the pumped energy after the irradiation of the green beam with the intensity of 2.12 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms following the UV irradiation.

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4. Conclusion

This work has demonstrated the feasibility of a novel photosensitive and all optically fast-controllable DDBP PBG device doping with a low-concentration azo-LCs. The photo-induced reversible change in the azo-LC molecule conformation between rod-like trans and curve cis states in the DDBP can modulate the BP between BPI and BPIII-like structure quickly, leading to the reversible fast-manipulation of PBG. The required response time and irradiated energy density used to turn off (on) the BP PBG device by the irradiation of UV (green) beam are only 120 ms (120 ms) and 0.764 mJ/cm2 (2.12 mJ/cm2), respectively. The photocontrolling features of the BP PBG device are markedly superior to those for the CLC PBG device. The DDBP PBG device is highly promising for use in developing an all-optically fast-controllable LC laser. While considering the easy optical manipulation of the BP structure, an improvement can be made in the optical response time of a BP system to the order of millisecond or even sub-millisecond, which is comparable to that by the electrical controlling method. This improvement can be achieved in ways such as modifying the molecular structure and raising the concentration of the azo-LCs, and reducing the cell thickness.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of the Republic of China in Taiwan (Contract No. NSC 100-2112-M-006-012-MY3) and the Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center at the National Cheng Kung University, under the Top University Project from the Ministry of Education, for financially supporting this research.

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15. H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 71(5), 051705 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121103 (2010). [CrossRef]  

18. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 48–51 (2006). [CrossRef]  

20. H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010). [CrossRef]  

21. T. Isomura, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Laser emission from a photopolymerized cholesteric blue phase II,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516(1), 197–201 (2010). [CrossRef]  

22. A. Mazzulla, G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Thermal and electrical laser tuning in liquid crystal blue phase I,” Soft Matter 8(18), 4882–4885 (2012). [CrossRef]  

23. S.-T. Hur, B. R. Lee, M.-J. Gim, K.-W. Park, M.-H. Song, and S.-W. Choi, “Liquid-crystalline blue phase laser with widely tunable wavelength,” Adv. Mater. 25(21), 3002–3006 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007). [CrossRef]  

25. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007). [CrossRef]  

27. T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009). [CrossRef]  

28. T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid crystals with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009). [CrossRef]  

29. P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack, and A. Bobrovsky, “Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2358–2363 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007). [CrossRef]  

31. T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).

32. H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998). [CrossRef]  

33. M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012). [CrossRef]  

34. C.-R. Lee, J.-D. Lin, Y.-J. Huang, S.-C. Huang, S.-H. Lin, and C.-P. Yu, “All-optically controllable dye-doped liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9676–9689 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. C.-R. Lee, J.-D. Lin, B.-Y. Huang, T.-S. Mo, and S.-Y. Huang, “All-optically controllable random laser based on a dye-doped liquid crystal added with a photoisomerizable dye,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25896–25905 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

36. H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012). [CrossRef]  

37. J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(4), 1896–1899 (1994). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University, 2008), Chap. 1.
  2. E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, J. R. Wendt, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Quantitative analysis of bending efficiency in photonic-crystal waveguide bends at λ = 1.55 mum wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 286–288 (2001).
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  4. V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, M. V. Kotlyar, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Self-collimating photonic crystal polarization beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 530–532 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Koshiba, “Wavelength division multiplexing and demultiplexing with photonic crystal waveguide couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(12), 1970–1975 (2001).
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  6. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Lee and S. A. Asher, “Photonic crystal chemical sensors: pH and ionic strength,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(39), 9534–9537 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Ultracompact and low-power optical switch based on silicon photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 147–149 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. Oswald and P. Pieranski, Nematic and Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments (Taylor and Francis, 2005), Chap. B.VIII.
  11. P. P. Crooker, Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer-Verlag, 2001), Chap. 7.
  12. H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” Struct. Bond. 128, 99–117 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Etchegoin, “Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals as thermotropic photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(1), 1435–1437 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S.-Y. Lu and L.-C. Chien, “Electrically switched color with polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 562–564 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 71(5), 051705 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121103 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Isomura, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Laser emission from a photopolymerized cholesteric blue phase II,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516(1), 197–201 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Mazzulla, G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Thermal and electrical laser tuning in liquid crystal blue phase I,” Soft Matter 8(18), 4882–4885 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. S.-T. Hur, B. R. Lee, M.-J. Gim, K.-W. Park, M.-H. Song, and S.-W. Choi, “Liquid-crystalline blue phase laser with widely tunable wavelength,” Adv. Mater. 25(21), 3002–3006 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid crystals with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack, and A. Bobrovsky, “Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2358–2363 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  31. T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).
  32. H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  33. M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  34. C.-R. Lee, J.-D. Lin, Y.-J. Huang, S.-C. Huang, S.-H. Lin, and C.-P. Yu, “All-optically controllable dye-doped liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9676–9689 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. C.-R. Lee, J.-D. Lin, B.-Y. Huang, T.-S. Mo, and S.-Y. Huang, “All-optically controllable random laser based on a dye-doped liquid crystal added with a photoisomerizable dye,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25896–25905 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(4), 1896–1899 (1994).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

S.-T. Hur, B. R. Lee, M.-J. Gim, K.-W. Park, M.-H. Song, and S.-W. Choi, “Liquid-crystalline blue phase laser with widely tunable wavelength,” Adv. Mater. 25(21), 3002–3006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Mazzulla, G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Thermal and electrical laser tuning in liquid crystal blue phase I,” Soft Matter 8(18), 4882–4885 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (6)

2009 (2)

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid crystals with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, M. V. Kotlyar, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Self-collimating photonic crystal polarization beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 530–532 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 71(5), 051705 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack, and A. Bobrovsky, “Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2358–2363 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

P. Etchegoin, “Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals as thermotropic photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(1), 1435–1437 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, “Photonic crystal chemical sensors: pH and ionic strength,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(39), 9534–9537 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(4), 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

Aizawa, M.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Araoka, F.

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[Crossref]

Asher, S. A.

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, “Photonic crystal chemical sensors: pH and ionic strength,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(39), 9534–9537 (2000).
[Crossref]

Barberi, R.

A. Mazzulla, G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Thermal and electrical laser tuning in liquid crystal blue phase I,” Soft Matter 8(18), 4882–4885 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bartolino, R.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beggs, D. M.

Biswas, R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bloemer, M. J.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(4), 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bobrovsky, A.

Bowden, C. M.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(4), 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bricker, R. L.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid crystals with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid crystals with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bur, J.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.-T.

M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chanishvili, A.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 71(5), 051705 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-H.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).

Chen, C.-W.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).

Chen, Y.-J.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).

Cheng, M.-C.

M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chiappetta, D.

Chien, L.-C.

Chilaya, G.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 71(5), 051705 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-W.

S.-T. Hur, B. R. Lee, M.-J. Gim, K.-W. Park, M.-H. Song, and S.-W. Choi, “Liquid-crystalline blue phase laser with widely tunable wavelength,” Adv. Mater. 25(21), 3002–3006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chow, E.

Chu, C.-C.

M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cipparrone, G.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coles, H.

H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collings, P. J.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 71(5), 051705 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Santo, M. P.

A. Mazzulla, G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Thermal and electrical laser tuning in liquid crystal blue phase I,” Soft Matter 8(18), 4882–4885 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dowling, J. P.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(4), 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dunbar, L. A.

Etchegoin, P.

P. Etchegoin, “Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals as thermotropic photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(1), 1435–1437 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Fleming, J. G.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).

Fujii, A.

T. Isomura, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Laser emission from a photopolymerized cholesteric blue phase II,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516(1), 197–201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fujisawa, T.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Genack, A.

Gim, M.-J.

S.-T. Hur, B. R. Lee, M.-J. Gim, K.-W. Park, M.-H. Song, and S.-W. Choi, “Liquid-crystalline blue phase laser with widely tunable wavelength,” Adv. Mater. 25(21), 3002–3006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[Crossref]

Green, L.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid crystals with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hetherington, D. L.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ho, K. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, V. K. S.

M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C.-Y.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.-Y.

Huang, S.-C.

Huang, S.-Y.

Huang, Y.-J.

Hur, S.-T.

S.-T. Hur, B. R. Lee, M.-J. Gim, K.-W. Park, M.-H. Song, and S.-W. Choi, “Liquid-crystalline blue phase laser with widely tunable wavelength,” Adv. Mater. 25(21), 3002–3006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, T.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[Crossref]

Isomura, T.

T. Isomura, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Laser emission from a photopolymerized cholesteric blue phase II,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516(1), 197–201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jau, H.-C.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).

Jeong, H.-C.

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kanazawa, A.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” Struct. Bond. 128, 99–117 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kilic, O.

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

Koshiba, M.

Kotlyar, M. V.

Krauss, T. F.

Kurtz, S. R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Law, W.-C.

M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

Le, K. V.

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[Crossref]

Le Thomas, N.

Lee, B.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. R.

S.-T. Hur, B. R. Lee, M.-J. Gim, K.-W. Park, M.-H. Song, and S.-W. Choi, “Liquid-crystalline blue phase laser with widely tunable wavelength,” Adv. Mater. 25(21), 3002–3006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-R.

Lee, H.-K.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, “Photonic crystal chemical sensors: pH and ionic strength,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(39), 9534–9537 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid crystals with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.-D.

Lin, S. Y.

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, J. R. Wendt, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Quantitative analysis of bending efficiency in photonic-crystal waveguide bends at λ = 1.55 mum wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 286–288 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.-H.

Lin, T.-H.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121103 (2010).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).

Liu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.-H.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lousse, V.

Lu, S.-Y.

Mashiko, S.

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matranga, M. A.

A. Mazzulla, G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Thermal and electrical laser tuning in liquid crystal blue phase I,” Soft Matter 8(18), 4882–4885 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mazzulla, A.

A. Mazzulla, G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Thermal and electrical laser tuning in liquid crystal blue phase I,” Soft Matter 8(18), 4882–4885 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

Milner, V.

Mo, T.-S.

Morris, S.

H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

Muñoz, A.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagamura, T.

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid crystals with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

Ozaki, M.

T. Isomura, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Laser emission from a photopolymerized cholesteric blue phase II,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516(1), 197–201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, K.-W.

S.-T. Hur, B. R. Lee, M.-J. Gim, K.-W. Park, M.-H. Song, and S.-W. Choi, “Liquid-crystalline blue phase laser with widely tunable wavelength,” Adv. Mater. 25(21), 3002–3006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petriashvili, G.

A. Mazzulla, G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Thermal and electrical laser tuning in liquid crystal blue phase I,” Soft Matter 8(18), 4882–4885 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 71(5), 051705 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pivnenko, M. N.

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sanford, R. L.

Scalora, M.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(4), 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serak, S. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shibaev, P. V.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack, and A. Bobrovsky, “Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2358–2363 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiono, T.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sigalas, M. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smith, B. K.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Solgaard, O.

Song, M.-H.

S.-T. Hur, B. R. Lee, M.-J. Gim, K.-W. Park, M.-H. Song, and S.-W. Choi, “Liquid-crystalline blue phase laser with widely tunable wavelength,” Adv. Mater. 25(21), 3002–3006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, Y.-C.

M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

Suh, W.

Tabiryan, N. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid crystals with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

Taheri, B.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[Crossref]

Uchida, K.

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-T.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.-H.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).

Wendt, J. R.

White, T. J.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid crystals with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[Crossref]

White, T. P.

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, S.

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yong, K.-T.

M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, H.

T. Isomura, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Laser emission from a photopolymerized cholesteric blue phase II,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516(1), 197–201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.-P.

Zabelin, V.

Zubrzycki, W.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable azobenzene cholesteric liquid crystals with 2000 nm range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

S.-T. Hur, B. R. Lee, M.-J. Gim, K.-W. Park, M.-H. Song, and S.-W. Choi, “Liquid-crystalline blue phase laser with widely tunable wavelength,” Adv. Mater. 25(21), 3002–3006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121103 (2010).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).

Chem. Mater. (1)

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

M.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Chu, Y.-C. Su, W.-T. Chang, V. K. S. Hsiao, K.-T. Yong, W.-C. Law, and P. N. Prasad, “Light-induced photoluminescence switching using liquid crystal-dispersed quantum dots,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 19–25 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, “Photonic crystal chemical sensors: pH and ionic strength,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(39), 9534–9537 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(4), 1896–1899 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

H.-C. Jeong, K. V. Le, M.-J. Gim, S.-T. Hur, S.-W. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Transition between widened blue phases by light irradiation using photo-active bent-core liquid crystal with chiral dopant,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4627–4630 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

T. Isomura, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Laser emission from a photopolymerized cholesteric blue phase II,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516(1), 197–201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394(6690), 251–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. (1)

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and P. J. Collings, “Trans-cis isomerization and the blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 71(5), 051705 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

P. Etchegoin, “Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals as thermotropic photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(1), 1435–1437 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soft Matter (2)

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Mazzulla, G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, and R. Barberi, “Thermal and electrical laser tuning in liquid crystal blue phase I,” Soft Matter 8(18), 4882–4885 (2012).
[Crossref]

Struct. Bond. (1)

H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” Struct. Bond. 128, 99–117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

P. Oswald and P. Pieranski, Nematic and Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments (Taylor and Francis, 2005), Chap. B.VIII.

P. P. Crooker, Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer-Verlag, 2001), Chap. 7.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University, 2008), Chap. 1.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Recorded images of DDBP in imperfect planar CLC phase at T = 25 C, in isotropic phase at T ≥ 52 C, and in BPI at T = 49 C ~42 C in cooling process under the T- and R-type POM with crossed polarizers. At T < 41 C, the focal conic texture appears to replace the BPI. The working temperature of the cell is fixed at 46 °C for performing the all-optical controlling experiments of PBG and lasing emission of the DDBP. The length for the white bar is 200 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured Kossel diagram of the BPI at 46 °C in the present experiment. The pattern is induced by the diffraction of an incident blue light beam with a central wavelength of 456 nm from the sets of crystal planes of (110) in the BPI crystal structure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured reflection spectra of the DDBP and corresponding recorded BP images in the dark, after the irradiation of the UV beam with 0.764 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms (IUV = 6.37 mW/cm2), and after the irradiation of the green beam with 2.12 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms (IG = 17.67 mW/cm2), following the UV irradiation (black, red, and green curves, respectively). The blue and purple curves represent the measured reflection spectra after the second and third cycles of successive irradiation of UV-green-beams on the DDBP. (b) Variations of the PBG reflection peak intensity of the DDBP with the illumination times of the UV and green beams (black and red dots, respectively). The DDBP is irradiated by the UV light with 6.37 mW/cm2 and then by the green light with 17.67 mW/cm2, following the UV irradiation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Mechanisms for all-optical fast-controllability of the DDBP crystal structure (BPI) under the successive irradiation of the UV and green beams. The gray cylinders and black lines are the double-twisted cylinders and disclination lines of the BPI, respectively. The violet rod-like molecules are the LCs, and the orange rod-like and curve molecules are the trans and cis azo-LCs, respectively. (b) The topmost photograph is the DDBP image observed under the POM with crossed polarizers after the UV irradiation. The middle and bottommost POM images of DDPB are observed when the transmission axis of the analyzer is slightly rotated with an identical angle (10°) counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively. The scale bar is 100 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Variations of the reflection spectrum of the DDCLC with increasing tUV from 0 s to 210 s and 90 s, respectively, at conditions of (a) DUV = 0~1274 mJ/cm2 and T = 46 °C and (b) DUV = 0 ~573.5 mJ/cm2 and T = 55 °C.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured absorption and fluorescence emission spectra (red and blue curves, respectively) of 0.5wt% P567-doped NLC cell.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Variations in (a) the measured fluorescence emission spectrum of the DDBP cell and (b) its corresponding peak intensity and FWHM with the pumped energy as the cell is in the dark (before the UV irradiation).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured spectra of the left- and right-circularly polarized (LCP and RCP, respectively) fluorescence emission of the DDBP at E = 12.3 μJ/pulse if a left- and right-circular polarizer are placed in front of the recorded spectrometer, respectively.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Variations in the measured (a) fluorescence emission spectrum of the DDBP cell and (b) its corresponding peak intensity and FWHM with the pumped energy after the irradiation of the UV beam with 0.764 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Variations in the measured (a) fluorescence emission spectrum of the DDBP cell and (b) its corresponding peak intensity and FWHM with the pumped energy after the irradiation of the green beam with the intensity of 2.12 mJ/cm2 for 120 ms following the UV irradiation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summarization for the experimental conditions of DDBP and DDCLC cells. λc: central wavelength of the reflection band; Tc: clearing temperature; T: working temperature; tUV and DUV: exposure time and energy density of UV-irradiation, respectively.

Equations (1)

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λ= 2na h 2 + k 2 + l 2 ,

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