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Vector optical coherence lattices generating controllable far-field beam profiles

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Abstract

We introduce partially coherent vector sources with periodic spatial coherence properties, which we term vector optical coherence lattices (VOCLs), as an extension of recently introduced scalar OCLs. We derive the realizability conditions and propagation formulae for radially polarized VOCLs (i.e., a typical kind of VOCLs). We show that radially polarized VOCLs display nontrivial propagation properties and generate controllable intensity lattices in the far zone of the source (or in the focal plane of a lens). By adjusting source coherence, one can obtain intensity lattices with bright or dark nodes. The latter can be employed to simultaneously trap multiple particles or atoms as well as in free-space optical communications. We also report the experimental generation of radially polarized VOCLs and we characterize VOCLs propagation properties.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Optical lattices with periodic intensity, polarization and phase patterns have been examined theoretically and generated experimentally [1–6]. They have also found numerous applications to atom cooling and trapping [7], ultracold quantum gas trapping [8], atomic clocks [9], microfluidic sorting [10], lattice light-sheet microscopy [11] and photonic crystal engineering [12]. Besides the methods mentioned in [1–6], one can also generate intensity lattices through Tablot imaging of optical gratings because the optical gratings display transverse periodic properties [13]. The above mentioned optical lattices are generated by coherent light fields. Recently, a new kind of optical lattices named optical coherence lattices (OCLs) was introduced in [14, 15], where the OCLs are generated by partially coherent light sources with periodic coherence properties. It was shown in [14, 15] that the OCLs exhibit periodicity reciprocity: the initial periodic degree of coherence transfers its periodicity to the periodic intensity distribution on propagation in free-space. In other words, the OCLs yield intensity lattices with bright nodes in the far field (or in the focal plane of an imaging lens). This property, unique to partially coherent sources, is useful for simultaneously trapping multiple particles whose refractive indices are larger than that of the ambient. In the turbulent atmosphere, it was shown [16] that the OCLs also display the periodicity reciprocity over long propagation distances and they have scintillation indices lower than those of Gaussian beams, even though the lattices are eventually affected by the turbulence. The discovered periodicity reciprocity makes OCLs attractive for robust free-space optical communications [14–16]. More recently, experimental generation of OCLs was reported and it was shown that the OCLs may find applications to image transmission and optical encryption [17]. However, all research on OCLs has so far focused on scalar light fields.

At the same time, polarization is a fundamental property of light fields. Depending on its polarization state, electromagnetic beams can be classified as uniformly polarized vector beams and non-uniformly polarized vector beams. Cylindrical vector beams, such as radially polarized and azimuthally polarized beams, are typical kinds of non-uniformly polarized vector beams [18]. Due to their tight focusing properties [19, 20] and self-healing potential [21], cylindrical vector beams have found applications to optical trapping, microscopy, optical data storage, lithography, proton acceleration, electron acceleration, material processing, plasmonic focusing, dark imaging, high-resolution metrology, free-space optical communication, super-resolution imaging and laser machining [18], among other venues. Partially coherent vector beams can be described in terms of their beam coherence-polarization (BCP) matrices in the space-time representation [22] or their cross-spectral density matrices in the space-frequency representation [23]. A unified theory of coherence and polarization for partially coherent vector beams was developed by Wolf in 2003 [24], and the conditions for devising bona fide cross-spectral density matrices were introduced by Gori et al. in 2009 [25]. Different definitions of the degree of coherence of partially coherent vector beams were developed [24, 26]. Partially coherent vector beams with either uniform or non-uniform states of polarization (SOP) were explored theoretically and generated experimentally [27–35]. One of the key properties of a partially coherent vector beam SOP is its ability to change on propagation in free space [36]. Further, the degree of polarization was shown to regain its magnitude at the source over sufficiently long distance in the turbulent atmosphere [37, 38], making such beams attractive for free-space optical communications, laser radar system and remote sensing [39–41]. By adjusting the coherence width of a non-uniformly polarized partially coherent vector beam, we can generate a Gaussian-like beam spot or a flat-topped beam spot or a dark hollow beam spot in the far field [32–34], which can come in handy for material thermal processing and for trapping a Rayleigh particle whose refractive index is larger or smaller than that of the ambient [34, 42]. In [35, 43], a class of partially coherent vector beams, partially correlated azimuthal vortices, were employed in illuminating an imaging system. It was discovered that the image contrast can be thereby improved, which carries potential for metrology, microscopy, and lithography.

The coherence properties of previously studied vector beams display no periodicity at the source. In this work, we propose partially coherent vector beams with periodic spatial coherence properties, vector optical coherence lattices (VOCLs) as a natural extension of recently introduced scalar optical coherence lattices. The most interesting property of VOCLs is that the initial single radially polarized beam spot evolves into multiple radially polarized beam spots with bright or dark beam profiles in the far zone of the source (or in the focal plane of a lens), in other words, the VOCLs generate intensity lattices with bright or dark nodes depending on the magnitude of a controlled source coherence parameter. The scalar OCLs in our previous papers can only generate intensity lattices with bright nodes [14–17]. The introduced VOCLs are expected to be useful for simultaneous trapping of multiple particles or atoms and for free-space optical communications.

2. Theoretical models for vector optical coherence lattices and realizability conditions

In this section, we will introduce a theoretical model for VOCLs and discuss their realizability conditions. The degree of coherence of scalar OCLs can be expressed as [14, 17]

μ(r1,r2)=2Mm=1MJ1(|r1r2|/2δ)|r1r2|/2δexp[iV0m(r1r2)].
Here δ and V0m are coherence and phase parameters, respectively. One can synthetize scalar OCLs through, for instance, a superposition of multiple Schell-model beams with prescribed degrees of coherence [17].

Consider a BCP matrixΓ^(r1,r2) of the source, defined as [22]

Γαβ(r1,r2)=Eα*(r1)Eβ(r2),(α,β=x,y).
Here the angle brackets denote ensemble averaging and r1(x1,y1)andr2(x2,y2)are transverse position vectors in the source plane; Eα(r) is a fluctuating electric field component along the α axis at pointr.

To be a bona fide BCP matrix, the elements of the BCP matrix can be expressed as [25]

Γαβ(r1,r2)=Pαβ(v)Hα(r1,v)Hβ*(r2,v)d2v,
wherev(vx,vy), Hα is an arbitrary kernel,Pαβ(v)are the elements of thenon-negative definite matrixP^that satisfy the following constraints
Pαα(v)0,Pxx(v)Pyy(v)|Pxy(v)|20.
To obtain VOCLs, we define Hα and Pαβ as follows
Hα(r,v)=iλfTαexp[iπλf(v22rv)],
Pαβ(v)=BαβMNm=(M1)/2(M1)/2n=(N1)/2(N1)/2circ(vvmnaαβ).
Here Hα can be regarded as a transfer function of an optical path consisting of free space of distance f, a thin lens with the focal length f and a spatial filter with a transmission functionTα. Further, λ is the wavelength of the light field. Pαβ(v) can be regarded as a superposition of multiple circ functions with a radius aαβ and off-axis displacements vmn=(md,nd); ddenotes the separation between adjacent circ functions, M and N stand for the numbers of the circ functions along x and y directions, respectively. Bαβ=|Bαβ|exp(iϕαβ) are the correlation coefficients between the field components Eα and Eβ.

Substituting from Eqs. (5) and (6) into Eq. (3), we obtain the elements of the BCP matrix of VOCLs as

Γαβ(r1,r2)=C0Tα*Tβγαβ(r1,r2),
where C0 is a constant, γαβ(r1,r2) represent the correlation functions given by
γαβ(r1,r2)=2BαβMNm=(M1)/2(M1)/2n=(N1)/2(N1)/2J1(|r1r2|/2δ0αβ)|r1r2|/2δ0αβexp[i2πλfvmn(r1r2)].
Here δ0αβ=f/2kaαβare referred to as coherence parameters. Comparing Eqs. (1) and (8), we infer that the expressions of the correlation functions of VOCLs are similar to the expression of the degree of coherence of scalar OCLs.

The VOCL SOP is closely related toTα. If we set Tα=Aαexp(r24ws2),(α=x,y) with Aα and ws being a constant and the beam width, respectively, VOCLs exhibit uniform SOP (i.e., the state of polarization of any point in the source plane is the same) and are called uniformly polarized VOCLs. If we set Tα=α2ws2exp(r24ws2),(α=x,y) or Tx=y2ws2exp(r24ws2) andTy=x2ws2exp(r24ws2), VOCLs exhibit non-uniform SOP (radial or azimuthal polarization) and are termed radially or azimuthally polarized VOCLs.

Hereafter, we mainly focus on radially polarized VOCLs, which can be readily generated in the laboratory. First, we discuss the realizability conditions. To be a physically realizable partially coherent vector beam, it is known that the BCP matrix of VOCLs should be quasi-Hermitian [25], namelyΓαβ(r1,r2)=Γβα*(r2,r1). To meet this requirement, the following conditions should be satisfied

|Bαβ|=1,ϕαβ=0,(α=β),|Bαβ|1,(αβ),|Bxy|=|Byx|,ϕxy=ϕyx,δ0xy=δ0yx.

To check the non-negativity conditions, substituting from Eq. (6) into Eq. (4), we obtain the following inequality

m=(M1)/2(M1)/2n=(N1)/2(N1)/2circ(vvmnaxx)m=(M1)/2(M1)/2n=(N1)/2(N1)/2circ(vvmnayy)|Bxy|2|m=(M1)/2(M1)/2n=(N1)/2(N1)/2circ(vvmnaxy)|2.
Applying the equationcirc(r/a)×circ(r/b)=circ(r/min(a,b)), it is not difficult to derive the following inequality from Eq. (10)
axymin(axx,ayy).
Equation (11) is equivalent to the following inequality

δ0xymax(δ0xx,δ0yy).

To realize radially polarized VOCLs, two additional conditions should be imposed: (a) any point in the source plane is linearly polarized, (b) the orientation angle of the polarization at any point in the source plane should satisfyθ(x,y)=arctan(y/x). It is known that the BCP matrix of a partially coherent vector beam can be represented as a sum of the BCP matrix of a completely polarized beam and the BCP matrix of a completely unpolarized beam [23, 36]. The SOP of the completely polarized beam can be characterized by the polarization ellipse, with the major and minor semi-axes of the polarization ellipse A1(r) and A2(r), the degree of ellipticityε(r)and the orientation angle θ(r)related with the elements of the BCP matrix as [23, 36]

A1,2(r)=12[(Γxx(r,r)Γyy(r,r))2+4|Γxy(r,r)|2±(Γxx(r,r)Γyy(r,r))2+4Re|Γxy(r,r)|2]1/2,
ε(r)=A2(r)/A1(r),
θ(r)=12arctan[2Re[Γxy(r,r)]Γxx(r,r)Γyy(r,r)].
To satisfy the additional conditions (a) and (b), substituting the elements of the BCP matrix of radially polarized VOCLs into Eqs. (13)-(15), we obtain the equalities
Bxy=Byx=1,δ0xx=δ0yy=δ0xy=δ0yx=δ0.
Equations (9), (12) and (16) are the realizability conditions for radially polarized VOCLs.

In this work, we setAx=Ay=1. By applying Eq. (16), we find the correlation functions of the radially polarized VOCLs satisfy the following equalities

γxx(r1,r2)=γyy(r1,r2)=γxy(r1,r2)=γyx(r1,r2).
The electromagnetic degree of coherence of radially polarized VOCLs is defined as [26]
μ2(r1,r2)=α,β|Γαβ(r1,r2)|2α,βΓαα(r1,r1)Γββ(r2,r2).
Substituting from Eqs. (7) and (17) into Eq. (18), we obtain
μ2(r1,r2)=γ2αβ(r1,r2)(α,β=x,y).
It follows from Eq. (19) that the degree of coherence of the radially polarized VOCLs and the correlation functions are the same. To save space, we only display theoretical and experimental results for the degree of coherence μ2(r1,r2) hereafter.

Figure 1 shows the density plot of the square of the degree of coherence μ2(x1,y1,1mm,1mm)of radially polarized VOCLs for different values of M and N. We see from Fig. 1 that the degree of coherence of radially polarized VOCLs does display a lattices-like behavior when M>1 and N>1, and the lattice structure becomes more complex as the magnitudes of M and N increase.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Density plot of the square of the the degree of coherenceμ2(x1,y1,1mm,1mm) of radially polarized VOCLs for different values of M and N with and in the source plane.

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3. Propagation properties of radially polarized vector optical coherence lattices

In this section, we will derive the analytical propagation formulae for radially polarized VOCLs and explore their propagation properties in free space numerically. The BCP matrix of a partially coherent vector beam passing through a stigmatic ABCD optical system can be expressed using the so-called generalized Collins formula as [44]

Γαβ(ρ1,ρ2)=1(λB)2exp[ikD2B(ρ12ρ22)]Γαβ(r1,r2)exp[ikA2B(r12r22)]exp[ikB(r1ρ1r2ρ2)]d2r1d2r2,
where ρ1(ρ1x,ρ1y)and ρ2(ρ2x,ρ2y) are transverse position vectors in the receiver plane, k=2π/λis the wavenumber; A, B, C, and D denote optical system transfer matrix elements.

Substituting the elements of BCP matrix of radially polarized VOCLs in the source plane into Eq. (20), we obtain (after integration) the following expressions for the elements of the BCP matrix in the receiver plane

Γxx(ρ1,ρ2)=C0π2λ2B2Δ2MNh=0s=0hm=(M1)/2(M1)/2n=(N1)/2(N1)/2(1)h23hs!(hs)!(h+1)!δ02hQ2sn(ρsy,ρdy)×[(ρdx2B2k2ws2)Q2(hs)m(ρsx,ρdx)+2AρdxQ2(hs)+1m(ρsx,ρdx)Δ2Q2(hs)+2m(ρsx,ρdx)],
Γyy(ρ1,ρ2)=C0π2λ2B2Δ2MNh=0s=0hm=(M1)/2(M1)/2n=(N1)/2(N1)/2(1)h23hs!(hs)!(h+1)!δ02hQ2(hs)m(ρsx,ρdx)×[(ρdy2B2k2ws2)Q2sn(ρsy,ρdy)+2AρdxQ2s+1n(ρsy,ρdy)Δ2Q2s+2n(ρsy,ρdy)],
Γxy(ρ1,ρ2)=C0π2λ2B2Δ2MNh=0s=0hm=(M1)/2(M1)/2n=(N1)/2(N1)/2(1)h23hs!(hs)!(h+1)!δ02h×[iρdxQ2(hs)m(ρsx,ρdx)(iAB2ws2k)Q2(hs)+1m(ρsx,ρdx)][iρdyQ2sn(ρsy,ρdy)(iA+B2ws2k)Q2s+1n(ρsy,ρdy)],
Γyx(ρ1,ρ2)=Γxy*(ρ2,ρ1),
whereρs=(ρ1+ρ2)/2(ρsx,ρsy),ρd=ρ1ρ2(ρdx,ρdy), Δ=A2+B2/4k2ws4, and
Qtp(ρsα,ρdα)=(iB2kwsΔ)texp(ikDBρsαρdα)Ht(12wsΔ(Bfpdρsα+ikws2ABρdα)).×exp(k2ws22B2ρdα2)exp(12ws2Δ2(Bfpdρsα+ikws2ABρdα)2)
HereHtdenotes a Hermite polynomial of order t.

The average intensity of radially polarized VOCLs is obtained as [22, 23]

I(ρ)=Γxx(ρ,ρ)+Γyy(ρ,ρ)=Ix(ρ)+Iy(ρ).
Applying Eqs. (13)-(15) and (21)-(26), we can study the propagation properties (e.g., average intensity and SOP) of radially polarized VOCLs in free space numerically by setting the elements of the transfer matrix of free space asA=1,B=z,C=0,D=1. We can study the focusing properties of radially polarized VOCLs focused by a thin lens with focal length f by settingA=1z/f,B=f,C=1/f,D=0,Here we assumed the distances from the source plane to the thin lens and from the thin lens to the receiver plane to be f and z, respectively. We note that the beam parameters in the far field and the focal plane are the same.

We now proceed to numerically study propagation properties of radially polarized VOCLs in free space. To this end, we setws=0.4mm,d=1mmandλ=532.8nm. We calculate in Figs. 2-4 the density plot of the normalized intensity distributionI(ρ)/Imax(ρ), the corresponding componentsIx(ρ)/Iymax(ρ),Iy(ρ)/Iymax(ρ), and the radially polarized VOCLs SOP distribution at several propagation distances in free space for different values of the coherence parameterδ0with M = N = 3. We infer from Figs. 2-4 that the beams display instructive propagation features in free space. In particular, dark hollow beam profiles at the source gradually evolve into lattice distributions on propagation, implying that the degree of coherence transfers its periodicity to beam intensity distributions. The intensity lattices in the far field are controlled by the initial coherence parameterδ0. Thus, we can obtain intensity lattices with dark nodes (i.e., dark hollow beam arrays) when the coherence parameterδ0is large (see Fig. 2), and we can obtain intensity lattices with bright nodes (i.e., flat-topped or Gaussian-like beam arrays) as we decrease the coherence parameterδ0 (see Figs. 3 and 4). In addition, we deduce from Figs. 2-4 that the radially polarized VOCLs SOP varies on propagation, and a single radial polarized beam spot at the source evolves into multiple radially polarized beam spots, which means each lattice in the far field displays radial polarization.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Density plot of the normalized intensity distributionI(ρ)/Imax(ρ), the corresponding componentsIx(ρ)/Iymax(ρ),Iy(ρ)/Iymax(ρ), and the distribution of the SOP of radially polarized VOCLs at several propagation distances in free space with M = N = 3 and.

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 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Density plot of the normalized intensity distributionI(ρ)/Imax(ρ), the corresponding componentsIx(ρ)/Iymax(ρ),Iy(ρ)/Iymax(ρ), and the distribution of the SOP of radially polarized VOCLs at several propagation distances in free space with M = N = 3 andδ0=0.4mm.

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 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Density plot of the normalized intensity distributionI(ρ)/Imax(ρ), the corresponding componentsIx(ρ)/Iymax(ρ),Iy(ρ)/Iymax(ρ), and the distribution of the SOP of radially polarized VOCLs at several propagation distances in free space with M = N = 3 andδ0=0.32mm.

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To explore the effect of the parameters M and N on the propagation properties of radially polarized VOCLs, we calculate in Fig. 5 their normalized intensity distributionI(ρ)/Imax(ρ) atz=10kmin free space for different values of M and N withδ0=3mm, and we find that the number of dark cores equals toM×N. Numerical results (not shown here) also show that the initial parameter d only affects the separation of the dark or solid cores in the far-field lattices and doesn’t affect the SOP of each core. The intensity periodicity in the focal plane of a lens (or in the far zone of the source) in this work is caused by the spatial coherence periodicity in the transverse plane of the source, and this periodicity reciprocity is specific to partially coherent sources. Thus, one can modulate the distribution of the intensity lattices in the far field (or in the focal plane) conveniently through varying its initial coherence properties, which will be useful for particle trapping, e.g., the obtained intensity lattices with solid cores or dark cores in the focal plane can be used to simultaneously trap multiple particles whose refractive indices are larger or smaller than that of the ambient. The obtained intensity lattices with dark cores in the focal plane can also be utilized for simultaneous trapping of multiple atoms if the light field is blue-detuned. Furthermore, it is known that both scalar OCLs and radially polarized beams have advantage over Gaussian beams for mitigating the effect of atmospheric turbulence [16, 41]. One may expect to further mitigate the effect of atmospheric turbulence using radially polarized VOCLs, which will be useful in free-space optical communications. In our previous papers [14–17], the proposed scalar OCLs do not carry phase vortices. Thus, they generate intensity lattices with only bright nodes in the far field. In principle, one may expect to generate intensity lattices with dark nodes from scalar OLCs with phase vortices. In any case, our work clearly shows that manipulating coherence properties of a radially polarized beam provides a novel way to produce far-zone intensity lattices with bright or dark nodes.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Density plot of the normalized intensity distributionI(ρ)/Imax(ρ) of radially polarized VOCLs atz=10kmin free space for different values of M and N withδ0=3mm.

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4. Experimental generation of radially polarized vector optical coherence lattices

In this section, we report the experimental generation and characterization of radially polarized VOCLs. We employ a radial polarization converter (RPC) to convert linearly polarized VOCLs into radially polarized VOCLs. Figure 6 shows our experimental setup for generating radially polarized VOCLs and measuring its degree of coherence and focused intensity. In our experiment, a laser beam emitted by an Nd:YAG laser (λ=532nm) first passes through a linear polarizer and a beam expander, followed by an amplitude mask (AM), which is used to modulate the intensity distribution of the incident beam. Here the AM is aM×Ncircular aperture array; a is the radius of each aperture and d the separation between adjacent apertures. The modulated beam from the AM illuminates a rotating ground-glass disk (RGGD), producing an incoherent beam with a prescribed intensity distribution. Here the speed of the RGGD is controlled by a motion controller. Having passed through a thin lens L2 with the focal lengthf1=25cmand the Gaussian amplitude filter (GAF), the incoherent beam from the RGGD transforms into linearly polarized VOCLs [17]. We then convert it into a radially polarized VOCLs by the RPC. The coherence parameter of the generated beam is controlled by varying the radius of the aperture through the relationδ0=f/2ka. The experimental setup for generating linearly polarized VOCLs is the same as that reported in [17], and the key point for generating radially polarized VOCLs in our experiment is the RPC use.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Experimental setup for generating radially polarized VOCLs, measuring the degree of coherence and the focused intensity. Laser, Nd: YAG laser; LP, linear polarizer; BE, beam expander; AM, amplitude mask; L1, L2 and L3, thin lenses; RGGD, rotating ground-glass disk; MC, motion controller; GAF, Gaussian amplitude filter; RPC, radial polarization converter; BS, beam splitter; CCD, charge-coupled device; BPA, beam profile analyzer; PC, personal computer.

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To measure the degree of coherence and the focused intensity of the generated radially polarized VOCLs, we use a beam splitter (BS) to split the generated beam into two beams. The transmitted beam from the BS passes through the thin lens L2 with the focal lengthf2=15cmarriving at a charge-coupled device (CCD). Both distances from RPC to L2 and from L2 to CCD are2f2 (i.e., 2f imaging system) such that the VOCLs degree of coherence in the CCD plane is the same as that in the source plane (just behind the RPC). Here the CCD is used to measure the modulus of the VOCLs degree of coherence. A detailed measurement protocol can be found in [33]. The beam reflected from the BS is then transmitted through a thin lens L3 with the focal lengthf3=15cm. The resulting beam then arrives at the beam profile analyzer (BPA), which is used to measure the focused intensity distribution. The distances from the BPA to L3 and from L3 to BPA aref3and z, respectively. The elements of the transfer matrix of the optical system between the RPC and BPA areA=1z/f3,B=f3,C=1/f3,D=0. The components of the focused intensityIx and Iy can be measured by adding a linear polarizer between L3 and BPA.

Figure 7 shows our experimental results for the squared modulus of the radially polarized VOCLs degree of coherence |μ(x1,y1,1mm,1mm)|2just behind the RPC withδ0=0.37mmandd=1mmfor different values of M and N. One finds that the exhibited degree of coherence of manifests a lattice-like behavior and the lattice structure becomes progressively more complex as magnitudes of M and N increase. Figure 8 shows our experimental results for the intensity distribution and corresponding componentsIxandof the generated radially polarized VOCLs with M=N=3,δ0=0.37mm and d=1mm focused by the lens L3 with f3=15cm at several propagation distances. Figure 9 shows our experimental results for the VOCLs intensity distribution with M=N=3 andd=1mmin the focal plane for different values of the coherence parameterδ0. One infers from Figs. 8 and 9 that a single source beam evolves into an intensity lattice in the focal plane (or the far field), and one can obtain lattices with bright or dark nodes by varying the source coherence parameter. Furthermore, each bright or dark node of the lattice features radial polarization as expected. Our experimental results are consistent with our theoretical predictions.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Experimental results of the squared modulus of the degree of coherence |μ(x1,y1,1mm,1mm)|2of the generated radially polarized VOCLs just behind the RPC with δ0=0.37mmandfor different values of M and N, (a)M=N=2, (b)M=N=3, (c) M=N=5.

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 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Experimental results of the intensity distribution of the generated radially polarized VOCLs with M=N=3,δ0=0.37mmandd=1mm focused by the thin lens L3 with focal length f3=15cmand its corresponding componentsIxandIyat several propagation distances.

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 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Experimental results of the intensity distribution of the generated radially polarized VOCLs with M=N=3 and d=1mmfocused by the thin lens L3 with focal length f3=15cmin the focal plane for different values of the coherence parameter, (a) δ0=0.6mm, (b) δ0=0.4mm, (c) δ0=0.37mm.

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5. Summary

We have introduced vector optical coherence lattices as a natural extension of recently introduced scalar OCLs, and we have explored the propagation properties of radially polarized VOCLs as a numerical example. In contrast with the scalar OCLs, which generate intensity lattices with bright nodes in the far zone of the source, the radially polarized VOCLs can generate intensity lattices with bright or dark nodes depending on the magnitude of the source coherence parameter. In addition, we have reported the experimental generation of radially polarized VOCLs and characterized their focusing properties. Our experimental results verify our theoretical predictions. Engineering spatial coherence properties of vector beams paves a way for manipulating their propagation properties and for beam shaping. These tools can be useful for trapping multiple particles whose refractive indices are larger or smaller than that of their surroundings, for simultaneous multiple atom trapping and for free-space optical communications.

Funding

National Natural Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholar (11525418); National Natural Science Foundation of China (11474213, 11374222, 11274005); Project of the Priority Academic Program Development (PAPD) of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions; National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

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14. L. Ma and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Optical coherence gratings and lattices,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6656–6659 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. L. Ma and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Free-space propagation of optical coherence lattices and periodicity reciprocity,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1848–1856 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. X. Liu, J. Yu, Y. Cai, and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Propagation of optical coherence lattices in the turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4182–4185 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. Y. Chen, S. A. Ponomarenko, and Y. Cai, “Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 061107 (2016). [CrossRef]  

18. Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009). [CrossRef]  

19. K. Youngworth and T. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express 7(2), 77–87 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. D. Biss and T. Brown, “Cylindrical vector beam focusing through a dielectric interface,” Opt. Express 9(10), 490–497 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. G. Wu, F. Wang, and Y. Cai, “Generation and self-healing of a radially polarized Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 043807 (2014). [CrossRef]  

22. F. Gori, “Matrix treatment for partially polarized, partially coherent beams,” Opt. Lett. 23(4), 241–243 (1998). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. E. Wolf, Introduction to the Theory of Coherence and Polarization of Light (Cambridge University, 2007).

24. E. Wolf, “Unified theory of coherence and polarization of random electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Lett. A 312(5–6), 263–267 (2003). [CrossRef]  

25. F. Gori, V. Ramírez-Sánchez, M. Santarsiero, and T. Shirai, “On genuine cross-spectral density matrices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085706 (2009). [CrossRef]  

26. J. Tervo, T. Setälä, and A. Friberg, “Degree of coherence for electromagnetic fields,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1137–1143 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. F. Gori, M. Santarsiero, G. Piquero, R. Borghi, A. Mondello, and R. Simon, “Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(1), 1–9 (2001). [CrossRef]  

28. O. Korotkova, M. Salem, and E. Wolf, “Beam conditions for radiation generated by an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model source,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1173–1175 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. Y. Cai, F. Wang, C. Zhao, S. Zhu, G. Wu, and Y. Dong, “Partially coherent vector beams: from theory to experiment,” in Vectorial Optical Fields: Fundamentals and Applications, Q. Zhan, ed. (World Scientific, 2013), Chap. 7, pp. 221–273.

30. Y. Cai, Y. Chen, J. Yu, X. Liu, and L. Liu, “Generation of partially coherent beams,” Prog. Opt. 62, 157–223 (2017). [CrossRef]  

31. Y. Dong, Y. Cai, C. Zhao, and M. Yao, “Statistics properties of a cylindrical vector partially coherent beam,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5979–5992 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. F. Wang, Y. Cai, Y. Dong, and O. Korotkova, “Experimental generation of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051108 (2012). [CrossRef]  

33. Y. Chen, F. Wang, L. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Generation and propagation of a partially coherent vector beam with special correlation functions,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013801 (2014). [CrossRef]  

34. Y. Dong, F. Wang, C. Zhao, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on propagation, tight focusing and radiation forces of an azimuthally polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013840 (2012). [CrossRef]  

35. D. P. Brown and T. G. Brown, “Partially correlated azimuthal vortex illumination: coherence and correlation measurements and effects in imaging,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20418–20426 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

36. O. Korotkova and E. Wolf, “Changes in the state of polarization of a random electromagnetic beam on propagation,” Opt. Commun. 246(1–3), 35–43 (2005). [CrossRef]  

37. H. Roychowdhury, S. A. Ponomarenko, and E. Wolf, “Changes in polarization of partially coherent electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(11), 1611–1618 (2005). [CrossRef]  

38. O. Korotkova, M. Salem, A. Dogariu, and E. Wolf, “Changes in the polarization ellipse of random electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” Waves Random Complex Media 15(3), 353–364 (2005). [CrossRef]  

39. Y. Cai, O. Korotkova, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, and Y. Baykal, “Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15834–15846 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

40. S. Sahin, Z. Tong, and O. Korotkova, “Sensing of semi-rough targets embedded in atmospheric turbulence by means of stochastic electromagnetic beams,” Opt. Commun. 283(22), 4512–4518 (2010). [CrossRef]  

41. F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 091102 (2013). [CrossRef]  

42. Y. Zhang, B. Ding, and T. Suyama, “Trapping two types of particles using a double-ring-shaped radially polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023831 (2010). [CrossRef]  

43. D. P. Brown and T. G. Brown, “Coherence measurements applied to critical and Köhler vortex illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7184, 71840B (2009). [CrossRef]  

44. Q. Lin and Y. Cai, “Tensor ABCD law for partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model beams,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 216–218 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

  • View by:

  1. P. Senthilkumaran and R. S. Sirohi, “Michelson interferometers in tandem for array generation,” Opt. Commun. 105(3–4), 158–160 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Vyas and P. Senthilkumaran, “Interferometric optical vortex array generator,” Appl. Opt. 46(15), 2893–2898 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Kumar and J. Joseph, “Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051102 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Kurzynowski, W. A. Wozniak, and M. Borwinska, “Regular lattices of polarization singularities: their generation and properties,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035406 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Sakamoto, K. Oka, R. Morita, and N. Murakami, “Stable and flexible ring-shaped optical-lattice generation by use of axially symmetric polarization elements,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3661–3664 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. L. Zhu, J. Yu, D. Zhang, M. Sun, and J. Chen, “Multifocal spot array generated by fractional Talbot effect phase-only modulation,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9798–9808 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Jaksch, C. Bruder, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(15), 3108–3111 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. I. Bloch, “Ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 23–30 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Takamoto, F. L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature 435(7040), 321–324 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. E. Betzig, “Excitation strategies for optical lattice microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3021–3036 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. E. Ostrovskaya and Y. Kivshar, “Photonic crystals for matter waves: Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices,” Opt. Express 12(1), 19–29 (2004).
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  13. N. Guérineau, B. Harchaoui, J. Primot, and K. Heggarty, “Generation of achromatic and propagation-invariant spot arrays by use of continuously self-imaging gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 411–413 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. L. Ma and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Optical coherence gratings and lattices,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6656–6659 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. L. Ma and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Free-space propagation of optical coherence lattices and periodicity reciprocity,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1848–1856 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. X. Liu, J. Yu, Y. Cai, and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Propagation of optical coherence lattices in the turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4182–4185 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Chen, S. A. Ponomarenko, and Y. Cai, “Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 061107 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. Youngworth and T. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express 7(2), 77–87 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. Biss and T. Brown, “Cylindrical vector beam focusing through a dielectric interface,” Opt. Express 9(10), 490–497 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. G. Wu, F. Wang, and Y. Cai, “Generation and self-healing of a radially polarized Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 043807 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. F. Gori, “Matrix treatment for partially polarized, partially coherent beams,” Opt. Lett. 23(4), 241–243 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. E. Wolf, Introduction to the Theory of Coherence and Polarization of Light (Cambridge University, 2007).
  24. E. Wolf, “Unified theory of coherence and polarization of random electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Lett. A 312(5–6), 263–267 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  25. F. Gori, V. Ramírez-Sánchez, M. Santarsiero, and T. Shirai, “On genuine cross-spectral density matrices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085706 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. Tervo, T. Setälä, and A. Friberg, “Degree of coherence for electromagnetic fields,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1137–1143 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. F. Gori, M. Santarsiero, G. Piquero, R. Borghi, A. Mondello, and R. Simon, “Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(1), 1–9 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  28. O. Korotkova, M. Salem, and E. Wolf, “Beam conditions for radiation generated by an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model source,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1173–1175 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. Y. Cai, F. Wang, C. Zhao, S. Zhu, G. Wu, and Y. Dong, “Partially coherent vector beams: from theory to experiment,” in Vectorial Optical Fields: Fundamentals and Applications, Q. Zhan, ed. (World Scientific, 2013), Chap. 7, pp. 221–273.
  30. Y. Cai, Y. Chen, J. Yu, X. Liu, and L. Liu, “Generation of partially coherent beams,” Prog. Opt. 62, 157–223 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  31. Y. Dong, Y. Cai, C. Zhao, and M. Yao, “Statistics properties of a cylindrical vector partially coherent beam,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5979–5992 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. F. Wang, Y. Cai, Y. Dong, and O. Korotkova, “Experimental generation of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051108 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y. Chen, F. Wang, L. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Generation and propagation of a partially coherent vector beam with special correlation functions,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013801 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. Y. Dong, F. Wang, C. Zhao, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on propagation, tight focusing and radiation forces of an azimuthally polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013840 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  35. D. P. Brown and T. G. Brown, “Partially correlated azimuthal vortex illumination: coherence and correlation measurements and effects in imaging,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20418–20426 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. O. Korotkova and E. Wolf, “Changes in the state of polarization of a random electromagnetic beam on propagation,” Opt. Commun. 246(1–3), 35–43 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  37. H. Roychowdhury, S. A. Ponomarenko, and E. Wolf, “Changes in polarization of partially coherent electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(11), 1611–1618 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  38. O. Korotkova, M. Salem, A. Dogariu, and E. Wolf, “Changes in the polarization ellipse of random electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” Waves Random Complex Media 15(3), 353–364 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  39. Y. Cai, O. Korotkova, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, and Y. Baykal, “Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15834–15846 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. S. Sahin, Z. Tong, and O. Korotkova, “Sensing of semi-rough targets embedded in atmospheric turbulence by means of stochastic electromagnetic beams,” Opt. Commun. 283(22), 4512–4518 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  41. F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 091102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  42. Y. Zhang, B. Ding, and T. Suyama, “Trapping two types of particles using a double-ring-shaped radially polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023831 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  43. D. P. Brown and T. G. Brown, “Coherence measurements applied to critical and Köhler vortex illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7184, 71840B (2009).
    [Crossref]
  44. Q. Lin and Y. Cai, “Tensor ABCD law for partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model beams,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 216–218 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

Y. Cai, Y. Chen, J. Yu, X. Liu, and L. Liu, “Generation of partially coherent beams,” Prog. Opt. 62, 157–223 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

X. Liu, J. Yu, Y. Cai, and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Propagation of optical coherence lattices in the turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4182–4185 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S. A. Ponomarenko, and Y. Cai, “Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 061107 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (5)

G. Wu, F. Wang, and Y. Cai, “Generation and self-healing of a radially polarized Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 043807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Wang, L. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Generation and propagation of a partially coherent vector beam with special correlation functions,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013801 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Ma and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Optical coherence gratings and lattices,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6656–6659 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kumar and J. Joseph, “Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051102 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, J. Yu, D. Zhang, M. Sun, and J. Chen, “Multifocal spot array generated by fractional Talbot effect phase-only modulation,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9798–9808 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. Sakamoto, K. Oka, R. Morita, and N. Murakami, “Stable and flexible ring-shaped optical-lattice generation by use of axially symmetric polarization elements,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3661–3664 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 091102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. Dong, F. Wang, C. Zhao, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on propagation, tight focusing and radiation forces of an azimuthally polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013840 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Y. Cai, Y. Dong, and O. Korotkova, “Experimental generation of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051108 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

P. Kurzynowski, W. A. Wozniak, and M. Borwinska, “Regular lattices of polarization singularities: their generation and properties,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, B. Ding, and T. Suyama, “Trapping two types of particles using a double-ring-shaped radially polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023831 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Sahin, Z. Tong, and O. Korotkova, “Sensing of semi-rough targets embedded in atmospheric turbulence by means of stochastic electromagnetic beams,” Opt. Commun. 283(22), 4512–4518 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

D. P. Brown and T. G. Brown, “Coherence measurements applied to critical and Köhler vortex illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7184, 71840B (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Gori, V. Ramírez-Sánchez, M. Santarsiero, and T. Shirai, “On genuine cross-spectral density matrices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085706 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2005 (6)

I. Bloch, “Ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 23–30 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Takamoto, F. L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature 435(7040), 321–324 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, “Excitation strategies for optical lattice microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3021–3036 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Korotkova and E. Wolf, “Changes in the state of polarization of a random electromagnetic beam on propagation,” Opt. Commun. 246(1–3), 35–43 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Roychowdhury, S. A. Ponomarenko, and E. Wolf, “Changes in polarization of partially coherent electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(11), 1611–1618 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. Korotkova, M. Salem, A. Dogariu, and E. Wolf, “Changes in the polarization ellipse of random electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” Waves Random Complex Media 15(3), 353–364 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Wolf, “Unified theory of coherence and polarization of random electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Lett. A 312(5–6), 263–267 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Tervo, T. Setälä, and A. Friberg, “Degree of coherence for electromagnetic fields,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1137–1143 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

D. Jaksch, C. Bruder, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(15), 3108–3111 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Gori, “Matrix treatment for partially polarized, partially coherent beams,” Opt. Lett. 23(4), 241–243 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

P. Senthilkumaran and R. S. Sirohi, “Michelson interferometers in tandem for array generation,” Opt. Commun. 105(3–4), 158–160 (1994).
[Crossref]

Baykal, Y.

Betzig, E.

Biss, D.

Bloch, I.

I. Bloch, “Ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 23–30 (2005).
[Crossref]

Borghi, R.

F. Gori, M. Santarsiero, G. Piquero, R. Borghi, A. Mondello, and R. Simon, “Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(1), 1–9 (2001).
[Crossref]

Borwinska, M.

P. Kurzynowski, W. A. Wozniak, and M. Borwinska, “Regular lattices of polarization singularities: their generation and properties,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brown, D. P.

Brown, T.

Brown, T. G.

Bruder, C.

D. Jaksch, C. Bruder, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(15), 3108–3111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, Y. Chen, J. Yu, X. Liu, and L. Liu, “Generation of partially coherent beams,” Prog. Opt. 62, 157–223 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, S. A. Ponomarenko, and Y. Cai, “Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 061107 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Yu, Y. Cai, and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Propagation of optical coherence lattices in the turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4182–4185 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wu, F. Wang, and Y. Cai, “Generation and self-healing of a radially polarized Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 043807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Wang, L. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Generation and propagation of a partially coherent vector beam with special correlation functions,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013801 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 091102 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Y. Cai, Y. Dong, and O. Korotkova, “Experimental generation of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, F. Wang, C. Zhao, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on propagation, tight focusing and radiation forces of an azimuthally polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013840 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, Y. Cai, C. Zhao, and M. Yao, “Statistics properties of a cylindrical vector partially coherent beam,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5979–5992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cai, O. Korotkova, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, and Y. Baykal, “Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15834–15846 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Lin and Y. Cai, “Tensor ABCD law for partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model beams,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 216–218 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

Y. Cai, Y. Chen, J. Yu, X. Liu, and L. Liu, “Generation of partially coherent beams,” Prog. Opt. 62, 157–223 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, S. A. Ponomarenko, and Y. Cai, “Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 061107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Wang, L. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Generation and propagation of a partially coherent vector beam with special correlation functions,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cirac, J. I.

D. Jaksch, C. Bruder, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(15), 3108–3111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, B.

Y. Zhang, B. Ding, and T. Suyama, “Trapping two types of particles using a double-ring-shaped radially polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023831 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dogariu, A.

O. Korotkova, M. Salem, A. Dogariu, and E. Wolf, “Changes in the polarization ellipse of random electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” Waves Random Complex Media 15(3), 353–364 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong, F. Wang, C. Zhao, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on propagation, tight focusing and radiation forces of an azimuthally polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013840 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Y. Cai, Y. Dong, and O. Korotkova, “Experimental generation of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, Y. Cai, C. Zhao, and M. Yao, “Statistics properties of a cylindrical vector partially coherent beam,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5979–5992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eyyuboglu, H. T.

Friberg, A.

Gardiner, C. W.

D. Jaksch, C. Bruder, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(15), 3108–3111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gori, F.

F. Gori, V. Ramírez-Sánchez, M. Santarsiero, and T. Shirai, “On genuine cross-spectral density matrices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085706 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Gori, M. Santarsiero, G. Piquero, R. Borghi, A. Mondello, and R. Simon, “Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(1), 1–9 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Gori, “Matrix treatment for partially polarized, partially coherent beams,” Opt. Lett. 23(4), 241–243 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guérineau, N.

Harchaoui, B.

Heggarty, K.

Higashi, R.

M. Takamoto, F. L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature 435(7040), 321–324 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, F. L.

M. Takamoto, F. L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature 435(7040), 321–324 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaksch, D.

D. Jaksch, C. Bruder, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(15), 3108–3111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Joseph, J.

M. Kumar and J. Joseph, “Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Katori, H.

M. Takamoto, F. L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature 435(7040), 321–324 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y.

Korotkova, O.

Y. Chen, F. Wang, L. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Generation and propagation of a partially coherent vector beam with special correlation functions,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013801 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Y. Cai, Y. Dong, and O. Korotkova, “Experimental generation of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051108 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sahin, Z. Tong, and O. Korotkova, “Sensing of semi-rough targets embedded in atmospheric turbulence by means of stochastic electromagnetic beams,” Opt. Commun. 283(22), 4512–4518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Cai, O. Korotkova, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, and Y. Baykal, “Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15834–15846 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Korotkova, M. Salem, A. Dogariu, and E. Wolf, “Changes in the polarization ellipse of random electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” Waves Random Complex Media 15(3), 353–364 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. Korotkova and E. Wolf, “Changes in the state of polarization of a random electromagnetic beam on propagation,” Opt. Commun. 246(1–3), 35–43 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. Korotkova, M. Salem, and E. Wolf, “Beam conditions for radiation generated by an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model source,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1173–1175 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, M.

M. Kumar and J. Joseph, “Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kurzynowski, P.

P. Kurzynowski, W. A. Wozniak, and M. Borwinska, “Regular lattices of polarization singularities: their generation and properties,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

Liu, L.

Y. Cai, Y. Chen, J. Yu, X. Liu, and L. Liu, “Generation of partially coherent beams,” Prog. Opt. 62, 157–223 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Wang, L. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Generation and propagation of a partially coherent vector beam with special correlation functions,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013801 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 091102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Y. Cai, Y. Chen, J. Yu, X. Liu, and L. Liu, “Generation of partially coherent beams,” Prog. Opt. 62, 157–223 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Yu, Y. Cai, and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Propagation of optical coherence lattices in the turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4182–4185 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 091102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mondello, A.

F. Gori, M. Santarsiero, G. Piquero, R. Borghi, A. Mondello, and R. Simon, “Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(1), 1–9 (2001).
[Crossref]

Morita, R.

Murakami, N.

Oka, K.

Ostrovskaya, E.

Piquero, G.

F. Gori, M. Santarsiero, G. Piquero, R. Borghi, A. Mondello, and R. Simon, “Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(1), 1–9 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ponomarenko, S. A.

X. Liu, J. Yu, Y. Cai, and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Propagation of optical coherence lattices in the turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4182–4185 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S. A. Ponomarenko, and Y. Cai, “Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 061107 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Ma and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Free-space propagation of optical coherence lattices and periodicity reciprocity,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1848–1856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ma and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Optical coherence gratings and lattices,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6656–6659 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Roychowdhury, S. A. Ponomarenko, and E. Wolf, “Changes in polarization of partially coherent electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(11), 1611–1618 (2005).
[Crossref]

Primot, J.

Ramírez-Sánchez, V.

F. Gori, V. Ramírez-Sánchez, M. Santarsiero, and T. Shirai, “On genuine cross-spectral density matrices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085706 (2009).
[Crossref]

Roychowdhury, H.

H. Roychowdhury, S. A. Ponomarenko, and E. Wolf, “Changes in polarization of partially coherent electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(11), 1611–1618 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sahin, S.

S. Sahin, Z. Tong, and O. Korotkova, “Sensing of semi-rough targets embedded in atmospheric turbulence by means of stochastic electromagnetic beams,” Opt. Commun. 283(22), 4512–4518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, M.

Salem, M.

O. Korotkova, M. Salem, A. Dogariu, and E. Wolf, “Changes in the polarization ellipse of random electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” Waves Random Complex Media 15(3), 353–364 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. Korotkova, M. Salem, and E. Wolf, “Beam conditions for radiation generated by an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model source,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1173–1175 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santarsiero, M.

F. Gori, V. Ramírez-Sánchez, M. Santarsiero, and T. Shirai, “On genuine cross-spectral density matrices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085706 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Gori, M. Santarsiero, G. Piquero, R. Borghi, A. Mondello, and R. Simon, “Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(1), 1–9 (2001).
[Crossref]

Senthilkumaran, P.

S. Vyas and P. Senthilkumaran, “Interferometric optical vortex array generator,” Appl. Opt. 46(15), 2893–2898 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Senthilkumaran and R. S. Sirohi, “Michelson interferometers in tandem for array generation,” Opt. Commun. 105(3–4), 158–160 (1994).
[Crossref]

Setälä, T.

Shirai, T.

F. Gori, V. Ramírez-Sánchez, M. Santarsiero, and T. Shirai, “On genuine cross-spectral density matrices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085706 (2009).
[Crossref]

Simon, R.

F. Gori, M. Santarsiero, G. Piquero, R. Borghi, A. Mondello, and R. Simon, “Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(1), 1–9 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sirohi, R. S.

P. Senthilkumaran and R. S. Sirohi, “Michelson interferometers in tandem for array generation,” Opt. Commun. 105(3–4), 158–160 (1994).
[Crossref]

Spalding, G. C.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, M.

Suyama, T.

Y. Zhang, B. Ding, and T. Suyama, “Trapping two types of particles using a double-ring-shaped radially polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023831 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takamoto, M.

M. Takamoto, F. L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature 435(7040), 321–324 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tervo, J.

Tong, Z.

S. Sahin, Z. Tong, and O. Korotkova, “Sensing of semi-rough targets embedded in atmospheric turbulence by means of stochastic electromagnetic beams,” Opt. Commun. 283(22), 4512–4518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vyas, S.

Wang, F.

G. Wu, F. Wang, and Y. Cai, “Generation and self-healing of a radially polarized Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 043807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Wang, L. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Generation and propagation of a partially coherent vector beam with special correlation functions,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013801 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 091102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, F. Wang, C. Zhao, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on propagation, tight focusing and radiation forces of an azimuthally polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013840 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Y. Cai, Y. Dong, and O. Korotkova, “Experimental generation of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

O. Korotkova and E. Wolf, “Changes in the state of polarization of a random electromagnetic beam on propagation,” Opt. Commun. 246(1–3), 35–43 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Roychowdhury, S. A. Ponomarenko, and E. Wolf, “Changes in polarization of partially coherent electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(11), 1611–1618 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. Korotkova, M. Salem, A. Dogariu, and E. Wolf, “Changes in the polarization ellipse of random electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” Waves Random Complex Media 15(3), 353–364 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. Korotkova, M. Salem, and E. Wolf, “Beam conditions for radiation generated by an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model source,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1173–1175 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Wolf, “Unified theory of coherence and polarization of random electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Lett. A 312(5–6), 263–267 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wozniak, W. A.

P. Kurzynowski, W. A. Wozniak, and M. Borwinska, “Regular lattices of polarization singularities: their generation and properties,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, G.

G. Wu, F. Wang, and Y. Cai, “Generation and self-healing of a radially polarized Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 043807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, M.

Youngworth, K.

Yu, J.

Yuan, Y.

F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 091102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Q.

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, B. Ding, and T. Suyama, “Trapping two types of particles using a double-ring-shaped radially polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023831 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Y. Chen, F. Wang, L. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Generation and propagation of a partially coherent vector beam with special correlation functions,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, F. Wang, C. Zhao, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on propagation, tight focusing and radiation forces of an azimuthally polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013840 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, Y. Cai, C. Zhao, and M. Yao, “Statistics properties of a cylindrical vector partially coherent beam,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5979–5992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.

Zoller, P.

D. Jaksch, C. Bruder, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(15), 3108–3111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Kumar and J. Joseph, “Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, S. A. Ponomarenko, and Y. Cai, “Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 061107 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Y. Cai, Y. Dong, and O. Korotkova, “Experimental generation of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 051108 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(9), 091102 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. Roychowdhury, S. A. Ponomarenko, and E. Wolf, “Changes in polarization of partially coherent electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(11), 1611–1618 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

P. Kurzynowski, W. A. Wozniak, and M. Borwinska, “Regular lattices of polarization singularities: their generation and properties,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035406 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

F. Gori, V. Ramírez-Sánchez, M. Santarsiero, and T. Shirai, “On genuine cross-spectral density matrices,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085706 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Gori, M. Santarsiero, G. Piquero, R. Borghi, A. Mondello, and R. Simon, “Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(1), 1–9 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

I. Bloch, “Ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 23–30 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

M. Takamoto, F. L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature 435(7040), 321–324 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. Senthilkumaran and R. S. Sirohi, “Michelson interferometers in tandem for array generation,” Opt. Commun. 105(3–4), 158–160 (1994).
[Crossref]

O. Korotkova and E. Wolf, “Changes in the state of polarization of a random electromagnetic beam on propagation,” Opt. Commun. 246(1–3), 35–43 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Sahin, Z. Tong, and O. Korotkova, “Sensing of semi-rough targets embedded in atmospheric turbulence by means of stochastic electromagnetic beams,” Opt. Commun. 283(22), 4512–4518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

Y. Cai, O. Korotkova, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, and Y. Baykal, “Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15834–15846 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tervo, T. Setälä, and A. Friberg, “Degree of coherence for electromagnetic fields,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1137–1143 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, Y. Cai, C. Zhao, and M. Yao, “Statistics properties of a cylindrical vector partially coherent beam,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5979–5992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Brown and T. G. Brown, “Partially correlated azimuthal vortex illumination: coherence and correlation measurements and effects in imaging,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20418–20426 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, “Excitation strategies for optical lattice microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3021–3036 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ostrovskaya and Y. Kivshar, “Photonic crystals for matter waves: Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices,” Opt. Express 12(1), 19–29 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Youngworth and T. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express 7(2), 77–87 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Biss and T. Brown, “Cylindrical vector beam focusing through a dielectric interface,” Opt. Express 9(10), 490–497 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhu, J. Yu, D. Zhang, M. Sun, and J. Chen, “Multifocal spot array generated by fractional Talbot effect phase-only modulation,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9798–9808 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ma and S. A. Ponomarenko, “Free-space propagation of optical coherence lattices and periodicity reciprocity,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1848–1856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

E. Wolf, “Unified theory of coherence and polarization of random electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Lett. A 312(5–6), 263–267 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

Y. Chen, F. Wang, L. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Generation and propagation of a partially coherent vector beam with special correlation functions,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, F. Wang, C. Zhao, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on propagation, tight focusing and radiation forces of an azimuthally polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013840 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Wu, F. Wang, and Y. Cai, “Generation and self-healing of a radially polarized Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 043807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, B. Ding, and T. Suyama, “Trapping two types of particles using a double-ring-shaped radially polarized beam,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023831 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Jaksch, C. Bruder, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(15), 3108–3111 (1998).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. P. Brown and T. G. Brown, “Coherence measurements applied to critical and Köhler vortex illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7184, 71840B (2009).
[Crossref]

Prog. Opt. (1)

Y. Cai, Y. Chen, J. Yu, X. Liu, and L. Liu, “Generation of partially coherent beams,” Prog. Opt. 62, 157–223 (2017).
[Crossref]

Waves Random Complex Media (1)

O. Korotkova, M. Salem, A. Dogariu, and E. Wolf, “Changes in the polarization ellipse of random electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” Waves Random Complex Media 15(3), 353–364 (2005).
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Other (2)

E. Wolf, Introduction to the Theory of Coherence and Polarization of Light (Cambridge University, 2007).

Y. Cai, F. Wang, C. Zhao, S. Zhu, G. Wu, and Y. Dong, “Partially coherent vector beams: from theory to experiment,” in Vectorial Optical Fields: Fundamentals and Applications, Q. Zhan, ed. (World Scientific, 2013), Chap. 7, pp. 221–273.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Density plot of the square of the the degree of coherence μ 2 ( x 1 , y 1 , 1 mm , 1 mm ) of radially polarized VOCLs for different values of M and N with and in the source plane.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Density plot of the normalized intensity distribution I ( ρ ) / I max ( ρ ) , the corresponding components I x ( ρ ) / I y max ( ρ ) , I y ( ρ ) / I y max ( ρ ) , and the distribution of the SOP of radially polarized VOCLs at several propagation distances in free space with M = N = 3 and.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Density plot of the normalized intensity distribution I ( ρ ) / I max ( ρ ) , the corresponding components I x ( ρ ) / I y max ( ρ ) , I y ( ρ ) / I y max ( ρ ) , and the distribution of the SOP of radially polarized VOCLs at several propagation distances in free space with M = N = 3 and δ 0 = 0.4 mm .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Density plot of the normalized intensity distribution I ( ρ ) / I max ( ρ ) , the corresponding components I x ( ρ ) / I y max ( ρ ) , I y ( ρ ) / I y max ( ρ ) , and the distribution of the SOP of radially polarized VOCLs at several propagation distances in free space with M = N = 3 and δ 0 = 0.32 mm .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Density plot of the normalized intensity distribution I ( ρ ) / I max ( ρ ) of radially polarized VOCLs at z = 10 km in free space for different values of M and N with δ 0 = 3 mm .
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental setup for generating radially polarized VOCLs, measuring the degree of coherence and the focused intensity. Laser, Nd: YAG laser; LP, linear polarizer; BE, beam expander; AM, amplitude mask; L1, L2 and L3, thin lenses; RGGD, rotating ground-glass disk; MC, motion controller; GAF, Gaussian amplitude filter; RPC, radial polarization converter; BS, beam splitter; CCD, charge-coupled device; BPA, beam profile analyzer; PC, personal computer.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental results of the squared modulus of the degree of coherence | μ ( x 1 , y 1 , 1 mm , 1 mm ) | 2 of the generated radially polarized VOCLs just behind the RPC with δ 0 = 0.37 mm andfor different values of M and N, (a) M = N = 2 , (b) M = N = 3 , (c) M = N = 5 .
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimental results of the intensity distribution of the generated radially polarized VOCLs with M = N = 3 , δ 0 = 0.37 mm and d = 1 mm focused by the thin lens L3 with focal length f 3 = 15 cm and its corresponding components I x and I y at several propagation distances.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental results of the intensity distribution of the generated radially polarized VOCLs with M = N = 3 and d = 1 mm focused by the thin lens L3 with focal length f 3 = 15 cm in the focal plane for different values of the coherence parameter, (a) δ 0 = 0.6 mm , (b) δ 0 = 0.4 mm , (c) δ 0 = 0.37 mm .

Equations (26)

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μ ( r 1 , r 2 ) = 2 M m = 1 M J 1 ( | r 1 r 2 | / 2 δ ) | r 1 r 2 | / 2 δ exp [ i V 0 m ( r 1 r 2 ) ] .
Γ α β ( r 1 , r 2 ) = E α * ( r 1 ) E β ( r 2 ) , ( α , β = x , y ) .
Γ α β ( r 1 , r 2 ) = P α β ( v ) H α ( r 1 , v ) H β * ( r 2 , v ) d 2 v ,
P α α ( v ) 0 , P x x ( v ) P y y ( v ) | P x y ( v ) | 2 0.
H α ( r , v ) = i λ f T α exp [ i π λ f ( v 2 2 r v ) ] ,
P α β ( v ) = B α β M N m = ( M 1 ) / 2 ( M 1 ) / 2 n = ( N 1 ) / 2 ( N 1 ) / 2 c i r c ( v v m n a α β ) .
Γ α β ( r 1 , r 2 ) = C 0 T α * T β γ α β ( r 1 , r 2 ) ,
γ α β ( r 1 , r 2 ) = 2 B α β M N m = ( M 1 ) / 2 ( M 1 ) / 2 n = ( N 1 ) / 2 ( N 1 ) / 2 J 1 ( | r 1 r 2 | / 2 δ 0 α β ) | r 1 r 2 | / 2 δ 0 α β exp [ i 2 π λ f v m n ( r 1 r 2 ) ] .
| B α β | = 1 , ϕ α β = 0 , ( α = β ) , | B α β | 1 , ( α β ) , | B x y | = | B y x | , ϕ x y = ϕ y x , δ 0 x y = δ 0 y x .
m = ( M 1 ) / 2 ( M 1 ) / 2 n = ( N 1 ) / 2 ( N 1 ) / 2 c i r c ( v v m n a x x ) m = ( M 1 ) / 2 ( M 1 ) / 2 n = ( N 1 ) / 2 ( N 1 ) / 2 c i r c ( v v m n a y y ) | B x y | 2 | m = ( M 1 ) / 2 ( M 1 ) / 2 n = ( N 1 ) / 2 ( N 1 ) / 2 c i r c ( v v m n a x y ) | 2 .
a x y min ( a x x , a y y ) .
δ 0 x y max ( δ 0 x x , δ 0 y y ) .
A 1 , 2 ( r ) = 1 2 [ ( Γ x x ( r , r ) Γ y y ( r , r ) ) 2 + 4 | Γ x y ( r , r ) | 2 ± ( Γ x x ( r , r ) Γ y y ( r , r ) ) 2 + 4 Re | Γ x y ( r , r ) | 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
ε ( r ) = A 2 ( r ) / A 1 ( r ) ,
θ ( r ) = 1 2 arc tan [ 2 Re [ Γ x y ( r , r ) ] Γ x x ( r , r ) Γ y y ( r , r ) ] .
B x y = B y x = 1 , δ 0 x x = δ 0 y y = δ 0 x y = δ 0 y x = δ 0 .
γ x x ( r 1 , r 2 ) = γ y y ( r 1 , r 2 ) = γ x y ( r 1 , r 2 ) = γ y x ( r 1 , r 2 ) .
μ 2 ( r 1 , r 2 ) = α , β | Γ α β ( r 1 , r 2 ) | 2 α , β Γ α α ( r 1 , r 1 ) Γ β β ( r 2 , r 2 ) .
μ 2 ( r 1 , r 2 ) = γ 2 α β ( r 1 , r 2 ) ( α , β = x , y ) .
Γ α β ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) = 1 ( λ B ) 2 exp [ i k D 2 B ( ρ 1 2 ρ 2 2 ) ] Γ α β ( r 1 , r 2 ) exp [ i k A 2 B ( r 1 2 r 2 2 ) ] exp [ i k B ( r 1 ρ 1 r 2 ρ 2 ) ] d 2 r 1 d 2 r 2 ,
Γ x x ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) = C 0 π 2 λ 2 B 2 Δ 2 M N h = 0 s = 0 h m = ( M 1 ) / 2 ( M 1 ) / 2 n = ( N 1 ) / 2 ( N 1 ) / 2 ( 1 ) h 2 3 h s ! ( h s ) ! ( h + 1 ) ! δ 0 2 h Q 2 s n ( ρ s y , ρ d y ) × [ ( ρ d x 2 B 2 k 2 w s 2 ) Q 2 ( h s ) m ( ρ s x , ρ d x ) + 2 A ρ d x Q 2 ( h s ) + 1 m ( ρ s x , ρ d x ) Δ 2 Q 2 ( h s ) + 2 m ( ρ s x , ρ d x ) ] ,
Γ y y ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) = C 0 π 2 λ 2 B 2 Δ 2 M N h = 0 s = 0 h m = ( M 1 ) / 2 ( M 1 ) / 2 n = ( N 1 ) / 2 ( N 1 ) / 2 ( 1 ) h 2 3 h s ! ( h s ) ! ( h + 1 ) ! δ 0 2 h Q 2 ( h s ) m ( ρ s x , ρ d x ) × [ ( ρ d y 2 B 2 k 2 w s 2 ) Q 2 s n ( ρ s y , ρ d y ) + 2 A ρ d x Q 2 s + 1 n ( ρ s y , ρ d y ) Δ 2 Q 2 s + 2 n ( ρ s y , ρ d y ) ] ,
Γ x y ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) = C 0 π 2 λ 2 B 2 Δ 2 M N h = 0 s = 0 h m = ( M 1 ) / 2 ( M 1 ) / 2 n = ( N 1 ) / 2 ( N 1 ) / 2 ( 1 ) h 2 3 h s ! ( h s ) ! ( h + 1 ) ! δ 0 2 h × [ i ρ d x Q 2 ( h s ) m ( ρ s x , ρ d x ) ( i A B 2 w s 2 k ) Q 2 ( h s ) + 1 m ( ρ s x , ρ d x ) ] [ i ρ d y Q 2 s n ( ρ s y , ρ d y ) ( i A + B 2 w s 2 k ) Q 2 s + 1 n ( ρ s y , ρ d y ) ] ,
Γ y x ( ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) = Γ x y * ( ρ 2 , ρ 1 ) ,
Q t p ( ρ s α , ρ d α ) = ( i B 2 k w s Δ ) t exp ( i k D B ρ s α ρ d α ) H t ( 1 2 w s Δ ( B f p d ρ s α + i k w s 2 A B ρ d α ) ) . × exp ( k 2 w s 2 2 B 2 ρ d α 2 ) exp ( 1 2 w s 2 Δ 2 ( B f p d ρ s α + i k w s 2 A B ρ d α ) 2 )
I ( ρ ) = Γ x x ( ρ , ρ ) + Γ y y ( ρ , ρ ) = I x ( ρ ) + I y ( ρ ) .

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