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Novel on chip rotation detection based on the acousto-optic effect in surface acoustic wave gyroscopes

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Abstract

An Acousto-Optic Gyroscope (AOG) consisting of a photonic integrated device embedded into two inherently matched piezoelectric surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators sharing the same acoustic cavity is presented. This constitutes the first demonstration of a micromachined strain-based optomechanical gyroscope that uses the effective index of the optical waveguide due to the acousto-optic effect rather than conventional displacement sensing. The theoretical analysis comparing various photonic phase sensing techniques is presented and verified experimentally for the cases based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, as well as a racetrack resonator. This first prototype integrates acoustic and photonic components on the same lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) substrate and constitutes the first proof of concept demonstration of the AOG. This approach enables the development of a new class of micromachined gyroscopes that combines the advantages of both conventional microscale vibrating gyroscopes and optical gyroscopes.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Existing gyroscopes for inertial navigation systems are based on either bulky mechanical implementations [1,2] or large volume and high power Optical Gyroscopes (OGs) [3–5]. MEMS vibratory gyroscopes (MVGs) [6–9] are an interesting alternative, but have exhibited limitations on various fronts. The need for a large released mass makes MVGs vulnerable to shock [10]. Since most MVGs operate at few kHz with quality factors > 1,000, their output bandwidth is limited to mHz for frequency matched operation [11] unless complex bandwidth extension techniques are used [12]. Furthermore, the low operation frequency makes the gyroscope susceptible to environmental vibrations [13]. On the other hand, OGs such as Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG) and Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG) can achieve both high performance and operation stability [3]. Unfortunately, miniaturization and power scaling of these implementations are challenging [14–19]. In this work, we demonstrate the first prototype of an Acousto-Optic Gyroscope (AOG), which has the theoretical capability of addressing all the major issues encountered in MVGs or miniaturized OGs. The AOG is based on the concept of the Surface Acoustic Wave Gyroscope (SAWG) [20–22], in which the Coriolis force detection is performed optically instead of acousto-electrically. The use of SAW resonators enables the realization of a large unreleased mass and wide bandwidth operation. The optical sensing of the strain induced by the Coriolis force (via the acousto-optic effects) provides for extremely low noise levels, high sensitivity, and stable readout. In addition, the optical detection method significantly simplifies the electronic readout. The Coriolis-induced strain is mapped to a change in the effective index of the optical waveguide through the acousto-optic effect. Different photonic phase sensing techniques can be used to detect the index change such as a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) [23] operated in the push pull operation or a racetrack (RT) resonator [24]. In section 2 of this article, we describe the implementation of the proposed AOG in a lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) substrate, which was selected because of its unique acoustic and photonic properties [25,26]. The Scale Factor, SF, of a gyroscope is defined as the ratio of the output voltage to the input rotation. We derive the SF for the AOG in section 3. Section 3.2 compares the two aforementioned phase sensing techniques deriving the SF for each case. In section 4 we present the overall design of the AOG and in section 5 we discuss its fabrication. The theoretical analysis is verified experimentally in Section 6. Finally, we report the angular random walk (ARW) measurement for the MZI-AOG and compare it with the SAWG fabricated on the same platform. This work constitutes the very first demonstration of the AOG concept.

2. Principle of operation

Figure 1 depicts a schematic view of the AOG and offers an overview of its principle of operation. Two orthogonal SAW resonators are shown (only reflectors are shown in the y direction to avoid cluttering the image) with metallic pillars placed at the center acting as the moving mass, Mp, of the gyroscope. A SAW standing wave pattern is established along the x(drive) direction. The pillars are placed inside the cavity at the anti-nodes of the SAW standing wave pattern (location of maximum x-directed velocity). The pillars are driven longitudinally with vibration velocity,vp. When out-plane rotation, Ωz, is applied, Coriolis force, Fc, is induced on the vibrating pillars in the direction orthogonal to both the input rotation direction and the drive vibration direction. The Coriolis force can be expressed as [25,27]:

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 3D sketch of the AOG (PD = Photo-detector, IDT = Interdigitated transducer). IDT on the sense cavity are not shown to avoid cluttering the drawing, but reflectors are present to point out that a high Q acoustic cavity is also present on the sense side.

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Fc=-2MpΩz×vp

The pillars are arranged in a checkerboard configuration such that their constructive interference establishes a secondary SAW in the y(sense) direction. For Rayleigh SAW mode, the dominant strain component is the longitudinal one along the propagation direction, S, which can be expressed in terms of the stress, σ as Sσ/(ρvR2) where ρ=4700kg/m3 (for lithium niobate (LN)) is the substrate mass density and vR=3488m/secis the Rayleigh SAW phase velocity. Since the stress can be directly related to the Coriolis force as σ=Fc/(LH) where L is the acousto-optical (AO) interaction length and H is the SAW penetration depth [28] (which is less than 10% of the acoustic wavelength, Λ [26]), then we can express the strain, S, as:

S=FcρvR2LH

In SAW gyroscopes [21,29], piezoelectric transducers are commonly used to sense the secondary waves. In this work, the secondary wave is detected through the elasto-optic effect in the photonic waveguides etched in the Lithium Niobate (LN) thin film, i.e. by monitoring the refractive index change, Δn, due to the strain induced by the secondary wave. The change in the effective index of the optical waveguide is expressed as:

Δn=12n3peffS
wherepeffis the effective acousto-optic coefficient in the specific propagation direction of the SAW. The photonic sensing technique shown in Fig. 2 uses a push-pull MZI (PP-MZI), which converts the phase modulation to intensity modulation at the photodetector output by mixing the optical beams from the two MZI arms. However, other phase sensing techniques like AOG RT can also be used, as we will discuss in the following sections.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Phase sensing techniques for the AOG where the secondary acoustic induced due to rotation is sensed as strain variation in the photonic waveguides: (a) The strained waveguides are part of a PP-MZI and (b) The strained waveguides are part of an RT resonator.

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3. AOG scale factor and comparison of photonic detection techniques

The SF (or sensitivity) of the AOG is determined by the change in the optical signal intensity, T, due to the phase variation, φAOG,, G=T/φAOG, as a function of the external rotation, Ωz, βAOG=φAOG/Ωz, which directly relates to the SAW cavity design and the elasto-optic characteristics of the LN film. Overall, the SF can be expressed as:

SF=TΩz=TφAOGφAOGΩz=GβAOG

The induced phase shift due to rotation,φAOG, can be expressed in terms of the refractive index change, Δn, and the waveguide length, L, as:

φAOG=Δn2πλL
where λ=1550nm is the optical wavelength. The SF is written in this way so that a direct comparison between various phase sensing techniques can be formulated by analyzing the gain factor,G=|TφAOG|max.

3.1 Rotation induced phase changes

Placing the waveguides at the location of maximum strain for the standing wave pattern of the SAW cavity enhances the phase sensitivity by the resonator quality factor in the sense direction, QS. This phenomenon can be accounted for by modifying Eq. (5) to be:

φAOG=QS2πλLΔn

The vibration velocity in Eq. (1) can be expressed in terms of the drive parameters: the electrical power, Pm, the drive resonator quality factor, QD, the resonator equivalent mass, Mr [30], and the SAW resonance frequency, fm, as:

vp=PmQDπfmMr

Combining Eqs. (1) - (7), the rotation induced phase can thus be derived to be equal to:

βAOG=2πλHM2ρvRMpPmQDπfmMrQS
where M2=(n6(peff)2)/(ρvR3) is the AO figure of merit of the material.

3.2 Photonic sensing techniques

Figure 2 shows the two phase sensing techniques considered for comparison in this study. Figure 2(a) represents a PP-MZI where Ein represents the input electric field while Eo1 and Eo2 represent the output fields from the MMI coupler. For differential operation of the PP-MZI, its normalized transfer function is given by TPPMZI=sin2φAOG. The factor of two in the sin argument is due to the push-pull operation enabled by separating the MZI arms’ centers by a distance equal to3Λ/2 [31,32]. This separation implies opposite phase modulation in the two arms such that when one waveguide is under compression, the other one is under tension. Thus, the AOG SF gain can be derived by evaluating the maximum of T/φAOG, which is equal to:

GPPMZI=2

The AOG RT phase sensing technique is shown in Fig. 2(b) where an RT is coupled to a bus waveguide. We assume that only the two straight arms of the RT contribute to the phase modulation. For this reason the separation between the two straight arms in the RT is set to an even multiple of Λ/2, so that both waveguides will be either under compression or tension at the same time. Thus, the transfer function for the RT can be expressed in terms of the round trip intrinsic loss inside the RT, a2, the coupling coefficient, r2, and the round trip total phase shift, φ, as:

TRT=a2+r22arcos(φ)1+a2r22arcos(φ)
where φ=φo+2φAOG, φo=n2πλLT is the round trip phase shift, and LT is the total racetrack length. Thus:

TRTφAOG=2arsinφ(1+a2r2r2a2)(1+a2r22arcosφ)2

Figure 3 plots TRT and its derivative as function of φAOG. The finesse, F, can be derived also in terms of a and r as F=πar1ar. The plot in Fig. 3 assumes a specific value of the cavity finesse, F = 13. It is evident that the maximum value of the derivative of TRT is a strong function of a and r. TRTφ has a maximum at a specific phase offset that equals to one quarter of the full width half maximum (Δφ1/2), Δφmax = Δφ1/2 / 4 where Δφ1/2 is given in terms of a and r as Δφ1/2=2(1ar)ar. Accordingly, the maximum AOG sensitivity gain can be derived as:

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 RT transfer function and its derivative as function of phase. Maximum phase sensitivity is obtained at one quarter of the full width half maximum.

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GRT=|TRTφAOG|φ=Δφ1/2/4

At this specific bias point, and assuming a low loss resonator, we can approximatesinφΔφ1/2/4 and cosφ112(Δφ1/24)2 in Eq. (11) to get:

GRT2arΔφ1/2(1a2)(1r2)2(1+a2r22ar+ar(Δφ1/2)216)2

Also for low loss cavity near critical coupling, we can impose that arand Fπr1r2=2πΔφ1/2 so as to find a very simple expression of the RT gain factor:

GRT=32F25π2F5

To verify this analytical value, the derivative TRT/φAOG is computed numerically using Matlab and plotted in Fig. 4 as a function of r for two values of a=0.85 and a=0.99. The first value a=0.85 represents the round trip loss extracted from the RT resonator of this work and is equivalent to a propagation loss of 2.5 dB/cm. The second value of a = 0.99, corresponds to ultra-low losses (2.5 dB/m) that were recently reported for etched waveguide on the same LNOI substrate [33]. Note that the finesse of the cavity is varying along that curve as r varies and the dashed lines point out the F value at the points of maximum slope. The numerical analysis confirms our analytical conclusion that the gain in the SF is bounded by 2F/5 . It also shows that the RT has to be under-coupled for maximum phase sensitivity in agreement with [34].

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 GRT as function of r for two values of a. The lower the losses, the more sensitive is the RT. Optimum coupling is found at r=a for maximum phase sensitivity.

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4. Acousto-optic gyroscope design

Figure 5 and Fig. 6 show the layout views for the MZI-AOG and the RT-AOG respectively with zoomed-in SEMs of the various constitutive components. Four identical Interdigitated Transducers (IDTs), SAW reflectors and photonic waveguides are placed symmetrically with respect to a central pillar-filled cavity so as to ensure frequency matching between orthogonal SAW resonators. The IDTs in the sense direction are not excited electrically so that they have minimum effect on the secondary SAW standing wave pattern. The reason for having IDTs in the sense direction is to make sure that we have a fully symmetric design and are able to match the frequencies of the drive and sense resonators. The light is coupled in and out using grating couplers. The photonic readout shown in Fig. 5 is based on a (PP-MZI) where a Y junction is used for splitting the optical input into the two arms of the MZI [23] and a 2x2 multimode interference (MMI) 3-dB coupler is used as a beam combiner. The differential output is detected using a balanced photodetector. On the other hand, an RT is used in the photonic read-out where a butterfly MMI coupler [35] is used to couple the light to the RT. The following sub-sections will describe the design of each component forming the two AOGs.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Layout view of the MZI AOG with zoomed-in SEMs of the various components forming it.

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 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Layout view of the RT AOG with zoomed-in SEMs of the various components forming it.

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4.1 SAW resonator design

The SAW resonator Q in the drive and sense directions can be fully harnessed when the frequencies of the orthogonal resonators are matched. Previous SAW gyroscope designs [20,29,36] targeted SAW propagation direction and LN wafer cuts that provide the highest electromechanical coupling coefficient by driving the SAW in the Z direction for a Y cut LN wafer. However, for such a cut, the material properties in the two orthogonal in-plane directions (X and Z) are not the same due the trigonal crystalline structure of LN. Such a configuration makes frequency matching difficult. In our AOG design, the two SAW resonators are rotated by ± 45° with respect to the Z-direction to preserve symmetry, hence inherently matching the drive and sense frequencies [37]. The aperture length is equal to the total cavity length and is chosen to be L = 40Λ. The acoustic wavelength is selected to be Λ=30μm so as to fit the gyroscope design in a 20x20 mm2 die. This wavelength corresponds to an acoustic frequency of 115 MHz. The SAW reflector has 700 fingers to ensure proper confinement of the SAW inside the cavity.

4.2 Photonic components design

For both types of AOGs, grating couplers were used to couple light in and out of the photonic components. The grating coupler dimensions (shown in Fig. 7(a)) were optimized using FDTD LUMERICAL tool for maximum coupling efficiency for the TE polarized light. Δg=1μm for the period, δ/Δg=0.44 for the duty cycle and e=330nm for the etch depth [38], assuming θm = 8 degrees as the coupling angle were selected.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 (a) Grating Coupler design dimensions. (b) 3-dB MMI coupler design dimensions. (c) Butterfly MMI coupler design dimensions.

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The length of the waveguides of the MZI arms and the RT straight arm is chosen to be equal to the cavity length. The waveguides are placed at the positions of maximum strain in the SAW cavity. The MZI arms’ separation is set to 3Λ/2 for push-pull operation while the RT straight arms’ separation is set to 7Λ to double the phase sensitivity. The length and width of the 3-dB MMI coupler in the MZI-AOG are chosen to be L3dBMMI=118.1μm andW3dBMMI=11.6μm, respectively (see Fig. 7(b)), to ensure 3-dB splitting around 1550 nm (optical wavelength). The dimensions of the butterfly MMI coupler [35] in the RT-AOG were chosen to be equal to W1BFMMI=7.6μm for the outer width (see Fig. 7(c)), W2BFMMI=14.5μm for the inner width and LBFMMI=442.6μmfor the length.

5. Fabrication process

The fabrication process flow is depicted in Fig. 8 starting with a Y-cut LNOI 4” wafer. The LN thin film (3” diameter and 500 nm in thickness) is bonded to silicon dioxide (SiO2, 1μm thick) on a LN substrate. The thin film was formed by means of ion-implantation, slicing and polishing (Fig. 8(A)) by an external vendor [39]. The first fabrication step consists in the lift-off of evaporated Al thin film (Fig. 8(B)), which is set to be 100 nm thick and is used to define the IDT and reflector electrodes. After this step, a 140 nm Au layer lift-off is performed (Fig. 8(C)) for patterning of the pillars. Au is also used for coating the Al pads to facilitate wire bonding for testing purposes. The next step is the deposition of SiO2 (1 µm thick) (Fig. 8(D)), which is used as a mask layer during the LN etch. Chromium (Cr) (50 nm thick) is then deposited (Fig. 8(E)) and used as a mask for etching SiO2. This Cr layer is patterned twice. The first pattern is done with optical lithography to define the waveguides (WGs) (Fig. 8(F)). The second Cr patterning is performed at the die level using electron-beam lithography to define the grating couplers (Fig. 8(G)). Then SiO2 is etched in an reactive ion etching (RIE) process using fluorine-based chemistry with the double-defined Cr mask (Fig. 8(H)). Chlorine-based chemistry is used in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) RIE process to partially etch the LN with the SiO2 mask (Fig. 8(I)). The Cr mask is also removed during the ICP etch step. The final step is dry etch (Fig. 8(J)) of SiO2 to expose the metallic pads and completely remove it from the SAW resonator surface.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Fabrication process flow for manufacturing the AOG.

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6. Measurement results

6.1 Characterization of SAW resonators

The frequency responses of the drive and sense acoustic resonators are measured using a vector network analyzer (PNA N5230A) and RF probing. The measurement result showing the magnitude of the cross coupling admittance, Y21, between the two ports of each resonator is reported in Fig. 9. The ~40 kHz mismatch between sense and drive frequencies can be attributed to fabrication misalignments. This mismatch is still within the resonator bandwidth, which is approximately 50 kHz since the loaded QD=QS=500. The quality factor and mismatch can be considered as the limiting aspect for the AOG bandwidth (25 kHz) which is well beyond what can be accomplished by MVGs.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Frequency response for the drive and sense cavities showing a mismatch of 40 kHz which is within the resonator bandwidth (100 kHz).

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6.2 Characterization of the photonic MZI and RT

Figure 10(a) plots the MZI transfer function for the two outputs as a function of the wavelength. A balanced output is achieved near the design value of 1550 nm.

 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 (a) Measured insertion loss for the two output ports of the MZI as function of the wavelength.(b) Measured insertion loss for the RT as function of wavelength together with fitting. a, r and F were extracted from the fitting.

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The slight shift in the wavelength might be attributed to differences in the actual dimensions of the etched waveguides with respect to the design values. The envelope reflects the transfer function of the grating couplers. On the other hand, the RT transfer function with respect to the wavelength is plotted in Fig. 10(b) together with the fitting (to Eq. (10)) to extract the round trip loss, a, and the coupling coefficient, r, as well as the Finesse, F. Despite some discrepancies in the fitting of the RT transfer function due mostly to the assumption of having a single mode waveguide (note that the waveguides are 2 µm wide due to fabrication constraints and well above the width required for single-mode operation), it was possible to confidently extract the values of a and r for the fabricated RT. The fiber to chip coupling loss for the MZI was about −35 dB while that for the RT was about −36 dB. The minimum insertion loss for the RT was found at an optical wavelength near 1528 nm, which is different from the design wavelength of the butterfly MMI coupler. The high coupling loss is attributed mostly to the accuracy of the fiber alignment to the photonic chip and to the fabrication tolerance of the gratings couplers dimensions. In fact, our prior work on LNOI gratings couplers has demonstrated insertion loss of about 12 dB per coupler [38].To compensate for such high coupling loss in the AOG measurement, an Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) is used as described in the next section. Although the butterfly MMI coupler was designed to achieve slightly under-coupling conditions, the extracted value for r at the wavelength of operation is instead reflecting an over-coupling condition (r < a), which ended up impacting the SF negatively. Figure 11 plots the RT transfer function and its derivative for the coupling condition that was achieved experimentally and shows the bias point for maximum sensitivity. Although the attained losses match the one simulated in Fig. 4, it is clear that because of the achieved value of r, the RT configuration is not expected to yield a net enhancement in the sensitivity of the AOG. The plot also shows the bias point at the phase offset of one quarter of the full width half maximum. In term of wavelength, the bias point can be derived as Δλmax=λ22πnLΔφmax .

 figure: Fig. 11

Fig. 11 RT transfer function and its derivative as a function of phase for the actual losses and coupling condition.

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6.3 AOG SF measurement

The AOG measurement setup is shown in Fig. 12 where each of the AOG samples is mounted on the rate table (Ideal Aerosmith 1291RB) together with the optical positioners and connected to the measurement instruments. The gyroscope die is packaged in a Pin Grid Array (PGA) ceramic package. An Ultra-High Frequency Lock-In (UHFLI) amplifier from Zurich Instruments is used to phase lock the SAW drive resonator using a built-in Phase Locked Loop (PLL). In addition, a built-in Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller is used to amplitude-control the drive signal for the SAW resonator and reject any variations due to vibration or temperature drift. An optical carrier generated by a benchtop tunable laser (SANTEC TSL-510) is coupled into the optical grating via a vertical groove array (VGA). A polarization controller is used after the laser to make sure that we excite the TE polarization for which the gratings couplers were optimized. The same VGA is also used to couple out the modulated gyroscope signal through another set of fibers in the array. The EDFA is placed after the output coupler to compensate for the coupling loss.

 figure: Fig. 12

Fig. 12 AOG measurement setup. The optical setup with the positioners and manipulators are mounted on top of the rate table.

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The optical alignment is optimized by adjusting a six degree of freedom manipulator while looking for maximum transmission as the laser wavelength is being swept. The photonic output is fed to the lock-in amplifier where the Coriolis component is separated from the quadrature component. Due to the RF cables and fibers, full 360° rotations for the rate table are not allowed. The input rotation is applied as a sinusoidal oscillation to the rate table. To make sure the optical alignment between the fibers and the gratings couplers does not affect the measurement results, the input rotation frequency is limited to 2 Hz and the amplitude to 8 degrees.

The SF can be extracted for each AOG as the slope of the straight line in Fig. 13(a). The measured SFPP-MZI = 48 nV / (o/sec) in the case of the PP-MZI is higher than that of the RT SFRT = 9 nV / (o/sec) with the ratio SFPPMZI/SFRT5.3 . Due to variations in the coupling efficiency, the values of the SF vary from measurement to measurement within ± 58% of the average value of 48 nV / (o/sec) and 9 nV / (o/sec) respectively for the PP-MZI and the RT detection methods. The expected theoretical values for the SFs can be obtained directly from Eqs. (8), (9) and (14) as SFPP-MZI = 58 nV / (o/sec) and SFRT = 20 nV / (o/sec). Since the two SAW resonators behave identically for both AOGs, the theoretically predicted ratio between the two SFs can be calculated as the ratio between the two gain factors (see Fig. 13(b))

 figure: Fig. 13

Fig. 13 (a) Measured output voltage as a function of rotation rate together with fitting to extract the scale factor for each AOG. (b) Theoretical comparison between the two photonic sensing techniques. The value of the expected gain factor for the experimentally demonstrated value of r is indicated on the plot.

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SFPPMZISFRT=GPPMZIGRT=20.7=2.9

The discrepancy between the theoretical prediction and the measured values is attributed mostly to the uncertainty on the repeatability of the coupling. Furthermore, the actual placement of the pillars and fabrication variations have minor impact on that discrepancy. It is important to note that the RT-based detection method yielded a SF lower than the one of the MZI-based method because of the specific losses and the value of r achieved by the RT resonator in this demonstration. In theory, if lower losses and appropriate values of r are attained, then higher gains are possible from the RT-based detection method. These experimental results showcase the first demonstration of an AOG and confirm the validity of our proposed analytical model for the different photonic sensing techniques. The theoretical projections hint that with the appropriate design of the couplers and reduced losses, the AOG sensitivity could be significantly improved, making it a competitive solution beyond MVGs.

6.4 AOG ARW measurement

The zero-rate output (ZRO) of the MZI-AOG was recorded for 4 hours and its Allan deviation is plotted in Fig. 14 from where we can extract ARW of 60o/hrand bias instability less than 1° / sec. The figure also compares the noise performance of the AOG with the same gyroscope, but operated as a SAWG with acousto-electrical sensing (i.e. the output is sensed through the sense SAW resonator). The results highlight the better stability of the AOG due to the decoupling between the acoustic drive signal and the optical sensing signal. Although far from coming close to the best performance MVGs or OGs, this first prototype shows the feasibility of the proposed idea and lays the foundations for further engineering of a high performance component.

 figure: Fig. 14

Fig. 14 Measured Allan deviation for the zero-rate output of the AOG compared with the experimental results for the same device tested as a SAWG (electro-acoustic read-out instead of acousto-optic).

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7. Conclusion

A novel rotation sensing technique based on the acousto-optic effect is developed. Two different photonic phase sensing techniques are considered and compared both theoretically and experimentally. The manufacturability of this novel device is made possible by the development of a fabrication process that integrates acoustic and photonic components on the same LNOI platform. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed AOG and, most importantly, verify the theoretical description of its principle of operation. In this paper, we have presented proof-of-concept results for the first prototype of the AOG. Despite the limited performance, it can be theoretically shown that the technology could yield more than 20 x improvements by reducing the losses on the photonic components (shown to be possible in [33]) and properly designing the MMI coupler. Such improvements yields enhancement of about 20x in the SF and the ARW. Furthermore, additional 20x improvement is possible by increasing the SAW resonators Q and operating at a larger acoustic wavelength. Thus, a new class of highly sensitive strain-based acousto-optic gyroscopes can be developed.

8. Funding

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Precise Robust Inertial Guide for Munitions (PRIGM)-Advanced Inertial Micro Sensor (AIMS) program (Award No. N66001-16-1- 4025).

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13. M. S. Weinberg and A. Kourepenis, “Error sources in in-plane silicon tuning-fork MEMS gyroscopes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 479–491 (2006). [CrossRef]  

14. C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2, 370–404 (2010).

15. C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, M. N. Armenise, F. M. Soares, and W. Passenberg, “High performance InP ring resonator for new generation monolithically integrated optical gyroscopes,” Opt. Express 21(1), 556–564 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. S. Gundavarapu, M. Belt, T. A. Huffman, M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, “Interferometric optical gyroscope based on an integrated Si3N4 low-loss waveguide coil,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(4), 1185–1191 (2018). [CrossRef]  

17. S. Srinivasan, R. Moreira, D. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Design of integrated hybrid silicon waveguide optical gyroscope,” Opt. Express 22(21), 24988–24993 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. J. Kennedy, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated optical driver for interferometric optical gyroscopes,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3826–3840 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. J. Li, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Microresonator Brillouin gyroscope,” Optica 4(3), 346–348 (2017). [CrossRef]  

20. M. Kurosawa, Y. Fukuda, M. Takasaki, and T. Higuchi, “A surface-acoustic-wave gyro sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 66(1-3), 33–39 (1998). [CrossRef]  

21. B. Davaji, V. Pinrod, S. Kulkarni, and A. Lal, “Towards a surface and bulk excited SAW gyroscope,” in 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) (2017), pp. 1–4.

22. Y. Musha, M. Hara, H. Asano, and H. Kuwano, “Oscillator based surface acoustic wave gyroscopes,” in 2016 IEEE 11th Annual International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS) (2016), pp. 557–560. [CrossRef]  

23. M. Mahmoud, C. Bottenfield, L. Cai, and G. Piazza, “Fully integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulator based on asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer etched in LNOI platform,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) (2017), pp. 223–224.

24. S. A. Tadesse and M. Li, “Sub-optical wavelength acoustic wave modulation of integrated photonic resonators at microwave frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5402 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. A. Mahmoud, M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, M. S. I. Khan, J. A. Bain, T. Mukherjee, and G. Piazza, “Acousto-optic gyroscope,” in 2018 IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2018), pp. 241–244.

26. M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, A. Mahmoud, T. Mukherjee, and G. Piazza, “Electro-optically controlled acousto-optic racetrack modulator etched in LNOI platform,” in 2018 IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2018), pp. 743–746.

27. A. G. Webster, The Dynamics of Particles and of Rigid, Elastic, and Fluid Bodies: Being Lectures on Mathematical Physics (B. G. Teubner, 1912).

28. J. Xu and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices: Principles, Design, and Applications (Wiley, 1992).

29. H. Oh, W. Wang, S. Yang, and K. Lee, “Development of SAW based gyroscope with high shock and thermal stability, sensors and actuators,” Physical 165, 8–15 (2011).

30. H. A. C. Tilmans, “Equivalent circuit representation of electromechanical transducers: II. Distributed-parameter systems,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 7(4), 285–309 (1997). [CrossRef]  

31. M. M. de Lima Jr, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121104 (2006). [CrossRef]  

32. A. Crespo-Poveda, R. Hey, K. Biermann, A. Tahraoui, P. V. Santos, B. Gargallo, P. Muñoz, A. Cantarero, and M. M. de Lima, “Synchronized photonic modulators driven by surface acoustic waves,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21669–21676 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

33. M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Lončar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4(12), 1536–1537 (2017). [CrossRef]  

34. M. Terrel, M. J. F. Digonnet, and S. Fan, “Ring-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer optimized for sensing,” Appl. Opt. 48(26), 4874–4879 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, C. Bottenfield, and G. Piazza, “Lithium niobate electro-optic racetrack modulator etched in Y-Cut LNOI platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018). [CrossRef]  

36. W. Wen, H. Shitang, L. Shunzhou, L. Minghua, and P. Yong, “Enhanced sensitivity of SAW gas sensor coated molecularly imprinted polymer incorporating high frequency stability oscillator,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 422–427 (2007). [CrossRef]  

37. A. Mahmoud, M. Mahmoud, T. Mukherjee, and G. Piazza, “Investigating the Impact of Resonant Cavity Design on Surface Acoustic Wave Gyroscope,” in IEEE Inertial Sensors & Systems (IEEE, 2018).

38. M. Mahmoud, S. Ghosh, and G. Piazza, “Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) Grating Couplers,” in CLEO: 2015 (2015), Paper SW4I.7 (Optical Society of America, 2015), p. SW4I.7.

39. “NANOLN JINAN Jingzheng,” http://www.nanoln.com/en/.

References

  • View by:

  1. D. Rozelle, The Hemispherical Resonator Gyro: From Wineglass to the Planets (2009), Vol. 134.
  2. T. Zhang, Z. Lin, M. Song, B. Zhou, and R. Zhang, “Study on the thermoforming process of Hemispherical Resonator Gyros (HRGs),” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 140–141.
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  3. A. Shebl, A. M. Othman, A. Mahmoud, G. Albert, Y. M. Sabry, K. Sharaf, and D. Khalil, “Ring laser gyroscope based on standard single-mode fiber and semiconductor optical amplifier,” in 2016 33rd National Radio Science Conference (NRSC) (2016), pp. 368–376.
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  4. C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “High-Q spiral resonator for optical gyroscope applications: numerical and experimental investigation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1844–1854 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Zhao, W. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Yang, A. Huang, and Z. Xiao, “Improving the scale factor for rotation sensing in a frequency sensitive integrated optical gyroscope,” in (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2017), Vol. 10244, p. 102440E.
  6. I. P. Prikhodko, S. Nadig, J. A. Gregory, W. A. Clark, and M. W. Judy, “Half-a-month stable 0.2 degree-per-hour mode-matched MEMS gyroscope,” in (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–4.
  7. E. E. Aktakka, J. K. Woo, and K. Najafi, “On-chip characterization of scale-factor of a MEMS gyroscope via a micro calibration platform,” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 1–4.
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Tatar, T. Mukherjee, and G. K. Fedder, “Stress effects and compensation of bias drift in a MEMS vibratory-rate gyroscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(3), 569–579 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. Ma, Y. Lin, S. Liu, X. Zheng, and Z. Jin, “A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(2), 025005 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Luo, X. Wang, M. Jin, and S. Liu, “MEMS gyroscope yield simulation based on Monte Carlo method,” in 2012 IEEE 62nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (2012), pp. 1636–1639.
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Askari, M. H. Asadian, K. Kakavand, and A. M. Shkel, “Vacuum sealed and getter activated MEMS Quad Mass Gyroscope demonstrating better than 1.2 million quality factor,” in 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (2016), pp. 142–143.
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Mahmoud, W. Fikry, Y. M. Sabry, and M. A. E. Mahmoud, “Staggered mode MEMS gyroscope,” in 2016 Fourth International Japan-Egypt Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (JEC-ECC) (2016), pp. 103–106.
  13. M. S. Weinberg and A. Kourepenis, “Error sources in in-plane silicon tuning-fork MEMS gyroscopes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 479–491 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2, 370–404 (2010).
  15. C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, M. N. Armenise, F. M. Soares, and W. Passenberg, “High performance InP ring resonator for new generation monolithically integrated optical gyroscopes,” Opt. Express 21(1), 556–564 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. Gundavarapu, M. Belt, T. A. Huffman, M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, “Interferometric optical gyroscope based on an integrated Si3N4 low-loss waveguide coil,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(4), 1185–1191 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Srinivasan, R. Moreira, D. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Design of integrated hybrid silicon waveguide optical gyroscope,” Opt. Express 22(21), 24988–24993 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. J. Kennedy, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated optical driver for interferometric optical gyroscopes,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3826–3840 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Li, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Microresonator Brillouin gyroscope,” Optica 4(3), 346–348 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Kurosawa, Y. Fukuda, M. Takasaki, and T. Higuchi, “A surface-acoustic-wave gyro sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 66(1-3), 33–39 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  21. B. Davaji, V. Pinrod, S. Kulkarni, and A. Lal, “Towards a surface and bulk excited SAW gyroscope,” in 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) (2017), pp. 1–4.
  22. Y. Musha, M. Hara, H. Asano, and H. Kuwano, “Oscillator based surface acoustic wave gyroscopes,” in 2016 IEEE 11th Annual International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS) (2016), pp. 557–560.
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Mahmoud, C. Bottenfield, L. Cai, and G. Piazza, “Fully integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulator based on asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer etched in LNOI platform,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) (2017), pp. 223–224.
  24. S. A. Tadesse and M. Li, “Sub-optical wavelength acoustic wave modulation of integrated photonic resonators at microwave frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5402 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. A. Mahmoud, M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, M. S. I. Khan, J. A. Bain, T. Mukherjee, and G. Piazza, “Acousto-optic gyroscope,” in 2018 IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2018), pp. 241–244.
  26. M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, A. Mahmoud, T. Mukherjee, and G. Piazza, “Electro-optically controlled acousto-optic racetrack modulator etched in LNOI platform,” in 2018 IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2018), pp. 743–746.
  27. A. G. Webster, The Dynamics of Particles and of Rigid, Elastic, and Fluid Bodies: Being Lectures on Mathematical Physics (B. G. Teubner, 1912).
  28. J. Xu and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices: Principles, Design, and Applications (Wiley, 1992).
  29. H. Oh, W. Wang, S. Yang, and K. Lee, “Development of SAW based gyroscope with high shock and thermal stability, sensors and actuators,” Physical 165, 8–15 (2011).
  30. H. A. C. Tilmans, “Equivalent circuit representation of electromechanical transducers: II. Distributed-parameter systems,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 7(4), 285–309 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121104 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. Crespo-Poveda, R. Hey, K. Biermann, A. Tahraoui, P. V. Santos, B. Gargallo, P. Muñoz, A. Cantarero, and M. M. de Lima, “Synchronized photonic modulators driven by surface acoustic waves,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21669–21676 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Lončar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4(12), 1536–1537 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. Terrel, M. J. F. Digonnet, and S. Fan, “Ring-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer optimized for sensing,” Appl. Opt. 48(26), 4874–4879 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, C. Bottenfield, and G. Piazza, “Lithium niobate electro-optic racetrack modulator etched in Y-Cut LNOI platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  36. W. Wen, H. Shitang, L. Shunzhou, L. Minghua, and P. Yong, “Enhanced sensitivity of SAW gas sensor coated molecularly imprinted polymer incorporating high frequency stability oscillator,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 422–427 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  37. A. Mahmoud, M. Mahmoud, T. Mukherjee, and G. Piazza, “Investigating the Impact of Resonant Cavity Design on Surface Acoustic Wave Gyroscope,” in IEEE Inertial Sensors & Systems (IEEE, 2018).
  38. M. Mahmoud, S. Ghosh, and G. Piazza, “Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) Grating Couplers,” in CLEO: 2015 (2015), Paper SW4I.7 (Optical Society of America, 2015), p. SW4I.7.
  39. “NANOLN JINAN Jingzheng,” http://www.nanoln.com/en/ .

2018 (2)

S. Gundavarapu, M. Belt, T. A. Huffman, M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, “Interferometric optical gyroscope based on an integrated Si3N4 low-loss waveguide coil,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(4), 1185–1191 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, C. Bottenfield, and G. Piazza, “Lithium niobate electro-optic racetrack modulator etched in Y-Cut LNOI platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Lončar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4(12), 1536–1537 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. J. Kennedy, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated optical driver for interferometric optical gyroscopes,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3826–3840 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Microresonator Brillouin gyroscope,” Optica 4(3), 346–348 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Tatar, T. Mukherjee, and G. K. Fedder, “Stress effects and compensation of bias drift in a MEMS vibratory-rate gyroscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(3), 569–579 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Ma, Y. Lin, S. Liu, X. Zheng, and Z. Jin, “A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(2), 025005 (2017).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

S. Srinivasan, R. Moreira, D. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Design of integrated hybrid silicon waveguide optical gyroscope,” Opt. Express 22(21), 24988–24993 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Tadesse and M. Li, “Sub-optical wavelength acoustic wave modulation of integrated photonic resonators at microwave frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “High-Q spiral resonator for optical gyroscope applications: numerical and experimental investigation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1844–1854 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H. Oh, W. Wang, S. Yang, and K. Lee, “Development of SAW based gyroscope with high shock and thermal stability, sensors and actuators,” Physical 165, 8–15 (2011).

2010 (1)

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2, 370–404 (2010).

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

W. Wen, H. Shitang, L. Shunzhou, L. Minghua, and P. Yong, “Enhanced sensitivity of SAW gas sensor coated molecularly imprinted polymer incorporating high frequency stability oscillator,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 422–427 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121104 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. S. Weinberg and A. Kourepenis, “Error sources in in-plane silicon tuning-fork MEMS gyroscopes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 479–491 (2006).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Kurosawa, Y. Fukuda, M. Takasaki, and T. Higuchi, “A surface-acoustic-wave gyro sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 66(1-3), 33–39 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. A. C. Tilmans, “Equivalent circuit representation of electromechanical transducers: II. Distributed-parameter systems,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 7(4), 285–309 (1997).
[Crossref]

Aktakka, E. E.

E. E. Aktakka, J. K. Woo, and K. Najafi, “On-chip characterization of scale-factor of a MEMS gyroscope via a micro calibration platform,” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Armenise, M. N.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, M. N. Armenise, F. M. Soares, and W. Passenberg, “High performance InP ring resonator for new generation monolithically integrated optical gyroscopes,” Opt. Express 21(1), 556–564 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “High-Q spiral resonator for optical gyroscope applications: numerical and experimental investigation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1844–1854 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2, 370–404 (2010).

Asadian, M. H.

S. Askari, M. H. Asadian, K. Kakavand, and A. M. Shkel, “Vacuum sealed and getter activated MEMS Quad Mass Gyroscope demonstrating better than 1.2 million quality factor,” in 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (2016), pp. 142–143.
[Crossref]

Askari, S.

S. Askari, M. H. Asadian, K. Kakavand, and A. M. Shkel, “Vacuum sealed and getter activated MEMS Quad Mass Gyroscope demonstrating better than 1.2 million quality factor,” in 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (2016), pp. 142–143.
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Belt, M.

Biermann, K.

Blumenthal, D.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bottenfield, C.

M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, C. Bottenfield, and G. Piazza, “Lithium niobate electro-optic racetrack modulator etched in Y-Cut LNOI platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Cai, L.

M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, C. Bottenfield, and G. Piazza, “Lithium niobate electro-optic racetrack modulator etched in Y-Cut LNOI platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Campanella, C. E.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2, 370–404 (2010).

Cantarero, A.

Cheng, R.

Ciminelli, C.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, M. N. Armenise, F. M. Soares, and W. Passenberg, “High performance InP ring resonator for new generation monolithically integrated optical gyroscopes,” Opt. Express 21(1), 556–564 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “High-Q spiral resonator for optical gyroscope applications: numerical and experimental investigation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1844–1854 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2, 370–404 (2010).

Crespo-Poveda, A.

Davaji, B.

B. Davaji, V. Pinrod, S. Kulkarni, and A. Lal, “Towards a surface and bulk excited SAW gyroscope,” in 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) (2017), pp. 1–4.

de Lima, M. M.

Dell’Olio, F.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, M. N. Armenise, F. M. Soares, and W. Passenberg, “High performance InP ring resonator for new generation monolithically integrated optical gyroscopes,” Opt. Express 21(1), 556–564 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “High-Q spiral resonator for optical gyroscope applications: numerical and experimental investigation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1844–1854 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2, 370–404 (2010).

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Fan, S.

Fedder, G. K.

E. Tatar, T. Mukherjee, and G. K. Fedder, “Stress effects and compensation of bias drift in a MEMS vibratory-rate gyroscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(3), 569–579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fikry, W.

A. Mahmoud, W. Fikry, Y. M. Sabry, and M. A. E. Mahmoud, “Staggered mode MEMS gyroscope,” in 2016 Fourth International Japan-Egypt Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (JEC-ECC) (2016), pp. 103–106.

Fukuda, Y.

M. Kurosawa, Y. Fukuda, M. Takasaki, and T. Higuchi, “A surface-acoustic-wave gyro sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 66(1-3), 33–39 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gargallo, B.

Gundavarapu, S.

Hey, R.

Higuchi, T.

M. Kurosawa, Y. Fukuda, M. Takasaki, and T. Higuchi, “A surface-acoustic-wave gyro sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 66(1-3), 33–39 (1998).
[Crossref]

Huffman, T. A.

Hulme, J. C.

Jin, Z.

W. Ma, Y. Lin, S. Liu, X. Zheng, and Z. Jin, “A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(2), 025005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kakavand, K.

S. Askari, M. H. Asadian, K. Kakavand, and A. M. Shkel, “Vacuum sealed and getter activated MEMS Quad Mass Gyroscope demonstrating better than 1.2 million quality factor,” in 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (2016), pp. 142–143.
[Crossref]

Kennedy, M. J.

Komljenovic, T.

Kourepenis, A.

M. S. Weinberg and A. Kourepenis, “Error sources in in-plane silicon tuning-fork MEMS gyroscopes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 479–491 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kulkarni, S.

B. Davaji, V. Pinrod, S. Kulkarni, and A. Lal, “Towards a surface and bulk excited SAW gyroscope,” in 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) (2017), pp. 1–4.

Kurosawa, M.

M. Kurosawa, Y. Fukuda, M. Takasaki, and T. Higuchi, “A surface-acoustic-wave gyro sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 66(1-3), 33–39 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lal, A.

B. Davaji, V. Pinrod, S. Kulkarni, and A. Lal, “Towards a surface and bulk excited SAW gyroscope,” in 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) (2017), pp. 1–4.

Lee, K.

H. Oh, W. Wang, S. Yang, and K. Lee, “Development of SAW based gyroscope with high shock and thermal stability, sensors and actuators,” Physical 165, 8–15 (2011).

Li, J.

Li, M.

S. A. Tadesse and M. Li, “Sub-optical wavelength acoustic wave modulation of integrated photonic resonators at microwave frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

W. Ma, Y. Lin, S. Liu, X. Zheng, and Z. Jin, “A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(2), 025005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z.

T. Zhang, Z. Lin, M. Song, B. Zhou, and R. Zhang, “Study on the thermoforming process of Hemispherical Resonator Gyros (HRGs),” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 140–141.
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

W. Ma, Y. Lin, S. Liu, X. Zheng, and Z. Jin, “A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(2), 025005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

Ma, W.

W. Ma, Y. Lin, S. Liu, X. Zheng, and Z. Jin, “A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(2), 025005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mahmoud, A.

A. Mahmoud, W. Fikry, Y. M. Sabry, and M. A. E. Mahmoud, “Staggered mode MEMS gyroscope,” in 2016 Fourth International Japan-Egypt Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (JEC-ECC) (2016), pp. 103–106.

Mahmoud, M.

M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, C. Bottenfield, and G. Piazza, “Lithium niobate electro-optic racetrack modulator etched in Y-Cut LNOI platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mahmoud, M. A. E.

A. Mahmoud, W. Fikry, Y. M. Sabry, and M. A. E. Mahmoud, “Staggered mode MEMS gyroscope,” in 2016 Fourth International Japan-Egypt Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (JEC-ECC) (2016), pp. 103–106.

Minghua, L.

W. Wen, H. Shitang, L. Shunzhou, L. Minghua, and P. Yong, “Enhanced sensitivity of SAW gas sensor coated molecularly imprinted polymer incorporating high frequency stability oscillator,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 422–427 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moreira, R.

Mukherjee, T.

E. Tatar, T. Mukherjee, and G. K. Fedder, “Stress effects and compensation of bias drift in a MEMS vibratory-rate gyroscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(3), 569–579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Muñoz, P.

Najafi, K.

E. E. Aktakka, J. K. Woo, and K. Najafi, “On-chip characterization of scale-factor of a MEMS gyroscope via a micro calibration platform,” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Oh, H.

H. Oh, W. Wang, S. Yang, and K. Lee, “Development of SAW based gyroscope with high shock and thermal stability, sensors and actuators,” Physical 165, 8–15 (2011).

Passenberg, W.

Piazza, G.

M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, C. Bottenfield, and G. Piazza, “Lithium niobate electro-optic racetrack modulator etched in Y-Cut LNOI platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pinrod, V.

B. Davaji, V. Pinrod, S. Kulkarni, and A. Lal, “Towards a surface and bulk excited SAW gyroscope,” in 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) (2017), pp. 1–4.

Sabry, Y. M.

A. Mahmoud, W. Fikry, Y. M. Sabry, and M. A. E. Mahmoud, “Staggered mode MEMS gyroscope,” in 2016 Fourth International Japan-Egypt Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (JEC-ECC) (2016), pp. 103–106.

Santos, P. V.

Shams-Ansari, A.

Shitang, H.

W. Wen, H. Shitang, L. Shunzhou, L. Minghua, and P. Yong, “Enhanced sensitivity of SAW gas sensor coated molecularly imprinted polymer incorporating high frequency stability oscillator,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 422–427 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shkel, A. M.

S. Askari, M. H. Asadian, K. Kakavand, and A. M. Shkel, “Vacuum sealed and getter activated MEMS Quad Mass Gyroscope demonstrating better than 1.2 million quality factor,” in 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (2016), pp. 142–143.
[Crossref]

Shunzhou, L.

W. Wen, H. Shitang, L. Shunzhou, L. Minghua, and P. Yong, “Enhanced sensitivity of SAW gas sensor coated molecularly imprinted polymer incorporating high frequency stability oscillator,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 422–427 (2007).
[Crossref]

Soares, F. M.

Song, M.

T. Zhang, Z. Lin, M. Song, B. Zhou, and R. Zhang, “Study on the thermoforming process of Hemispherical Resonator Gyros (HRGs),” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 140–141.
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, S.

Suh, M.-G.

Tadesse, S. A.

S. A. Tadesse and M. Li, “Sub-optical wavelength acoustic wave modulation of integrated photonic resonators at microwave frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tahraoui, A.

Takasaki, M.

M. Kurosawa, Y. Fukuda, M. Takasaki, and T. Higuchi, “A surface-acoustic-wave gyro sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 66(1-3), 33–39 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tatar, E.

E. Tatar, T. Mukherjee, and G. K. Fedder, “Stress effects and compensation of bias drift in a MEMS vibratory-rate gyroscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(3), 569–579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Terrel, M.

Tilmans, H. A. C.

H. A. C. Tilmans, “Equivalent circuit representation of electromechanical transducers: II. Distributed-parameter systems,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 7(4), 285–309 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tran, M. A.

Vahala, K.

Wang, C.

Wang, W.

H. Oh, W. Wang, S. Yang, and K. Lee, “Development of SAW based gyroscope with high shock and thermal stability, sensors and actuators,” Physical 165, 8–15 (2011).

Weinberg, M. S.

M. S. Weinberg and A. Kourepenis, “Error sources in in-plane silicon tuning-fork MEMS gyroscopes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 479–491 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wen, W.

W. Wen, H. Shitang, L. Shunzhou, L. Minghua, and P. Yong, “Enhanced sensitivity of SAW gas sensor coated molecularly imprinted polymer incorporating high frequency stability oscillator,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 422–427 (2007).
[Crossref]

Woo, J. K.

E. E. Aktakka, J. K. Woo, and K. Najafi, “On-chip characterization of scale-factor of a MEMS gyroscope via a micro calibration platform,” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

H. Oh, W. Wang, S. Yang, and K. Lee, “Development of SAW based gyroscope with high shock and thermal stability, sensors and actuators,” Physical 165, 8–15 (2011).

Yong, P.

W. Wen, H. Shitang, L. Shunzhou, L. Minghua, and P. Yong, “Enhanced sensitivity of SAW gas sensor coated molecularly imprinted polymer incorporating high frequency stability oscillator,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 422–427 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

Zhang, R.

T. Zhang, Z. Lin, M. Song, B. Zhou, and R. Zhang, “Study on the thermoforming process of Hemispherical Resonator Gyros (HRGs),” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 140–141.
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, Z. Lin, M. Song, B. Zhou, and R. Zhang, “Study on the thermoforming process of Hemispherical Resonator Gyros (HRGs),” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 140–141.
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

W. Ma, Y. Lin, S. Liu, X. Zheng, and Z. Jin, “A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(2), 025005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, B.

T. Zhang, Z. Lin, M. Song, B. Zhou, and R. Zhang, “Study on the thermoforming process of Hemispherical Resonator Gyros (HRGs),” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 140–141.
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Photonic technologies for angular velocity sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2, 370–404 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. M. de Lima, M. Beck, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Compact Mach-Zehnder acousto-optic modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121104 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, C. Bottenfield, and G. Piazza, “Lithium niobate electro-optic racetrack modulator etched in Y-Cut LNOI platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “High-Q spiral resonator for optical gyroscope applications: numerical and experimental investigation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1844–1854 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (2)

E. Tatar, T. Mukherjee, and G. K. Fedder, “Stress effects and compensation of bias drift in a MEMS vibratory-rate gyroscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(3), 569–579 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Weinberg and A. Kourepenis, “Error sources in in-plane silicon tuning-fork MEMS gyroscopes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 479–491 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (2)

W. Ma, Y. Lin, S. Liu, X. Zheng, and Z. Jin, “A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(2), 025005 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. A. C. Tilmans, “Equivalent circuit representation of electromechanical transducers: II. Distributed-parameter systems,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 7(4), 285–309 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. A. Tadesse and M. Li, “Sub-optical wavelength acoustic wave modulation of integrated photonic resonators at microwave frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Optica (2)

Physical (1)

H. Oh, W. Wang, S. Yang, and K. Lee, “Development of SAW based gyroscope with high shock and thermal stability, sensors and actuators,” Physical 165, 8–15 (2011).

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

M. Kurosawa, Y. Fukuda, M. Takasaki, and T. Higuchi, “A surface-acoustic-wave gyro sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 66(1-3), 33–39 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

W. Wen, H. Shitang, L. Shunzhou, L. Minghua, and P. Yong, “Enhanced sensitivity of SAW gas sensor coated molecularly imprinted polymer incorporating high frequency stability oscillator,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 422–427 (2007).
[Crossref]

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A. Mahmoud, M. Mahmoud, T. Mukherjee, and G. Piazza, “Investigating the Impact of Resonant Cavity Design on Surface Acoustic Wave Gyroscope,” in IEEE Inertial Sensors & Systems (IEEE, 2018).

M. Mahmoud, S. Ghosh, and G. Piazza, “Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) Grating Couplers,” in CLEO: 2015 (2015), Paper SW4I.7 (Optical Society of America, 2015), p. SW4I.7.

“NANOLN JINAN Jingzheng,” http://www.nanoln.com/en/ .

D. Rozelle, The Hemispherical Resonator Gyro: From Wineglass to the Planets (2009), Vol. 134.

T. Zhang, Z. Lin, M. Song, B. Zhou, and R. Zhang, “Study on the thermoforming process of Hemispherical Resonator Gyros (HRGs),” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 140–141.
[Crossref]

A. Shebl, A. M. Othman, A. Mahmoud, G. Albert, Y. M. Sabry, K. Sharaf, and D. Khalil, “Ring laser gyroscope based on standard single-mode fiber and semiconductor optical amplifier,” in 2016 33rd National Radio Science Conference (NRSC) (2016), pp. 368–376.
[Crossref]

A. Mahmoud, M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, M. S. I. Khan, J. A. Bain, T. Mukherjee, and G. Piazza, “Acousto-optic gyroscope,” in 2018 IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2018), pp. 241–244.

M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, A. Mahmoud, T. Mukherjee, and G. Piazza, “Electro-optically controlled acousto-optic racetrack modulator etched in LNOI platform,” in 2018 IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2018), pp. 743–746.

A. G. Webster, The Dynamics of Particles and of Rigid, Elastic, and Fluid Bodies: Being Lectures on Mathematical Physics (B. G. Teubner, 1912).

J. Xu and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices: Principles, Design, and Applications (Wiley, 1992).

B. Davaji, V. Pinrod, S. Kulkarni, and A. Lal, “Towards a surface and bulk excited SAW gyroscope,” in 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) (2017), pp. 1–4.

Y. Musha, M. Hara, H. Asano, and H. Kuwano, “Oscillator based surface acoustic wave gyroscopes,” in 2016 IEEE 11th Annual International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS) (2016), pp. 557–560.
[Crossref]

M. Mahmoud, C. Bottenfield, L. Cai, and G. Piazza, “Fully integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulator based on asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer etched in LNOI platform,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) (2017), pp. 223–224.

Z. Luo, X. Wang, M. Jin, and S. Liu, “MEMS gyroscope yield simulation based on Monte Carlo method,” in 2012 IEEE 62nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (2012), pp. 1636–1639.
[Crossref]

S. Askari, M. H. Asadian, K. Kakavand, and A. M. Shkel, “Vacuum sealed and getter activated MEMS Quad Mass Gyroscope demonstrating better than 1.2 million quality factor,” in 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (2016), pp. 142–143.
[Crossref]

A. Mahmoud, W. Fikry, Y. M. Sabry, and M. A. E. Mahmoud, “Staggered mode MEMS gyroscope,” in 2016 Fourth International Japan-Egypt Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (JEC-ECC) (2016), pp. 103–106.

L. Zhao, W. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Yang, A. Huang, and Z. Xiao, “Improving the scale factor for rotation sensing in a frequency sensitive integrated optical gyroscope,” in (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2017), Vol. 10244, p. 102440E.

I. P. Prikhodko, S. Nadig, J. A. Gregory, W. A. Clark, and M. W. Judy, “Half-a-month stable 0.2 degree-per-hour mode-matched MEMS gyroscope,” in (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–4.

E. E. Aktakka, J. K. Woo, and K. Najafi, “On-chip characterization of scale-factor of a MEMS gyroscope via a micro calibration platform,” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL) (2017), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 3D sketch of the AOG (PD = Photo-detector, IDT = Interdigitated transducer). IDT on the sense cavity are not shown to avoid cluttering the drawing, but reflectors are present to point out that a high Q acoustic cavity is also present on the sense side.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Phase sensing techniques for the AOG where the secondary acoustic induced due to rotation is sensed as strain variation in the photonic waveguides: (a) The strained waveguides are part of a PP-MZI and (b) The strained waveguides are part of an RT resonator.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 RT transfer function and its derivative as function of phase. Maximum phase sensitivity is obtained at one quarter of the full width half maximum.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 GRT as function of r for two values of a. The lower the losses, the more sensitive is the RT. Optimum coupling is found at r= a for maximum phase sensitivity.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Layout view of the MZI AOG with zoomed-in SEMs of the various components forming it.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Layout view of the RT AOG with zoomed-in SEMs of the various components forming it.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Grating Coupler design dimensions. (b) 3-dB MMI coupler design dimensions. (c) Butterfly MMI coupler design dimensions.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Fabrication process flow for manufacturing the AOG.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Frequency response for the drive and sense cavities showing a mismatch of 40 kHz which is within the resonator bandwidth (100 kHz).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Measured insertion loss for the two output ports of the MZI as function of the wavelength.(b) Measured insertion loss for the RT as function of wavelength together with fitting. a, r and F were extracted from the fitting.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 RT transfer function and its derivative as a function of phase for the actual losses and coupling condition.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 AOG measurement setup. The optical setup with the positioners and manipulators are mounted on top of the rate table.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 (a) Measured output voltage as a function of rotation rate together with fitting to extract the scale factor for each AOG. (b) Theoretical comparison between the two photonic sensing techniques. The value of the expected gain factor for the experimentally demonstrated value of r is indicated on the plot.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Measured Allan deviation for the zero-rate output of the AOG compared with the experimental results for the same device tested as a SAWG (electro-acoustic read-out instead of acousto-optic).

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F c =-2 M p Ω z × v p
S= F c ρ v R 2 LH
Δn= 1 2 n 3 p eff S
SF= T Ω z = T φ AOG φ AOG Ω z =G β AOG
φ AOG =Δn 2π λ L
φ AOG = Q S 2π λ LΔn
v p = P m Q D π f m M r
β AOG = 2π λH M 2 ρ v R M p P m Q D π f m M r Q S
G PPMZI =2
T RT = a 2 + r 2 2arcos( φ ) 1+ a 2 r 2 2arcos( φ )
T RT φ AOG = 2arsinφ( 1+ a 2 r 2 r 2 a 2 ) ( 1+ a 2 r 2 2arcosφ ) 2
G RT = | T RT φ AOG | φ=Δ φ 1/2 /4
G RT 2arΔ φ 1/2 ( 1 a 2 )( 1 r 2 ) 2 ( 1+ a 2 r 2 2ar+ar ( Δ φ 1/2 ) 2 16 ) 2
G RT = 32F 25π 2F 5
S F PPMZI S F RT = G PPMZI G RT = 2 0.7 =2.9

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