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Supercontinuum generation in varying dispersion and birefringent silicon waveguide

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Abstract

Ability to selectively enhance the amplitude and maintain high coherence of the supercontinuum signal with long pulses is gaining significance. In this work, an extra degree of freedom afforded by varying the dispersion profile of a waveguide is utilized to selectively enhance supercontinuum. As much as 16 dB signal enhancement in the telecom window and 100 nm of wavelength extension is achieved with a cascaded waveguide, compared to a fixed dispersion waveguide. Waveguide tapering, in particular with increasing width, is determined to have a flatter and more coherent supercontinuum than a fixed dispersion waveguide when longer input pulses are used. Furthermore, due to the strong birefringence of an asymmetric silicon waveguide the supercontinuum signal is broadened by pumping simultaneously with both quasi-transverse electric (TE) and quasi-transverse magnetic (TM) mode in the anomalous dispersion regime. Thus, selective signal generation is obtained by controlling the dispersion for the two modes. Such waveguides offer several advantages over optical fiber as the variation in dispersion can be controlled with greater flexibility in an integrated platform. This work paves the way forward for various applications in fields ranging from medicine to telecom where specific wavelength windows need to be targeted.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Supercontinuum (SC) generation is an important phenomenon due to its applications in optical frequency metrology and synthesis [1], ultra-short pulse generation [2], microwave photonics [3], hyperspectral light detection and ranging (LiDAR) [4], telecommunication [5] among others. Integrated supercontinuum sources are poised to become critical photonics elements as they are key components in integrated digital optical frequency synthesizers [6,7], chemical sensors [8] and pulse compressors with compression down to the sub-10 fs level [9]. Recent developments in supercontinuum sources on various novel platforms provide clear indication of these interests. Some examples are, supercontinuum generation in integrated silicon nitride [1013], aluminum nitride [14], chalcogenide [15,16], indium gallium phosphide [17], silicon on germanium [18,19], amorphous silicon [20], silica [21], high-index-doped silica [22], and lithium niobate waveguides [23]. In particular, silicon-on-insulator waveguides, when pumped near the low two-photon absorption window [2429] in order to avoid nonlinear loss [3032], are promising as octave spanning supercontinuum sources that can leverage the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) industry.

Traditionally, supercontinuum generation in integrated devices is achieved by optimizing the cross-section of a waveguide to obtain a desired dispersion profile that is fixed for the entire propagation length. Despite demonstrations in the optical fibers [3338], only recently numerical studies have been reported on supercontinuum enhancement in varying dispersion waveguides, in which the input pulse experiences varying dispersion along the propagation length [3941].

In this work, some of the possible ways a waveguide can offer varying dispersion to enhance the supercontinuum signal and improve its coherence are explored. Especially, the cascaded, tapered, and highly birefringent silicon-on-insulator waveguides are studied. Significant amplitude enhancement (16 dB) with the cascaded dispersion waveguide at telecom C-band and 100 nm extension of the SC over its fixed dispersion counterpart are demonstrated. Furthermore, numerically a cascaded waveguide design that can improve significantly the f, 2f and telecom signal of an octave spanning SC is shown, for use in the mode-locked laser self-referencing [6,13]. Next we study the tapered waveguide which is experimentally shown to have a flatter SC spectrum with the ability to maintain high coherence over a large bandwidth with longer pulses. The coherence is found to be maintained due to the continually changing dispersion of the taper thus avoiding the modulation instability based signal build-up before soliton fission occurs, which is inevitable in a fixed dispersion waveguide. Lastly, the birefringence of a waveguide to generate a broad supercontinuum by simultaneously pumping the waveguide with TE and TM modes is utilized.

The flexibility in modifying the geometry of a waveguide for a desired dispersion (varying/fixed) gives integrated photonics a significant edge over optical fibers in the ability to tailor the SC. Thus, this work can potentially help improve the integrated supercontinuum devices where specific wavelength windows need to be targeted, for example, in bio-sensing and optical frequency metrology [29,42,43]. This work has also applications in long pulse coherent supercontinuum generation, and efficient self-referencing [4345].

2. Cascaded waveguide

In this section a cascaded waveguide is discussed to demonstrate selective enhancement of the supercontinuum in comparison with a fixed width waveguide. The fixed width waveguide was designed to have a width of 920 nm, total height of 380 nm, slab thickness of 65 nm, and length of 1 cm. The cascaded waveguide consists of two sections, 920 nm and 1070 nm wide rib waveguides, each 5 mm long as shown in Fig. 1(a). The cross-section of the waveguide is shown in Fig. 1(b, inset).

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) An illustration of the cascaded waveguide with its cross-section (width is 920 nm/1070 nm). (b) The simulated dispersion curves of the cascaded waveguide are shown, with the red arrow indicating the pump wavelength at 1.95 µm.

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The waveguides were fabricated on a 65 nm CMOS 300 mm platform at CNSE, SUNY, New York. The propagation loss of the cascaded waveguide and the other structures discussed in this paper is estimated to be between 1-1.5 dB/cm at 1.95 µm. The two sections of the cascaded waveguide are connected with a short adiabatic taper of 50 µm length. The dispersion curves are shown in Fig. 1(b). The 1st zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDW) of the two sections of the cascaded waveguide are 1.65 µm and 1.8 µm.

In both cascaded and fixed width waveguides inverse taper couplers of 200 µm length are used at the input and the output.

For characterization, the waveguides were pumped with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with pulse width of 250 fs and repetition rate of 80 MHz. The coupled peak power was 100 W, corresponding to a soliton number (N = 25, which is the ratio of the square root of the dispersion and nonlinear lengths [28]) for a group velocity dispersion (GVD) of -0.46 ps2/m in the 920 nm waveguide at the pump wavelength, with the soliton fission length of 1.5 mm. The SC spectra for the fixed width and the cascaded waveguides are shown in Fig. 2(a). The signals, especially around the telecom C-band and at 2.2 µm, are enhanced in the cascaded waveguide. The integrated power in the C-band is enhanced by 16 dB and the long wavelength signal is extended by 100 nm (within 10 dB of the peak of the spectrum).

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) The experimental, and (b) the simulated supercontinuum spectra for the fixed width (920 nm wide) waveguide (blue-dashed) and the cascaded waveguide (black-solid). A separate SC simulation for the 1070nm waveguide is also shown. The phase matching curves for the dispersive wave for the 920 nm and the 1070 nm wide section of the waveguide are shown in the inset.

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The numerical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) [46,47] shown in Fig. 2(b) matches to the experiment, with a slight shift in the enhancement region that can be attributed to the dimensional uncertainty. The dispersive wave phase matching (DWPM) curves (inset in Fig. 2(b)) show the wavelength of dispersive wave generation (where the Δβ=0) for the two sections of the cascaded waveguide. The dispersive waves are generated in the 1st and the 2nd section at 1.34 µm and around 1.55 µm, respectively. In the 1st section the SC takes similar form as the SC in the fixed width waveguide (920 nm); however, as soon as the pulse enters the 2nd section (1070 nm), the fundamental solitons from the 1st section start ejecting energy into the dispersive waves, which are around 1550 nm [48,49], thus increasing the signal strength of the C-band, while the solitons themselves simultaneously keep shifting to the longer wavelengths. The fundamental solitons shift to longer wavelengths (spectral recoil [49]), because the GVD in the 2nd section of the waveguide is lower than that in the 1st section, which increases their soliton number, determined by N2 = γPT22 = 1 (for fundamental soliton) [46], where γ, P, T and β2 are the nonlinearity factor, power, temporal width of the pulse and the GVD, respectively. Thus, to become fundamental solitons again these higher order solitons shift to longer wavelength by 100 nm where the GVD is high, and also shed their energy to the dispersive waves. We also show for comparison supercontinuum generation (simulation) in a 1070 nm fixed width waveguide with pump parameters and length same as for the 920 nm waveguide.

These results indicate that the power in a spectral window of interest can be enhanced by cascading waveguides of different widths. Therefore, in the next section we show numerically a more compact device to enhance specific windows of an octave spanning supercontinuum which can be used, for example, in optical frequency synthesizer [6,7].

2.1. Three-section cascaded waveguide

In the following, a 3 mm long device is shown that can be used to enhance the f, 2f and 1550 nm region of the supercontinuum spectrum.

The three-section cascaded (3SC) waveguide is shown in Fig. 3(a). The 1st section is 920 nm wide and 1 mm long, the 2nd section is 600 nm wide and 0.5 mm long, and the 3rd section is 1070 nm wide and 1.5 mm long, with total height and slab thickness as previously. The dispersion curve of each section is shown in Fig. 3(b). The 1st ZDW of the 1st and the 3rd section are the same as in Fig. 1(b), whereas for the 2nd section it is around 1.4 µm. In the numerical study a pulse of 100 fs width and a peak power of 100 W was coupled into the waveguide. The simulation results are shown in Fig. 4. The SC spectrum is significantly stronger with the 3SC waveguide than for the fixed width waveguide of same length. The fixed width waveguide has ∼ 20 dB lower signal around 2.7 µm and about 7 dB weaker signal in the telecom widow compared to the 3SC waveguide. It must be noted that the fixed width of 920 nm was used for the above comparison because it generates broader SC spectra in the relevant wavelength region than the 1070 nm and 600 nm widths.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) The illustration of the three-section cascaded waveguide. (b) The dispersion curves for the cascaded waveguide: 1st section (600 nm wide – blue), 2nd section (920 nm wide – green), and 3rd section (1070 nm wide - red).

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 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. The simulated supercontinuum spectra of the three-section cascaded waveguide (black solid) and the fixed width (920 nm wide) waveguide (blue dash). The 1st, 2nd, and the 3rd section of the waveguide mainly generate the signal under the green, blue and red bar, respectively. The dispersive wave phase matching curves are shown in the inset.

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In the following, the propagation of the pulse through the 3SC waveguide is numerically studied. The light is launched in the 1st section in which the soliton number is 18, and the soliton fission length is 0.6 mm. After dispersive wave generation (∼1.35 µm (2f)) around the soliton fission point the pulse propagates further in the 1st section for about 400 µm for the dispersive wave to build up enough energy before the whole pulse transitions into the 2nd section. In the 2nd section the fundamental soliton, arriving from the 1st section, starts phase matching to the dispersive wave (around 2.7 µm) as per the DWPM curves shown in the inset of Fig. 4.

We observe that the solitons that phase match to the dispersive waves in the 1st and the 2nd sections are at different wavelengths viz. at 1.8 µm for the 2nd section and 2.1 µm for the 1st section. The length of the 2nd section is optimized to increase the strength of the dispersive wave (∼2.7 µm (f)) relative to the strength of the dispersive wave in the 1st section. In the 3rd section the solitons generate dispersive wave around the telecom window while also shifting to longer wavelengths to become fundamental solitons again, as discussed above. We note that the lengths and positions of the different sections of the 3SC waveguide can be modified as per one’s requirements to vary the strength of the desired dispersive wave while keeping the total device length fixed. Here we chose the positions of different sections in such a way that the signal strength in the supercontinuum is in the order: 2f > f >1550 nm. Also, one must consider the role of the pump power in the design, as the wavelength of the dispersive wave is directly dependent on the peak power.

3. Tapers

Tapers are another type of longitudinally dispersion varying waveguide that have been studied extensively in optical fibers [3537,41,50]. The linearly increasing width waveguide is shown in Fig. 5(a) (inset). The waveguide is 5 mm long and varies adiabatically from 500 nm to 1100 nm in width. The GVD variation along the length of the taper at the pump wavelength at 1.95 µm is shown in Fig. 5(a). The input signal is coupled near the 2nd ZDW of the waveguide and reaches at the output close to its 1st ZDW. The dispersion curves for the widths increasing in steps of 100 nm from the input to the output of the taper are shown in Fig. 5(b). In the experiments the input pulse was launched using an OPO with the pulse width of 250 fs and a coupled peak power of 200 W. The results are shown in Fig. 6(a) where the supercontinuum from the taper is compared to that of various fixed width waveguides (500 nm, 700 nm, and 1100 nm).

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a) Group velocity dispersion at the pump wavelength along the length of the increasing taper, along with the device illustration (inset). The soliton fission happens around 1.1 mm. (b) Dispersion curves from the start (blue – 500 nm) to the end (red – 1100 nm) of the taper.

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 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. (a) Experimental and, (b) simulated supercontinua from increasing taper (black) and fixed width 500 nm (blue), 700 nm (green) and 1100 nm (red) wide waveguide.

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The SC signal of the 500 nm wide waveguide is mainly based on self-phase modulation of the pulse since the pump is in the normal dispersion region. In the 700 nm wide waveguide the dispersive wave is generated at 1180 nm, and around the pump wavelength the soliton fission broadens the spectrum. Similarly, the spectral broadening in the 1100 nm wide waveguide is based on the soliton fission process. The supercontinuum generation in the taper is also based on soliton fission, and extends from <1200 nm to >2400 nm and is relatively flat in the long and the short wavelength regions of the SC. The amplitude of the spectrum varies within 5-7 dB from 1200-1850nm and 3-5 dB from 2100-2400 nm. The simulations are shown in the Fig. 6(b).

The reason for the flat spectrum with the taper is the shifting of the dispersive wave phase matching wavelength along the length of the taper due to the continuous change in width along the length of the taper [36,37]. Beyond the soliton fission point (shown in Fig. 5(a), at the width of 680 nm) the solitons keep on generating dispersive wave starting from 1.2 µm to longer wavelengths, while the solitons themselves keep shifting to longer wavelengths, thus helping to flatten the spectrum. We note that the pulse is launched into the normal dispersion region of the taper, this is to ensure that the soliton fission point (which is dependent on the pump power) is located near 2/dL≈0 (at 1.1 mm, see Fig. 5(a)), causing the solitons to phase match to the dispersive waves in the short wavelength side of the pump rather than the long side. This is because the long side dispersive waves would be generated in the high propagation loss region of the SOI, as well as cannot be captured by our optical spectrum analyzers (OSA), Yokogawa AQ6375B.

3.1. Increasing vs decreasing width taper

In the following, the supercontinua from the increasing and decreasing width taper are compared.

The pump parameters for the decreasing width taper are the same as for the increasing width taper discussed above. The experimental and numerical results are shown in Figs. 7(a) and 7(b). We observe that the supercontinuum from the decreasing taper is not as flat as that of the increasing taper. This is because the soliton fission point in the decreasing taper is around 2.5 mm from the input where the width is 800 nm. This in turn causes the dispersive waves to be generated from 1.35 µm continuously to shorter wavelengths as indicated by the arrow (red) in Fig. 7(c). As soon as the pulse reaches close to the point where the width of the taper is ≈ 650 nm the higher order dispersion terms of the waveguide suppress the short side dispersive waves, and the pulse starts phase matching to the dispersive waves at the long side of the pump, in the region not accessible by our OSA. Moreover, the solitons are travelling into the higher GVD region (see Fig. 7(d)) along the decreasing taper thus they cannot shift, as in increasing taper, to longer wavelengths to remain fundamental solitons.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. (a) Experimental and, (b) simulated supercontinua for the increasing width taper (black) and decreasing width taper (red). (c) Dispersive wave phase matching curves for the decreasing (red) and increasing taper (black), with arrows indicating shifting dispersive wave after soliton fission point. (d) The variation of the GVD and the width along the length of the taper for the increasing (black) and decreasing (red) taper. The dispersion and width vertical axes are for the solid and dashed curve, respectively.

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In the decreasing width taper the group velocity of the solitons is continuously decreasing along the propagation length as shown in Fig. 8(a), which causes the dispersive wave around 1.3 µm to eventually overtake the solitons. This raises the possibility of cross phase modulation (XPM) based spectral broadening of the dispersive wave [51]. In Fig. 8(b) we see through numerical studies that the dispersive wave, which is initially slower than the rest of the pulse, eventually passes most of the signal around the length of 4 mm. Even though XPM is twice as effective as self-phase modulation, only a weak phase modulation of the dispersive wave (φmax≈1) occurs due to the short interaction length (about 100 µm). Thus, only relatively weak spectral broadening takes place through XPM in this waveguide. Nevertheless, this raises the possibility of optimizing the design of the taper in future work, to increase the interaction length of the dispersive wave with the solitons thus increasing the XPM of the dispersive wave to broaden the short side spectrum even in the decreasing taper. We note that the signal always leading the pump pulse (in Fig. 8(b) is the long side dispersive wave and is undetectable by our OSA.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. (a) The change in the group velocity along the length of the decreasing width taper indicated by the dashed arrow. The waveguide width is labeled above the curves. (b) The temporal evolution of the pulse in the decreasing taper (the pump pulse is centered at zero).

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3.2. Coherence in tapered continuum generation

To determine the phase correlation between the modes of the SC signal, the coherence of the supercontinua generated in the tapers is simulated. In the simulation a pulse width of 250 fs and a peak power of 100 W is used. One photon per mode noise (shot noise) with 1.5% intensity noise was included in the pump, and the coherence was calculated for an ensemble of 100 supercontinua [52]. The coherence spectra are shown in Fig. 9(a) for the increasing and decreasing width tapers and compared with that of a fixed width (920 nm) waveguide. The coherence of the supercontinua from the tapers is significantly higher than that from the fixed width waveguide. Along with the pulse compression [45], the coherence is improved due to the suppression of the modulation instability (MI) in the pulse in the tapers. The MI causes the generation of strong noise-based four-wave-mixing signals in the fixed width waveguide before the soliton fission takes place. The MI length of the fixed width waveguide is ∼ 1.1 mm whereas, the soliton fission length is 1.5 mm. This in turn deteriorates the spectrum generated during the soliton fission process. The temporal evolution of the pulse near the soliton fission point for the increasing/decreasing taper and the fixed width waveguide are shown in Figs. 9(b), 9(c) and 9(d). The temporal features of the pulses, with and without added noise in the simulations, are quite similar for the tapered waveguides, whereas for the fixed waveguide significant temporal modulation is present in the pulse due to noise. It is clear that the pulses in the fixed width waveguide are significantly deteriorated by the MI, whereas the pulses in the tapers are not affected by the noise. This happens because the dispersion, especially the GVD, is continuously changing in the taper thus the maximum MI gain frequency, given by [46] Δωmax $\propto \; $P/(Aoβ2), where Ao is the effective area, is continuously shifting. Therefore, an MI signal at a fixed frequency cannot build up enough strength to deteriorate the soliton fission process, unlike in the fixed width waveguide where the GVD is fixed.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. (a) The calculated coherence of the decreasing (red), increasing taper (black) and the fixed width 920 nm wide waveguide (green dash). (b), (c), and (d) The pulse at the soliton fission point with (blue) and without (green) adding noise in the simulation for the decreasing, increasing and fixed width waveguide. (e) The coherence of the increasing taper (black), waveguide with the varying GVD and fixed Ao (red dash); waveguide with the varying Ao and fixed GVD (blue dash), and the fixed width (920 nm wide) waveguide (green). (f) The normalized MI gain curves for the taper where its width is 550 nm (black) and 680 nm (red) are shown. The normalized MI gain curves for the GVD of 550 nm width and the Ao of 680 nm width (black dashed), and vice versa (red dashed), are also shown.

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The dependence of the normalized MI gain bandwidth on the effective area (Ao) and the GVD for 100 mW of peak power is shown in Fig. 9(f). The gain bandwidth is calculated using the relation [46], g = |β2Δω|(2Δω2max - Δω2)1/2, where Δω = ω – ωpump. We chose the variation in the effective area and the GVD for the increasing taper from the point where the taper width is 550 nm (close to input where dispersion is anomalous) to the fission point of 680 nm.

We observe that the gain peak has shifted significantly between those two points of the taper. It is observed that the shift is more sensitive to variation in GVD than the variation in effective area (a similar trend is obtained with the full NLSE simulation including up to 8th order dispersion terms and high peak power). This suggests that the effect of dispersion variation in avoiding the MI gain in the pulse is stronger than the effect of the effective area variation.

To verify this, we calculated the coherence of the SC with fixed Ao (GVD) and varying GVD (Ao), see Fig. 9(e). It is observed that the SC coherence, by varying Ao (with fixed GVD), is only slightly improved compared to the coherence of the fixed width waveguide, whereas, the variation of the GVD (with fixed Ao) improves the coherence significantly. Furthermore, we note that the coherence of the SC from the increasing width taper is slightly better than that of the decreasing width taper; that can be attributed to the shorter soliton fission length of the increasing width taper.

4. Birefringent waveguide

In this section the strong birefringence of the silicon waveguide is utilized to increase the supercontinuum bandwidth [38]. Even though the dispersion is not changing longitudinally one can utilize the two dispersions of an asymmetric waveguide due to the TE and TM modes. To demonstrate this, a fully etched strip waveguide was used with width of 1080 nm and height of 380 nm. The dispersion curves are shown in Fig. 10(b) (inset) for the TE and TM modes.

 figure: Fig. 10.

Fig. 10. (a) Experimental and (b), simulated supercontinua with the TM, TE and TE + TM (@ 45° to the plane of waveguide) mode pumping. The dispersion curves for the TE (red) and TM mode (blue), inset.

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The experimental results of the supercontinuum generation are shown in Fig. 10(a) for TM, TE and TM + TE (pump launched at 45° to the principle polarization axes). The pump pulse width is 250 fs, and the coupled peak power for TM and TE is 100 W, whereas for the TM + TE, the TE power is 70 W and the TM is 30 W, due to the un-optimized input inverse taper for the TM mode. The walk off length of the TE and TM modes is short (∼150 µm), thus no intermodal coupling is expected. We observe in Fig. 10(a) that the SC is broadened by >100 nm at the long wavelength side due to the linear superposition of the supercontinuum signals from the TE and TM mode pumping. The SC bandwidth can be increased further with this technique however we show the results up to 2.4 µm due to the limited bandwidth of our spectrum analyzer. Such a device offers a smaller footprint as it does not require separate waveguides for obtaining different dispersions as in [42], as well as the capability for a broader SC based on dispersive wave generation [25].

5. Discussions and conclusion

In this work, experimental and theoretical investigation of waveguides with varying-dispersion and birefringence for selective wavelength enhancement and improved coherence of the supercontinuum is reported. The results presented are independent of the material platform, so a wide variety of technologies should benefit. One must note that lower index contrast waveguides would require larger dimensional changes than the high-index contrast waveguides described here to achieve similar dispersion variation, thus compromising the footprint of the device. Although thickness variation of a waveguide can be an alternative for achieving dispersion variation, the fabrication can be challenging. In the decreasing taper, cross phase modulation can be utilized to spectrally broaden the dispersive waves where the dispersive waves temporally overlap not just with one fundamental soliton, as in the optical fiber, but with the entire signal in the anomalous regime. In the birefringent waveguide the input/output inverse tapers need to be optimized for coupling both modes efficiently. The TE and TM supercontinua could be rotated to be polarized as either TE or TM using the integrated polarization controllers [53].

In conclusion, with the work demonstrated here a robust all integrated system can be envisioned with an integrated mode-locked laser and germanium detector [54,55] for signal synthesis that will have widespread applications in fields ranging from medicine to telecom.

Funding

Agency for Science, Technology and Research; Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (HR0011-15-C-0056).

Acknowledgments

NL acknowledges the NSS fellowship from Agency of Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), Singapore. Special thanks to Jelena Notaros for organizing the fabrication runs.

Disclosures

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

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17. U. D. Dave, C. Ciret, S. P. Gorza, S. P. Gorza, S. Combrie, A. D. Rossi, F. Raineri, G. Roelkens, and B. Kuyken, “Dispersive-wave-based octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in InGaP membrane waveguides on a silicon substrate,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3584–3587 (2015). [CrossRef]  

18. M. A. Ettabib, L. Xu, A. Bogris, A. Kapsalis, M. Belal, E. Lorent, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, K. Hammani, D. Syvridis, D. P. Shepherd, J. H. V. Price, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Broadband telecom to mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a dispersion-engineered silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 4118–4121 (2015). [CrossRef]  

19. M. Sinobad, C. Monat, B. L. Davies, P. Ma, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, A. Mitchell, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, S. Boutami, J. M. Hartmann, J. M. Fedeli, and C. Grillet, “Mid-infrared octave spanning supercontinuum generation to 8.5 µm in silicon-germanium waveguides,” Optica 5(4), 360–366 (2018). [CrossRef]  

20. J. Safiou, F. Leo, B. Kuyken, S. P. Gorza, S. K. Selvaraja, R. Baets, P. Emplit, G. Roelkens, and S. Massar, “Supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3089–3097 (2014). [CrossRef]  

21. D. Y. Oh, D. Sell, H. Lee, K. Y. Yang, S. A. Diddams, and K. J. Vahala, “Supercontinuum generation in an on-chip silica waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 1046–1048 (2014). [CrossRef]  

22. D. Duchesne, M. Peccianti, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, F. Legare, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Supercontinuum generation in a high index doped silica glass spiral waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(2), 923–930 (2010). [CrossRef]  

23. C. R. Philips, C. Langrock, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, J. Jiang, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “Supercontinuum generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3912–3914 (2011). [CrossRef]  

24. B. Kuyken, X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared to telecom-band supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20172–20181 (2011). [CrossRef]  

25. R. K. W. Lau, M. R. E. Lamont, A. G. Griffith, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4518–4521 (2014). [CrossRef]  

26. B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picque, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015). [CrossRef]  

27. N. Singh, D. D. Hudson, Y. Yu, C. Grillet, S. D. Jackson, A. C. Bedoya, A. Read, P. Atanackovic, S. G. Duvall, S. Palomba, B. L. Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Midinfrared supercontinuum generation from 2 to 6 µm in a silicon nanowire,” Optica 2(9), 797–802 (2015). [CrossRef]  

28. N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P. P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06 µm to beyond 2.4 µm,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018). [CrossRef]  

29. N. Nader, D. L. Maser, F. C. Cruz, A. kowligy, H. Timmers, J. Chiles, C. Fredrick, D. A. Westly, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, J. M. Shainline, and S. Diddams, “Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 3(3), 036102 (2018). [CrossRef]  

30. I. W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C. Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15242–15249 (2007). [CrossRef]  

31. F. Leo, S. P. Gorza, J. Safioui, P. Kockaert, S. Coen, U. Dave, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “Dispersive wave emission and supercontinuum generation in a silicon wire waveguide pumped around the 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3623–3626 (2014). [CrossRef]  

32. A. Ishizawa, T. Goto, R. Kou, T. Tsuchizawa, N. Matsuda, K. Hitachi, T. Nishikawa, K. Yamada, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation at telecommunications wavelengths in a precisely dispersion- and length-controlled silicon-wire waveguide with a double taper structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021105 (2017). [CrossRef]  

33. T. Hori, J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, “Flatly broadened, wideband and low noise supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hybrid fiber,” Opt. Express 12(2), 317–324 (2004). [CrossRef]  

34. J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Extended blue supercontinuum generation in cascaded holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3132–3134 (2005). [CrossRef]  

35. K. Mori, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, and T. Morioka, “Flatly broadened supercontinuum spectrum generated in a dispersion decreasing fiber with convex dispersion profile,” Electron. Lett. 33(21), 1806–1808 (1997). [CrossRef]  

36. F. Lu, Y. Deng, and W. H. Knox, “Generation of broadband femtosecond visible pulses in dispersion-micromanaged holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1566–1568 (2005). [CrossRef]  

37. A. Kudlinski, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, J. C. Travers, A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Zero-dispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5715–5722 (2006). [CrossRef]  

38. M. Lehtonen, G. Genty, H. Ludvigsen, and M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation in a highly birefringent microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2197–2199 (2003). [CrossRef]  

39. H. Hu, X. Zhang, W. Li, and N. K. Dutta, “Simulation of octave spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in dispersion-varying planar waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3448–3454 (2015). [CrossRef]  

40. X. Zhang, H. Hu, W. Li, and N. K. Dutta, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered As2S3chalcogenide planar waveguide,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(19), 1965–1971 (2016). [CrossRef]  

41. C. Ciret and S. P. Gorza, “Generation of ultra-broadband coherent supercontinua in tapered and dispersion-managed silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(6), 1156–1162 (2017). [CrossRef]  

42. D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, J. B. Olson, R. W. Fox, R. C. Brown, A. D. Ludlow, Q. Li, D. Westly, H. Leopardi, T. M. Fortier, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014027 (2017). [CrossRef]  

43. F. Adler, K. Moutzouris, A. Leitenstorfer, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Grosche, and F. Tauser, “Phase-locked two-branch erbium-doped fiber laser system for long-term precision measurements of optical frequencies,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5872–5880 (2004). [CrossRef]  

44. M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota, and E. Yoshida, “Coherence Degradation in the Process of Supercontinuum Generation in an Optical,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 4(2), 215–223 (1998). [CrossRef]  

45. G. Genty, S. Coen, and J. M. Dudley, “Fiber supercontinuum sources (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1771–1785 (2007). [CrossRef]  

46. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Elsevier, 2012).

47. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]  

48. F. R. Arteaga-Sierra, C. Milian, I. T. Gomez, M. T. Cisneros, A. Ferrando, and A. Davila, “Multi-peak-spectra generation with Cherenkov radiation in a non-uniform single mode fiber,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2451–2458 (2014). [CrossRef]  

49. N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51(3), 2602–2607 (1995). [CrossRef]  

50. T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1415–1417 (2000). [CrossRef]  

51. G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, and H. Ludvigsen, “Effect of cross-phase modulation on supercontinuum generated in microstructured fibers with sub-30 fs pulses,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4614–4624 (2004). [CrossRef]  

52. J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1180–1182 (2002). [CrossRef]  

53. W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, T. Barwicz, J. C. Mikkelsen, B. J. F. Taylor, G. Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters and controllers in a Si3N4-on-SOI integrated photonics platform,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11167 (2014). [CrossRef]  

54. F. X. Kärtner, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, N. Singh, M. Xin, R. Kostuban, J. Notaros, E. S. Magden, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Integrated rare-Earth doped mode-locked lasers on a CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 10686, 106860F (2018). [CrossRef]  

55. J. Michel, J. F. Liu, and J. F. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010). [CrossRef]  

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2018 (6)

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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Q. Du, Z. Luo, H. Zhong, Y. Zhnag, Y. Huang, T. Du, W. Zhang, T. Gu, and J. Hu, “Chip-scale broadband spectroscopic chemical sensing using an integrated supercontinuum source in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 506–510 (2018).
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M. Sinobad, C. Monat, B. L. Davies, P. Ma, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, A. Mitchell, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, S. Boutami, J. M. Hartmann, J. M. Fedeli, and C. Grillet, “Mid-infrared octave spanning supercontinuum generation to 8.5 µm in silicon-germanium waveguides,” Optica 5(4), 360–366 (2018).
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N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P. P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06 µm to beyond 2.4 µm,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
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N. Nader, D. L. Maser, F. C. Cruz, A. kowligy, H. Timmers, J. Chiles, C. Fredrick, D. A. Westly, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, J. M. Shainline, and S. Diddams, “Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 3(3), 036102 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, N. Singh, M. Xin, R. Kostuban, J. Notaros, E. S. Magden, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Integrated rare-Earth doped mode-locked lasers on a CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 10686, 106860F (2018).
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2017 (5)

C. Ciret and S. P. Gorza, “Generation of ultra-broadband coherent supercontinua in tapered and dispersion-managed silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(6), 1156–1162 (2017).
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D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, J. B. Olson, R. W. Fox, R. C. Brown, A. D. Ludlow, Q. Li, D. Westly, H. Leopardi, T. M. Fortier, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014027 (2017).
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A. Ishizawa, T. Goto, R. Kou, T. Tsuchizawa, N. Matsuda, K. Hitachi, T. Nishikawa, K. Yamada, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation at telecommunications wavelengths in a precisely dispersion- and length-controlled silicon-wire waveguide with a double taper structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021105 (2017).
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D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, S. Droste, D. Westly, N. Nader, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Self-referenced frequency combs using high-efficiency silicon-nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2314–2317 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
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2016 (2)

X. Liu, M. Pu, B. Zhou, C. J. Kruckel, A. Fulop, V. T. Company, and M. Bache, “Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in a silicon-rich nitride waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2719–2722 (2016).
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X. Zhang, H. Hu, W. Li, and N. K. Dutta, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered As2S3chalcogenide planar waveguide,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(19), 1965–1971 (2016).
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2015 (6)

H. Hu, X. Zhang, W. Li, and N. K. Dutta, “Simulation of octave spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in dispersion-varying planar waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3448–3454 (2015).
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J. P. Epping, T. Hellwig, M. Hoekman, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, A. van Rees, P. J. M. van des Slot, C. J. Lee, C. Fallnich, and K. J. Boller, “On-chip visible-to-infrared supercontinuum generation with more than 495 THz spectral bandwidth,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19596–19604 (2015).
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U. D. Dave, C. Ciret, S. P. Gorza, S. P. Gorza, S. Combrie, A. D. Rossi, F. Raineri, G. Roelkens, and B. Kuyken, “Dispersive-wave-based octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in InGaP membrane waveguides on a silicon substrate,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3584–3587 (2015).
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M. A. Ettabib, L. Xu, A. Bogris, A. Kapsalis, M. Belal, E. Lorent, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, K. Hammani, D. Syvridis, D. P. Shepherd, J. H. V. Price, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Broadband telecom to mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a dispersion-engineered silicon germanium waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 4118–4121 (2015).
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B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picque, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
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N. Singh, D. D. Hudson, Y. Yu, C. Grillet, S. D. Jackson, A. C. Bedoya, A. Read, P. Atanackovic, S. G. Duvall, S. Palomba, B. L. Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Midinfrared supercontinuum generation from 2 to 6 µm in a silicon nanowire,” Optica 2(9), 797–802 (2015).
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2014 (7)

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D. Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, and B. L. Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
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R. K. W. Lau, M. R. E. Lamont, A. G. Griffith, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4518–4521 (2014).
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F. Leo, S. P. Gorza, J. Safioui, P. Kockaert, S. Coen, U. Dave, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “Dispersive wave emission and supercontinuum generation in a silicon wire waveguide pumped around the 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3623–3626 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Safiou, F. Leo, B. Kuyken, S. P. Gorza, S. K. Selvaraja, R. Baets, P. Emplit, G. Roelkens, and S. Massar, “Supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3089–3097 (2014).
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D. Y. Oh, D. Sell, H. Lee, K. Y. Yang, S. A. Diddams, and K. J. Vahala, “Supercontinuum generation in an on-chip silica waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 1046–1048 (2014).
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F. R. Arteaga-Sierra, C. Milian, I. T. Gomez, M. T. Cisneros, A. Ferrando, and A. Davila, “Multi-peak-spectra generation with Cherenkov radiation in a non-uniform single mode fiber,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2451–2458 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, T. Barwicz, J. C. Mikkelsen, B. J. F. Taylor, G. Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters and controllers in a Si3N4-on-SOI integrated photonics platform,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11167 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

M. Lehtonen, G. Genty, H. Ludvigsen, and M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation in a highly birefringent microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2197–2199 (2003).
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2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota, and E. Yoshida, “Coherence Degradation in the Process of Supercontinuum Generation in an Optical,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 4(2), 215–223 (1998).
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1997 (1)

K. Mori, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, and T. Morioka, “Flatly broadened supercontinuum spectrum generated in a dispersion decreasing fiber with convex dispersion profile,” Electron. Lett. 33(21), 1806–1808 (1997).
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1996 (1)

T. Morioka, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, and M. Saruwatari, “Low-noise, pulsewidth tunable picosecond to femtosecond pulse generation by spectral filtering of wideband supercontinuum with variable bandwidth arrayed-waveguide grating filters,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 836–837 (1996).
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1995 (1)

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
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1993 (1)

T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(10), 862–864 (1993).
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Adler, F.

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. (Elsevier, 2012).

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N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
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Allioux, D.

Arteaga-Sierra, F. R.

Atanackovic, P.

Bache, M.

Baets, R.

Baiocco, C.

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P. P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06 µm to beyond 2.4 µm,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Singh, M. Xin, N. Li, D. Vermeulen, A Ruocco, E. S. Magden, K. Shtyrkova, P. T. Callahan, C. Baiocco, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Silicon photonics optical frequency synthesizer-SPOFS,” CLEO ATh4I.2 (2019).

Barwicz, T.

Bedoya, A. C.

Belal, M.

Birks, T. A.

Bluestone, A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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Bogris, A.

Boller, K. J.

Boutami, S.

Bowers, J. E.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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Briles, T. C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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Brown, R. C.

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, J. B. Olson, R. W. Fox, R. C. Brown, A. D. Ludlow, Q. Li, D. Westly, H. Leopardi, T. M. Fortier, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014027 (2017).
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Callahan, P. T.

F. X. Kärtner, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, N. Singh, M. Xin, R. Kostuban, J. Notaros, E. S. Magden, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, and M. R. Watts, “Integrated rare-Earth doped mode-locked lasers on a CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 10686, 106860F (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P. P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06 µm to beyond 2.4 µm,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Singh, M. Xin, N. Li, D. Vermeulen, A Ruocco, E. S. Magden, K. Shtyrkova, P. T. Callahan, C. Baiocco, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Silicon photonics optical frequency synthesizer-SPOFS,” CLEO ATh4I.2 (2019).

Cao, Q.

Carlson, D. R.

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, S. Droste, D. Westly, N. Nader, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Self-referenced frequency combs using high-efficiency silicon-nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2314–2317 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, J. B. Olson, R. W. Fox, R. C. Brown, A. D. Ludlow, Q. Li, D. Westly, H. Leopardi, T. M. Fortier, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014027 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Chiles, J.

N. Nader, D. L. Maser, F. C. Cruz, A. kowligy, H. Timmers, J. Chiles, C. Fredrick, D. A. Westly, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, J. M. Shainline, and S. Diddams, “Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 3(3), 036102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Choi, D. Y.

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D. Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, and B. L. Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. R. E. Lamont, B. L. Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered highly nonlinear (γ = 10 /W/m) As2S3chalcogenide planar waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14938–14944 (2008).
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Chou, C. Y.

Chu, S.

Ciret, C.

Cisneros, M. T.

Coddington, I.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, S. Droste, D. Westly, N. Nader, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Self-referenced frequency combs using high-efficiency silicon-nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2314–2317 (2017).
[Crossref]

Coen, S.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picque, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Leo, S. P. Gorza, J. Safioui, P. Kockaert, S. Coen, U. Dave, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “Dispersive wave emission and supercontinuum generation in a silicon wire waveguide pumped around the 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3623–3626 (2014).
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G. Genty, S. Coen, and J. M. Dudley, “Fiber supercontinuum sources (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1771–1785 (2007).
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J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1180–1182 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cole, D. C.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Combrie, S.

Company, V. T.

Cruz, F. C.

N. Nader, D. L. Maser, F. C. Cruz, A. kowligy, H. Timmers, J. Chiles, C. Fredrick, D. A. Westly, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, J. M. Shainline, and S. Diddams, “Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 3(3), 036102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dadap, J. I.

Dave, U.

Dave, U. D.

Davies, B. L.

Davila, A.

Debbarma, S.

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D. Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. J. Madden, and B. L. Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

Diddams, S.

N. Nader, D. L. Maser, F. C. Cruz, A. kowligy, H. Timmers, J. Chiles, C. Fredrick, D. A. Westly, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, J. M. Shainline, and S. Diddams, “Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 3(3), 036102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M. G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

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N. Singh, M. Xin, D. Vermeulen, K. Shtyrkova, N. Li, P. T. Callahan, E. S. Magden, A. Ruocco, N. Fahrenkopf, C. Baiocco, B. P. P. Kuo, S. Radic, E. Ippen, F. X. Kaertner, and M. R. Watts, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in silicon on insulator from 1.06 µm to beyond 2.4 µm,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17131 (2018).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) An illustration of the cascaded waveguide with its cross-section (width is 920 nm/1070 nm). (b) The simulated dispersion curves of the cascaded waveguide are shown, with the red arrow indicating the pump wavelength at 1.95 µm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The experimental, and (b) the simulated supercontinuum spectra for the fixed width (920 nm wide) waveguide (blue-dashed) and the cascaded waveguide (black-solid). A separate SC simulation for the 1070nm waveguide is also shown. The phase matching curves for the dispersive wave for the 920 nm and the 1070 nm wide section of the waveguide are shown in the inset.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The illustration of the three-section cascaded waveguide. (b) The dispersion curves for the cascaded waveguide: 1st section (600 nm wide – blue), 2nd section (920 nm wide – green), and 3rd section (1070 nm wide - red).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The simulated supercontinuum spectra of the three-section cascaded waveguide (black solid) and the fixed width (920 nm wide) waveguide (blue dash). The 1st, 2nd, and the 3rd section of the waveguide mainly generate the signal under the green, blue and red bar, respectively. The dispersive wave phase matching curves are shown in the inset.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Group velocity dispersion at the pump wavelength along the length of the increasing taper, along with the device illustration (inset). The soliton fission happens around 1.1 mm. (b) Dispersion curves from the start (blue – 500 nm) to the end (red – 1100 nm) of the taper.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Experimental and, (b) simulated supercontinua from increasing taper (black) and fixed width 500 nm (blue), 700 nm (green) and 1100 nm (red) wide waveguide.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Experimental and, (b) simulated supercontinua for the increasing width taper (black) and decreasing width taper (red). (c) Dispersive wave phase matching curves for the decreasing (red) and increasing taper (black), with arrows indicating shifting dispersive wave after soliton fission point. (d) The variation of the GVD and the width along the length of the taper for the increasing (black) and decreasing (red) taper. The dispersion and width vertical axes are for the solid and dashed curve, respectively.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) The change in the group velocity along the length of the decreasing width taper indicated by the dashed arrow. The waveguide width is labeled above the curves. (b) The temporal evolution of the pulse in the decreasing taper (the pump pulse is centered at zero).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) The calculated coherence of the decreasing (red), increasing taper (black) and the fixed width 920 nm wide waveguide (green dash). (b), (c), and (d) The pulse at the soliton fission point with (blue) and without (green) adding noise in the simulation for the decreasing, increasing and fixed width waveguide. (e) The coherence of the increasing taper (black), waveguide with the varying GVD and fixed Ao (red dash); waveguide with the varying Ao and fixed GVD (blue dash), and the fixed width (920 nm wide) waveguide (green). (f) The normalized MI gain curves for the taper where its width is 550 nm (black) and 680 nm (red) are shown. The normalized MI gain curves for the GVD of 550 nm width and the Ao of 680 nm width (black dashed), and vice versa (red dashed), are also shown.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Experimental and (b), simulated supercontinua with the TM, TE and TE + TM (@ 45° to the plane of waveguide) mode pumping. The dispersion curves for the TE (red) and TM mode (blue), inset.

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