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Experimental and dynamical study of a dual Q-switched intracavity OPO based on few-layer MoSe2 SA

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Abstract

A 2.5nm-thickness molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) saturable absorber (SA) is prepared by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. Applying the prepared MoSe2 SA to an acousto-optic (AO) Q-switched fundamental laser, a dual-loss-modulated intra-cavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) has been experimentally realized. The signal-pulse train from this IOPO has 0.0053 standard deviation (SD) of pulse amplitude. When the MoSe2 SA is applied to IOPO, the signal pulse is compressed by maximum 68%, the peak power increases by 274%, and the nonlinear conversion increases by 12.6%. To solve the established rate equation of IOPO, the ground-state and excited-state absorption cross section of MoSe2 are rationally estimated to be 1.04×10−18cm−2 and 6.25×10−19cm−2 from the measured transmittance curve, and the excited-state lifetime is 275.6µs. The numerical solution of the equations fits the experimental data well.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

The eye-safe coherent sources with high peak power in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region of 1.5-1.6 µm have attracted increasing interest in recent years, which are widely used in the fields of telemetry, radar, communications, etc [13]. The eye-safe laser can be traditionally generated by an erbium (Er)-doped laser system, but the thermal effect in the media limits the pulse-repetition rate to only several hertz. Nonlinear frequency transformation, such as stimulated Raman scattering or optical parametric oscillator (OPO), is another approach to obtain the laser at this spectral range. Compared with Raman scattering, OPO provides high-conversion coherent light because of its nonlinearities ${\chi ^{(2)}}$ related to second-order nonlinear process [47]. Furthermore, by applying the OPO cavity into the fundamental-laser cavity, the nonlinear conversion of OPO can be further increased [810].

For intracavity OPOs (IOPOs), the Q-switched fundamental laser with higher peak power can support higher nonlinear conversion. So, the short-pulse-width and high-peak-power Q-switched laser is efficient to the operation of IOPO [11,12]. Another factor affecting the nonlinear conversion of IOPO is the stability of fundamental-pulse train. Therefore, stable operation and pulse-compression performance of Q-switches for fundamental laser are very important for IOPO. Among all the Q-switching methods, acousto-optic (AO) actively Q-switched laser can obtain controllable pulse with definite repetition rate, but the pulse width of actively Q-switched laser is usually wide. Compared with actively Q-switched ones, passively Q-switched lasers with saturable absorbers (SAs) can generate short-width pulse. Many kinds of SAs have been applied to obtain Q-switched pulses at different wavelengths so far [1316]. Among these SAs, two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are regarded as promising optical modulators due to their unique properties [1720], and some of them are combined with active Q-switch to realize dual-loss modulated laser [2124]. Though doubly Q-switched lasers based on TMDCs are advantageous to nonlinear transformation due to their high peak power and stability, few of them have been selected to pump OPO so far [25]. As a member of the 2D TMDCs family, layered molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) with broadband saturable absorption from 400 to 2100 nm can efficiently modulate 1µm laser [2628]. By combining the few-layer MoSe2 SA with AO modulator (AOM), the stable pulse trains with high peak power from the doubly Q-switched laser are expected to be excellent fundamental-light source to IOPOs [29,30]. However, as far as we know, IOPOs pumped by MoSe2-SAs based passively Q-switched lasers have not been experimentally demonstrated.

Dynamical rate equations have been proved to be efficient to predict the performances of lasers or IOPOs [31,32]. For OPOs Q-switched by 2D SA, the absorption cross section and energy-state lifetime reflecting saturated absorption characteristics are necessary for establishing rate equation. Because the energy level structure of 2D TMDCs is under study, there are few reports on their saturated absorption parameters required for dynamic models [33,34]. So far, there is no research work on rate equation of laser Q-switched by MoSe2, let alone the rate equation of Q-switched OPO based on MoSe2.

In this work, firstly, a 2.5nm-thickness MoSe2 SA is prepared by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method, whose optical characteristics are thoroughly investigated. Secondly, a signal resonant KTP IOPO pumped by a doubly Q-switched Nd3+:YVO4 laser with the prepared few-layer MoSe2 SA and an AOM has been experimentally realized. AOM is utilized to control the signal-pulse-repetition rate. The MoSe2 SA, as the passive Q switch, is expected to compress the pulse width for high peak power. Such a doubly Q-switched IOPO based on 2D-MoSe2 SA could operate steadily with higher nonlinear conversion than the AO singly Q-switched IOPO. Finally, based on the nonlinear transmittance curve, methods for estimating the absorption cross section and the excited-state lifetime of 2D-MoSe2 SA are given. The rate equation of Q-switched IOPO based on MoSe2 SA is also solved by computer programming. The calculated values are in agreement with the experimental ones.

2. Fabrication and optical characteristics of 2D MoSe2 SA

Different from the commonly used liquid-phase exfoliation method, the EBE method with post selenization is employed to prepare few-layer SA, which strictly control the homogeneity and thickness of MoSe2 [3537]. In the preparation process, Mo film with 1nm-thickness is deposited on c-cut Al2O3 substrate by e-beam evaporation (ATS 500, HHV). Then the deposited film with substrate is thermally annealed in selenium rich ambience at 830°C for 10 minutes. During the thermal treating, the Ar mixed H2 of 270/30 sccm are employed as carrier gas and reactive gas.

The characterizations of the synthesized material are detailed investigated (Fig. 1). In Fig. 1(a), photograph of 2cm-width MoSe2 sample shows good contract compared to the edge of Al2O3 substrate. The optical micrograph (CX23, Olympus) with a 50 µm by 50 µm region is measured for the sample, whose color contrast gives the number of layers in general [40]. The optical micrograph in Fig. 1(b) indicates a contrast between MoSe2 sample and pristine transparent sapphire substrate. The 2D spectral image of the intensity of A1g mode is plotted in Fig. 1(c), and little variation of the intensity in Raman mapping image shows the high homogeneity of synthetic MoSe2 over a large area [41]. Raman spectrum is collected by a Raman spectrometer excited by laser of 532 nm with a photon detector (Horiba LabRAM HR Evolution). As shown in Fig. 1(d), there are two characteristic peaks A1g (237 cm−1) and E12g modes (282 cm−1) observed in this experiment. The A1g mode is related to an out-of-plane vibration of Se atoms, while the E12g mode means the in-plane vibrations with the Se atoms and Mo atoms heading opposite directions. Compared with the Raman spectrum of the bulk MoSe2 with the A1g mode of 242 cm−1, a red shift about 5 cm−1 is obtained in our experiment, which verifies a few-layer structure of the sample [38,39,42]. In Fig. 1(e), scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Regulus8100, Hitachi) shows a layered structure of the MoSe2 sample at the edge of the piece. The thickness and morphology of MoSe2 are measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM, Bruker Dimension Icon) in Fig. 1(f). The thickness analyzed from the height profile is about 2.5 nm, which indicates a structure of 2-3 layers corresponding to the above-analysis results of optical micrograph and Raman spectrum [43,44].

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. The photograph and microscopic observation of deposited MoSe2 on sapphire substrate. (a) Photograph of the centimeter scale MoSe2 material deposited on c-cut sapphire. (b) Optical microscopy atomic force microscopy. (c) Raman mapping of peak intensity at A1g mode of MoSe2. (d) Raman spectrum collected with excitation laser of 532 nm wavelength. (e) Scanning electron microscopy. (f) Atomic force microscopy.

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By use of the double optical path method [45], the nonlinear transmittance of MoSe2-SA is shown in Fig. 2. The laser source is an AO Q-switched solid-state laser with 15 kHz repetition and 120 ns pulse-width at 1.06µm, whose average output power is 481 mW. The approximated nonsaturable loss (αs) and initial transmittance (T0) are about 14% and 77.8% respectively, then the modulation depth (ΔT) is calculated to be 8.2%. The saturation power density (Isat) is fitted to be 1.998 MW/cm2. Inset of Fig. 2 provides the linear relation between transmittance and peak-energy density for low-power density, from which the slope of 1.93 is obtained by linear fitting.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Transmittance of MoSe2 SA versus incident power density at 1.06 µm. Inset provides the linear relation for low-power density.

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3. Experimental setup

The experimental setup for the laser diode (LD)-pumped double Q-switched laser with signal resonant IOPO is schematically demonstrated in Fig. 3. A fiber-coupled 808 nm LD with a 400µm-diameter core (PHOTECK, USA) is applied as the pump source. The 3×3×5 mm size and 0.6 at. % Nd3+ doped Nd:YVO4 is used as gain medium, whose two faces are antireflection (AR) coated at 808 nm and 1.06 µm. The 25-mm-long KTP crystal in type-II noncritical phase-matching configuration (θ = 90°and ϕ = 0°) is used along the x-axis to have both a maximum effective nonlinear coefficient and no walk-off among the fundamental, signal, and idler beams. One face of KTP is high reflection (HR) coated at 1.57 µm and high transmission coated at 1.06 µm. Another face is AR coated at the wavelength 1.57 µm and 1.06 µm. Both of the gain medium and the nonlinear crystal are wrapped with indium foil and held in a copper block which is strictly cooled at 20°C to reduce the thermal-lens effect efficiently. M1, as the plane input mirror, is AR coated at 808 nm and HR coated at 1.06 µm. The plane M2 is used as output mirror, which is AR coated at 1.06 µm and 25% transmission coated at 1.57 µm. All the mirrors are placed on the 17MAX600 adjusting brackets (Melles Griot, USA). The distance between M1 and the first surface of Nd3+:YVO4 is 10 mm. The fundamental cavity length between M1 to M2 is about 150 mm, while the physical length of OPO cavity is selected to be about 26 mm as short as possible. Then the fundamental laser oscillates in M1M2 cavity and the signal light oscillates between M2 and the first face of KTP.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Experimental setup of LD-pumped MoSe2+AO doubly Q-switched Nd3+:YVO4 /KTP IOPO.

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The crystal in AOM with an effective length of 47 mm is AR coated at 1064 nm (R < 0.2%) on both surfaces and the modulation rate of AOM could be tuned from 1 kHz to 50 kHz. In the experiment, two repetitions of AO (fp=15 kHz and 25 kHz) are applied.

The generated laser power is measured by a MAX500AD laser power meter (Coherent Inc., U.S.A.). The signal-pulse and fundamental-pulse temporal behavior are recorded by two fast photo-electronic diodes (with response time of less than 1 ns) and a TDS620B digital oscilloscope (Tektronix, U.S.A.). The spectroscopy is recorded by a MS9710C spectrometer (Anritsu, Japan) working in wavelength range of 600-1750nm. The beam quality factor of the signal light is measured by a laser beam quality analyzer (M2MS, Thorlabs, U.S.A.) with a beam profiler (BP209-IR/M, Thorlabs, U.S.A.).

4. Results and discussions

4.1 Experimental results

The spectra of the fundamental and signal light for MoSe2+AO doubly Q-switched IOPO are showed in Fig. 4. It can be seen from this picture that the fundamental and signal wavelength are located at about 1064 nm and 1573 nm, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Corresponding spectrum from doubly Q-switched IOPO under the LD-pump power of 5.5 W and AO-modulation rate of 15 kHz.

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The temporal pulse trains in Fig. 5 indicate the stability of pulse amplitude. Figure 5(a) shows a pulse train from the MoSe2 passively Q-switched laser whose output mirror is 4% 1064nm-transmission coated, when the LD-pump power is selected to be higher than the threshold of IOPO. The steady operation of passive Q-switch may be affected by the thermal effect of MoSe2 SA owning to the high photon energy in the cavity. It can be seen that the standard deviation (SD) of pulse amplitude is 0.0808 at 6.6W pump power for the pulse train from MoSe2-SA passively Q-switched laser. Up to now, the OPO pumped by MoSe2-SA singly Q-switched laser has not been obtained yet. In order to obtain a sufficiently stable fundamental-pulse sequence to pump OPO based on MoSe2, AO modulator is introduced to manage regular switching time. Figure 5(b) show the typical pulse trains of signal light from MoSe2+AO dual-loss modulated IOPO, under the incident pumped power of 6.6 W and AO modulation of 15 kHz. It can be concluded that the pulse-repetition rate depends on AO modulation rate in MoSe2+AO doubly Q-switched IOPO. The SD of signal pulse trains from doubly Q-switched IOPO is only 0.0053, which is much smaller than 0.0327 SD of AO singly Q-switched IOPO (Fig. 5(c)). In our opinion, the stable operation of OPO generally owes to that of fundamental laser. In a dual-loss Q-switched laser, the participation of passive SA can suppress the number of longitudinal modes, and then shorten the line width [24,46]. The limitation for fundamental-light longitudinal mode can contribute to the stable operation of 1064nm laser and OPO. Therefore, the application of MoSe2 SA can efficiently improve the stability of Q-switched IOPO.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a) Typical temporal pulse train of passively Q-switched laser with MoSe2-SA under incident pumped power of 6.6 W. (b), (c) Typical temporal pulse train of signal light from Q-switched IOPO, under incident pumped power of 6.6 W and fp=15 kHz. SD: standard deviation.

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Figure 6 give the average output power and pulse width of signal light versus the 808nm-LD incident pump power for the MoSe2+AO dual-loss modulated and AO singly Q-switched IOPO at two different AO modulation rate. In Fig. 6(a), the signal output average power at fp=15 kHz is slightly higher than 25 kHz at the same pump power, whether in doubly Q-switched IOPO or in AO singly Q-switched IOPO. For MoSe2+AO doubly Q-switched IOPO (Fig. 6(c)), the maximum output power in experiment is 111.1 mW at the maximum incident-pump power of 7.6 W and AO modulation rate of 15 kHz. Because of the insertion loss from MoSe2 SA, the average output power of the doubly Q-switched IOPO is generally lower than that of the singly Q-switched IOPO. The threshold pump powers for singly Q-switched and doubly Q-switched IOPO are about 5 W and 5.5W, respectively. Figures 6(b) and 6(d) show the pulse widths of the signal light versus incident pump power for two kinds of Q-switched IOPO, at pulse-repetition rate of 15 and 25 kHz, respectively. The pulse width commonly decreases with increasing pump power, but increases with increasing AO repetition rate. In experiment, the signal pulse can be compressed a lot when the few-layer 2D MoSe2 SA is inserted into the fundamental cavity. The maximum compression ratio calculated from Fig. 6 is approximated to 68% from 6.78 ns (in AO Q-switched IOPO) to 2.2 ns (in MoSe2+AO Q-switched IOPO), at 7.6 W maximum pump power and fp=15 kHz.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Average output powers and pulse widths of signal light versus incident pump powers when fp=15 kHz and 25 kHz. (a) and (c), average power; (b) and (d), pulse width.

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Short pulse width contributes to high peak power, and the peak power of fundamental light is critical to the nonlinear conversion of Q-switched OPO. The signal peak power Ppeak and the pulse energy Epulse are expressed from the Eqs. (1) and (2) [29].

$${E_{pulse}} = {P_{average}}/{f_p}$$
$${P_{peak}} = {E_{pulse}}/W$$
Where W is the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the signal pulse and Paverage is the signal output average power. By use of Eqs. (1) and (2), the calculated pulse energy and peak power of signal light from the experimental data for two kinds of Q-switched IOPO are shown in Fig. 7.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Dependence of the peak power for signal light on incident pumped power at two different AO modulation rate.

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The approximated peak powers of signal light are demonstrated in Fig. 7. The maximum pulse peak powers of singly Q-switched IOPO and doubly Q-switched IOPO are calculated to be 0.9 and 3.37 kW, respectively. When the MoSe2 SA is applied to AO singly Q-switched IOPO, the maximum increase radio of 274% can be available for the peak power, under the maximum incident pump power of 7.6 W and 15 kHz repetition.

To compare the nonlinear conversion efficiencies of doubly and singly Q-switched IOPO, the undepleted fundamental laser without OPO depletion is monitored as the depleted fundamental laser leaking from OPO. Figures 8(a) and 8(b) show the undepleted and depleted 1064 nm profiles from the Q-switched laser cavity, when the incident pumped power is 7.4 W and the modulating rate is 15 kHz. By use of Eq. (3) [29], the nonlinear conversion efficiencies of doubly and singly Q-switched IOPO are calculated to be 56.1% and 46.4%, respectively.

$$\eta = \frac{{{E_1} - {E_2}}}{{{E_1}}}$$
In Eq. (3), E1 represents the single pulse energy of undepleted fundamental laser, and E2 is the single pulse energy of the depleted fundamental laser leaking from IOPO under the same condition.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. (a) and (b), undepleted and depleted fundamental profiles from Q-switched laser cavity under incident pumped power of 7.4 W and fp=15 kHz; (c), conversion efficiencies from two IOPOs versus incident pump power when fp=15 kHz.

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The dependence of conversion efficiency on LD power in two different Q-switched IOPO is exhibited in Fig. 8(c) when fp=15 kHz. The conversion efficiency increases by maximum 12.6% in MoSe2+AO Q-switched IOPO over that in an AO Q-switched one with the maximum experimental pump power.

Additionally, by using the beam quality analysis system without power attenuation, the beam profile of the signal light from the doubly Q-switched IOPO with MoSe2 SA and AOM are measured under incident pumped power of 7.4 W and modulation rate of 15 kHz, as is shown in Fig. 9. The beam quality factors M2 of the signal light are measured as Mx2 and My2 of 2.96 and 2.51.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. The beam profile of the signal light from the doubly Q-switched IOPO under incident pumped power of 7.4W and modulation rate of 15 kHz

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4.2 Theoretical evaluation

The rate equations are efficient tools to analyze the Q-switched dynamics. In this section, a LD-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP IOPO with an AOM and a 2.5nm-thickness MoSe2 SA is considered. By neglecting the spatial variation of the photon densities, the rate equations with saturated absorption characteristics of MoSe2 SA for the IOPO can be obtained based on our previous work [29].

$$\begin{aligned}\frac{{d{E_p}(t)}}{{dt}} = &\frac{1}{{2{t_r}}}[{2\sigma {l_g}n(t )- ({\sigma_g} - {\sigma_e}){l_y}{n_{y1}}(t) - {\sigma_e}{l_y}{n_{y0}} - {\delta_T}(t) - {\delta_a}(t )- L} ]{E_p}(t)\\ &- \frac{{\delta {\omega _p}I{l_{KTP}}}}{{4{\varepsilon _p}l}}{E_s}(t ){E_i}(t), \end{aligned}$$
$$\frac{{d{E_s}(t)}}{{dt}} ={-} \frac{{{E_s}(t)}}{{2{\tau _s}}} + \frac{{\delta {\omega _s}I{l_{KTP}}}}{{4{\varepsilon _s}{l_{opo}}}}{E_p}(t ){E_i}(t),$$
$$\frac{{d{E_i}(t)}}{{dt}} ={-} \frac{{{E_i}(t)}}{{2{\tau _i}}} + \frac{{\delta {\omega _i}I{l_{KTP}}}}{{4{\varepsilon _i}{l_{opo}}}}{E_p}(t ){E_s}(t),$$
$$\frac{{dn(t )}}{{dt}} = {R_{in}} - \frac{{n(t )}}{\tau } - \frac{{\sigma c{\varepsilon _p}n(t )}}{{4\hbar {\omega _p}}}{E_p}^2(t ),$$
$$\frac{{d{n_{y1}}(r, t)}}{{dt}} = \frac{{{n_{y0}} - {n_{y1}}(r, t)}}{{{\tau _y}}} - \frac{{{\varepsilon _p}}}{{4\hbar {\omega _p}}}{\sigma _g}c{n_{y1}}(r, t)E_p^2(r, t),$$
Where Ej(t) (j = p, s, i) is electrical field of the fundamental light, the signal light and the idler light, respectively; n(t) is the population inversion intensity of the fundamental-laser medium; ny0 and ny1(t) are the ground-state and the excited-state population density for the SA; δT is the diffractive loss caused by the thermal effect in the gain medium; l, lg, lKTP, lOPO and ly represent the physical length of the laser cavity, the gain medium, the KTP crystal, the OPO cavity and SA, respectively; σ and τ are the stimulated-emission cross section and the stimulated-radiation lifetime of laser gain medium; tr is the round-trip time of the fundamental light; L is the round trip loss including the intrinsic loss of the laser cavity; ωj (j = p, s, i) is the frequency of the three lights; ɛj (j = s, i) denotes the dielectric constant and τj (j = s, i) is the OPO cavity lifetime of the signal (idler); δ = ɛ0deff, where deff is the effective nonlinear coefficient of the OPO crystal, and ɛ0 is the dielectric constant of the vacuum. If we assume the perfect phase matching, I = 1; δa(t) is the loss function describing a gradual AOM due to the exponential time delay when the AO switch turns on, which can be written as ${\delta _a}(t )= {\delta _a}\exp \left[ { - {{\left( {\frac{t}{{{t_{AO}}}}} \right)}^2}} \right]$ [47].

In Eq. (4) and (8), σg and σe are the ground-state and the excited-state absorption cross section, which are the key parameters for saturable absorption properties of SA. σg and σe satisfy the relation between peak-energy density E and transmission distance z (Eq. (9)). [48,49]

$$\frac{{dE}}{{dz}} ={-} h\nu {n_{y0}}(1 - \frac{{{\sigma _e}}}{{{\sigma _g}}})[1 - \exp( - \frac{{{\sigma _g}E}}{{h\nu }})] - {n_{y0}}{\sigma _e}E$$
Considering the small-signal transmittance (T0) at low power density and the maximum transmittance at high power density (Tmax), Eq. (10) and (11) can be derived from Eq. (9) [34,50,51]. T0, Tmax and k can be obtained from Fig. 2. Then σg and σe of 2.5nm-thickness MoSe2 SA can be estimated to be 1.16×10−18 cm−2 and 7×10−19 cm−2 by Eqs. (10) and (11). Although there are no reported values of absorption cross sections for MoSe2 SA, the values we calculated above correspond to the typical values of another TMDC SA [34,52].
$$\frac{{{\sigma _g}}}{{{\sigma _e}}} = \frac{{\ln {T_0}}}{{\ln {T_{\max }}}}$$
$$\frac{{({{\sigma_g} - {\sigma_e}} )\times {T_0}}}{{h\nu }} = k$$
In Eq. (8), τy is the excited-state lifetime of SA. As the energy-band structure of TMDC is complex [52], there is no report on the excited-state lifetime of 2D-MoSe2 as a laser modulator, to our best knowledge. Here, we estimate the saturable-absorption excited-state lifetime of MoSe2 SA based on the measured non-linear transmittance data and spectral broadening mechanism.

According to the relation between absorption cross section and state lifetime (Eq. (12)), τy (=1/A21) can be approximated [53]. v is light velocity in MoSe2 and ${\nu _0}$ represents the center frequency. Because of the solid state of SA, only the contribution of Doppler broadening to linewidth $\Delta \nu$ is considered. Equation (13) can interpret the Doppler linewidth of MoSe2, where kb is Boltzmann constant and m is the atomic mass of MoSe2 [54]. By substituting the Doppler linewidth of MoSe2 ($\Delta \nu$≈2.2×108 Hz) into the Eq. (12), we can calculate that τy=275.6 µs which is in the same order of magnitude as that of WSe2 which is also selenide [24].

$${\sigma _e} = \frac{{\sqrt {\ln 2} {A_{21}}{v^2}}}{{4{\pi ^{\frac{3}{2}}}\nu _0^2\Delta \nu }}$$
$$\Delta \nu = \frac{{2{\nu _0}}}{c}{\left( {\frac{{2{k_b}T\ln 2}}{m}} \right)^2}$$
Table 1 show the key parameters for saturable absorption properties of 2D-MoSe2 SA and Table 2 show the values of other parameters used in rate Eqs. (4)–(8). n1 and n2 are the refractive indices of the fundamental light in Nd:YVO4 gain medium and AO crystal. nj (j = p, s, i) is the refractive index of the three beams in the KTP crystal.

Tables Icon

Table 1. The key parameters for saturable absorption properties of 2D-MoSe2 SA

Tables Icon

Table 2. The other parameters in rate equations

The last item of Eq. (4), $\frac{{\delta {\omega _p}I{l_{KTP}}}}{{4{\varepsilon _p}l}}{E_s}(t ){E_i}(t)$, explicates the nonlinear conversion to fundamental light by OPO, which is combined and Eq. (5)–(6) to show the dynamical evolution of three lights. By numerically solving Eq. (4)–(8) on a computer with the corresponding parameters shown in Table 1 and Table 2, the relation between Ej(t) (j = p, s, i) and t can be obtained. According to the equation $\phi (t )= \varepsilon {E^2}(t )/4\hbar \omega$, we can take the temporal variations of the intracavity photon densities $\phi (t )$. Then the temporal waveforms of three lights can be calculated. Furthermore, without $\frac{{\delta {\omega _p}I{l_{KTP}}}}{{4{\varepsilon _p}l}}{E_s}(t ){E_i}(t)$ and ${\delta _a}(t)$, Eq. (4), (7), and (8) are considered as the rate equation of MoSe2 passively Q-switched laser.

Figures 10(a) and 10(b) demonstrate the experimental and calculated temporal-pulse profiles of the fundamental and signal light for the doubly Q-switched IOPO based on MoSe2 SA at fp=15 kHz and Pump = 7W. Two pulses are shown in Fig. 10(c), which are from MoSe2 SA passively Q-switched laser at 6.6W pump power. It can be seen that the pulse width is about 282.59 ns and the pulse-repetition period is 6µs. The theoretical values fit the experimental data well.

 figure: Fig. 10.

Fig. 10. Temporal-pulse profiles of the fundamental and signal light. (a) temporal-pulse profiles of the fundamental light for the doubly Q-switched IOPO based on MoSe2 SA; (b) temporal-pulse profiles of the signal light for the doubly Q-switched IOPO based on MoSe2 SA; (c) pulses from MoSe2 SA passively Q-switched laser. Solid, calculated values from rate equations; Scatter, experimental data.

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5. Conclusions

A 2.5nm-thick MoSe2 SA was prepared by EBE with post selenization. Then, an intracavity KTP OPO pumped by a doubly Q-switched fundamental laser with AOM and the prepared MoSe2 SA was experimentally realized. In comparison with AO singly Q-switched IOPO, the doubly Q-switched IOPO with MoSe2 SA could generate much more stable pulse train with only 0.0053 SD. Furthermore, the signal-pulse width decreased by 68% and the peak power increased by 274%, when the few-layer 2D MoSe2 SA was inserted into the fundamental cavity. Owing to the pulse compression and peak-power improvement in doubly Q-switched IOPO, the nonlinear conversion efficiency of IOPO was basically raised by 12.6% with the use of few-layer MoSe2 SA. The experimental results indicate that the pulse-train stability, pulse compression, peak power and conversion efficiency can be efficiently improved when the 2D-MoSe2 is applied to AO singly Q-switched IOPOs. Lastly, based on the nonlinear transmittance curve of 2D-MoSe2 SA, σg and σe were rationally estimated to be 1.04×10−18 cm−2 and 6.25×10−19 cm−2, and τy was 275.6 µs considering Doppler broadening. The rate equation was solved by computer programming and the calculated value fitted the experimental value well.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (51307012, 61308057); Key Technology Research and Development Program of Shandong (2017CXGC0416, 2017GGX50114).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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6. Y. Yu, X. Chen, and L. Cheng, “Continuous-Wave Intracavity Multiple Optical Parametric Oscillator Using an Aperiodically Poled Lithium Niobate Around 1.57 and 3.84 µm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017). [CrossRef]  

7. A. A. Boyko, N. Y. Kostyukova, and V. Badikov, “Intracavity difference-frequency mixing of optical parametric oscillator signal and idler pulses in BaGa4Se7,” Appl. Opt. 56(10), 2783–2788 (2017). [CrossRef]  

8. Z. Ding, P. Liu, and Y. Li, “Continuous-wave, singly-resonant, intracavity optical parametric oscillator based on a single-mode-laser-diode-pumped Yb:KYW laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(12), 2807–2813 (2018). [CrossRef]  

9. J. Raffy, J. P. Pocholle, and M. Papuchon, “Intracavity optical parametric oscillator: study of the dynamics in pulsed regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(7), 1569–1587 (1996). [CrossRef]  

10. S. Biswas and J. K. Bhattacharjee, “On the properties of a class of higher-order mathieu equations originating from a parametric quantum oscillator,” Nonlinear Dyn. 96(1), 737–750 (2019). [CrossRef]  

11. X. Z. Xie, G. Y. Chen, and L. J. Li, “Dressing of resin-bonded superabrasive grinding wheels by means of acousto-optic Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36(5), 409–419 (2004). [CrossRef]  

12. L. Huang, “Stable acousto-optics Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 500 kHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(7), 511–514 (2007). [CrossRef]  

13. U. Keller, D. A. Miller, and G. D. Boyd, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992). [CrossRef]  

14. C. F. Hönninger, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–53 (1999). [CrossRef]  

15. F. Q. Liu, H. R. Xia, and S. D. Pan, “Passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser using Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39(7), 1449–1453 (2007). [CrossRef]  

16. D. Li, S. Zhao, and G. Li, “Optimization of pulse width of double passively Q-switched lasers with GaAs and Cr4+-doped saturable absorbers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(3), 272–279 (2009). [CrossRef]  

17. K. Tian, Y. Li, and J. Yang, “Passively Q-switched Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser with 2D MoTe2 acting as saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 125(2), 125–129 (2019). [CrossRef]  

18. K. Wu, X. Zhang, and J. Wang, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11459 (2015). [CrossRef]  

19. Z. Luo, Y. Huang, and M. Zhong, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-µm Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by a Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014). [CrossRef]  

20. X. Song, J. Hu, and H. Zeng, “Two-dimensional semiconductors: recent progress and future perspectives,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(17), 2952–2969 (2013). [CrossRef]  

21. B. Bai, Y. Bai, and D. Li, “Double Q-switched 946 nm laser with MgO:LN electro-optic crystal and MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(3), 031402 (2018). [CrossRef]  

22. L. J. Li, X. Yang, and L. Zhou, “Active/passive Q-switching operation of 2 µm Tm,Ho:YAP laser with an acousto-optical Q-switch/MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 614–619 (2018). [CrossRef]  

23. D. Wang, J. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Doubly Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber and an acousto-optic modulator,” Opt. Mater. 72(10), 464–469 (2017). [CrossRef]  

24. Y. Sun, Y. Bai, and D. Li, “946 nm Nd: YAG double Q-switched laser based on monolayer WSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21037–21048 (2017). [CrossRef]  

25. J. Qiao, S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Hybrid Q-switched laser with MoS2 saturable absorber and AOM driven sub-nanosecond KTP-OPO,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4227–4232 (2017). [CrossRef]  

26. E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, and G. Hu, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20051–20061 (2015). [CrossRef]  

27. H. Ahmad, M. A. Ismail, and S. Sathiyan, “S-band Q-switched fiber laser using MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382(93), 93–98 (2017). [CrossRef]  

28. G. Zhou, “Investigation of the behaviour of electronic resistive switching memory based on MoSe2-doped ultralong Se microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(14), 143904 (2016). [CrossRef]  

29. J. Wang, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, G. Li, and J. An, “Pulse compression and threshold decrease in high- repetition-rate doubly Q-switched intracavity optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2521–2525 (2007). [CrossRef]  

30. K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and D. Li, “Doubly Passively Self-Q-Switched Cr4+:Nd3+:YAG Laser With a GaAs Output Coupler in a Short Cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(2), 109–115 (2007). [CrossRef]  

31. W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, “Evolution of the Giant Pulse in a Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), 2040–2046 (1963). [CrossRef]  

32. M. Oshman and S. Harris, “Theory of optical parametric oscillation internal to the laser cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 206 (1969). [CrossRef]  

33. D. Nam, J. U. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Excitation energy dependent raman spectrum of MoSe2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17113 (2015). [CrossRef]  

34. S. Zhao, D. He, and J. He, “Probing Excitons in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Drude-Like Exciton Intraband Absorption,” Nanoscale 10(20), 9538–9546 (2018). [CrossRef]  

35. Y. Deng, Z. Liu, A. Wang, D. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Yang, J. Pang, H. Li, H. Li, H. Liu, and W. Zhou, “Oxygen-incorporated MoX (X: S, Se or P) nanosheets via universal and controlled electrochemical anodic activation for enhanced hydrogen evolution activity,” Nano Energy 62(36), 338–347 (2019). [CrossRef]  

36. Q. Hao, J. B. Pang, Y. Zhang, J. W. Wang, L. B. Ma, and O. G. Schmidt, “Boosting the Photoluminescence of Monolayer MoS2 on High-Density Nanodimer Arrays with Sub-10 nm Gap,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(2), 1700984 (2018). [CrossRef]  

37. J. Pang, R. G. Mendes, P. S. Wrobel, M. D. Wlodarski, H. Q. Ta, L. Zhao, L. Giebeler, B. Trzebicka, T. Gemming, L. Fu, Z. Liu, J. Eckert, A. Bachmatiuk, and M. H. Rummeli, “A self terminating confinement approach for large area uniform monolayer graphene directly over Si/SiOx by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1946–1956 (2017). [CrossRef]  

38. P. Soubelet, A. E. Bruchhausen, A. Fainstein, K. Nogajewski, and C. Faugeras, “Resonance effects in the Raman scattering of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 93(15), 155407 (2016). [CrossRef]  

39. K. Kim, J. U. Lee, D. Nam, and H. Cheong, “Davydov Splitting and Excitonic Resonance Effects in Raman Spectra of Few-Layer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 10(8), 8113–8120 (2016). [CrossRef]  

40. Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014). [CrossRef]  

41. K. Xu, Z. Wang, X. Du, M. Safdar, C. Jiang, and J. He, “Atomic-layer triangular WSe2 sheets: synthesis and layer-dependent photoluminescence property,” Nanotechnology 24(46), 465705 (2013). [CrossRef]  

42. P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, P. Böttger, X. Zhang, J. Börner, A. Liebig, M. Albrecht, C. Kloc, Ovidiu Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Photoluminescence emission and Raman response of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4908–4916 (2013). [CrossRef]  

43. X. Zhang, D. Sun, and Y. Li, “Measurement of lateral and interfacial thermal conductivity of single- and bi-layer MoS2 and MoSe2 using refined optothermal Raman technique,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(46), 25923–25929 (2015). [CrossRef]  

44. A. Puretzky, L. Liang, and X. Li, “Twisted MoSe2 Bilayers with Variable Local Stacking and Interlayer Coupling Revealed by Low-Frequency Raman Spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(2), 2736–2744 (2016). [CrossRef]  

45. K. Wang, K. Yang, X. Zhang, S. Zhao, C. Luan, C. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched laser at 1.3 µm with few-layered MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 71–75 (2017). [CrossRef]  

46. H. Zhang, J. Zhao, K. Yang, S. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Low repetition rate subnanosecond pulse characteristics of Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4/KTP green laser with EO and MWCNT,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 79–84 (2015). [CrossRef]  

47. J. Wang, S. Zhao, and G. Li, “Pulse Compression in Laser-Diode-Pumped Doubly Q-Switched Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator Considering Gaussian Distribution of Intracavity Photon Densities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1505–1510 (2007). [CrossRef]  

48. Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, and M. Birnbaum, “unable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(4), 657–663 (1995). [CrossRef]  

49. P. V. Avizonis and R. L. Grotbeck, “Experimental and Theoretical Ruby Laser Amplifier Dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(2), 687–693 (1966). [CrossRef]  

50. Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(10), 1738–1741 (1995). [CrossRef]  

51. X. Zhang, S. Zhao, and Q. Wang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997). [CrossRef]  

52. R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, and J. Dijkstra, “Electronic structure of MoSe2, MoS2, and WSe2. I. Band-structure calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 35(12), 6195–6202 (1987). [CrossRef]  

53. O. Svelto, “Principle of Laser. 4th edition,” A Division of Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York (1998).

54. H. M. Chen, X. Y. Zhao, and J. L. Wang, “Principles and Applictions of Laser. 3rd edition,” Electronic Industry Press, Beijing (2017).

55. R. Guo, Y. Meng, and M. Gong, “Anisotropic stimulated emission cross-section measurement in Nd: YVO4,” Chin. Phys. B 28(4), 044204 (2019). [CrossRef]  

56. G. Turri, H. P. Jenssen, F. Cornacchia, M. Tonelli, and M. Bass, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section in Nd3+:YVO4 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(11), 2084–2088 (2009). [CrossRef]  

57. R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO: LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(5), 922–933 (1990). [CrossRef]  

58. R. Soulard, A. Zinoviev, J. L. Doualan, E. Lvakin, and R. Moncorgé, “Detailed characterization of pump-induced refractive index changes observed in Nd:YVO4, Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:KGW,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1553–1568 (2010). [CrossRef]  

59. V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, “Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals. 3rd edition,” Springer, Berlin (2009).

References

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  7. A. A. Boyko, N. Y. Kostyukova, and V. Badikov, “Intracavity difference-frequency mixing of optical parametric oscillator signal and idler pulses in BaGa4Se7,” Appl. Opt. 56(10), 2783–2788 (2017).
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  8. Z. Ding, P. Liu, and Y. Li, “Continuous-wave, singly-resonant, intracavity optical parametric oscillator based on a single-mode-laser-diode-pumped Yb:KYW laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(12), 2807–2813 (2018).
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  17. K. Tian, Y. Li, and J. Yang, “Passively Q-switched Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser with 2D MoTe2 acting as saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 125(2), 125–129 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Wu, X. Zhang, and J. Wang, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11459 (2015).
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  19. Z. Luo, Y. Huang, and M. Zhong, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-µm Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by a Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. Song, J. Hu, and H. Zeng, “Two-dimensional semiconductors: recent progress and future perspectives,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(17), 2952–2969 (2013).
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  21. B. Bai, Y. Bai, and D. Li, “Double Q-switched 946 nm laser with MgO:LN electro-optic crystal and MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(3), 031402 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  22. L. J. Li, X. Yang, and L. Zhou, “Active/passive Q-switching operation of 2 µm Tm,Ho:YAP laser with an acousto-optical Q-switch/MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 614–619 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. Wang, J. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Doubly Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber and an acousto-optic modulator,” Opt. Mater. 72(10), 464–469 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. Sun, Y. Bai, and D. Li, “946 nm Nd: YAG double Q-switched laser based on monolayer WSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21037–21048 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Qiao, S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Hybrid Q-switched laser with MoS2 saturable absorber and AOM driven sub-nanosecond KTP-OPO,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4227–4232 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, and G. Hu, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20051–20061 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Ahmad, M. A. Ismail, and S. Sathiyan, “S-band Q-switched fiber laser using MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382(93), 93–98 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  28. G. Zhou, “Investigation of the behaviour of electronic resistive switching memory based on MoSe2-doped ultralong Se microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(14), 143904 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. Wang, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, G. Li, and J. An, “Pulse compression and threshold decrease in high- repetition-rate doubly Q-switched intracavity optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2521–2525 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  30. K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and D. Li, “Doubly Passively Self-Q-Switched Cr4+:Nd3+:YAG Laser With a GaAs Output Coupler in a Short Cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(2), 109–115 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  31. W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, “Evolution of the Giant Pulse in a Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), 2040–2046 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. Oshman and S. Harris, “Theory of optical parametric oscillation internal to the laser cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 206 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  33. D. Nam, J. U. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Excitation energy dependent raman spectrum of MoSe2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17113 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Zhao, D. He, and J. He, “Probing Excitons in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Drude-Like Exciton Intraband Absorption,” Nanoscale 10(20), 9538–9546 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  35. Y. Deng, Z. Liu, A. Wang, D. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Yang, J. Pang, H. Li, H. Li, H. Liu, and W. Zhou, “Oxygen-incorporated MoX (X: S, Se or P) nanosheets via universal and controlled electrochemical anodic activation for enhanced hydrogen evolution activity,” Nano Energy 62(36), 338–347 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  36. Q. Hao, J. B. Pang, Y. Zhang, J. W. Wang, L. B. Ma, and O. G. Schmidt, “Boosting the Photoluminescence of Monolayer MoS2 on High-Density Nanodimer Arrays with Sub-10 nm Gap,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(2), 1700984 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. Pang, R. G. Mendes, P. S. Wrobel, M. D. Wlodarski, H. Q. Ta, L. Zhao, L. Giebeler, B. Trzebicka, T. Gemming, L. Fu, Z. Liu, J. Eckert, A. Bachmatiuk, and M. H. Rummeli, “A self terminating confinement approach for large area uniform monolayer graphene directly over Si/SiOx by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1946–1956 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  38. P. Soubelet, A. E. Bruchhausen, A. Fainstein, K. Nogajewski, and C. Faugeras, “Resonance effects in the Raman scattering of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 93(15), 155407 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  39. K. Kim, J. U. Lee, D. Nam, and H. Cheong, “Davydov Splitting and Excitonic Resonance Effects in Raman Spectra of Few-Layer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 10(8), 8113–8120 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  40. Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  41. K. Xu, Z. Wang, X. Du, M. Safdar, C. Jiang, and J. He, “Atomic-layer triangular WSe2 sheets: synthesis and layer-dependent photoluminescence property,” Nanotechnology 24(46), 465705 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  42. P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, P. Böttger, X. Zhang, J. Börner, A. Liebig, M. Albrecht, C. Kloc, Ovidiu Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Photoluminescence emission and Raman response of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4908–4916 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  43. X. Zhang, D. Sun, and Y. Li, “Measurement of lateral and interfacial thermal conductivity of single- and bi-layer MoS2 and MoSe2 using refined optothermal Raman technique,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(46), 25923–25929 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  44. A. Puretzky, L. Liang, and X. Li, “Twisted MoSe2 Bilayers with Variable Local Stacking and Interlayer Coupling Revealed by Low-Frequency Raman Spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(2), 2736–2744 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  45. K. Wang, K. Yang, X. Zhang, S. Zhao, C. Luan, C. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched laser at 1.3 µm with few-layered MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 71–75 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  46. H. Zhang, J. Zhao, K. Yang, S. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Low repetition rate subnanosecond pulse characteristics of Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4/KTP green laser with EO and MWCNT,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 79–84 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  47. J. Wang, S. Zhao, and G. Li, “Pulse Compression in Laser-Diode-Pumped Doubly Q-Switched Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator Considering Gaussian Distribution of Intracavity Photon Densities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1505–1510 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  48. Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, and M. Birnbaum, “unable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(4), 657–663 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  49. P. V. Avizonis and R. L. Grotbeck, “Experimental and Theoretical Ruby Laser Amplifier Dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(2), 687–693 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  50. Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(10), 1738–1741 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  51. X. Zhang, S. Zhao, and Q. Wang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  52. R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, and J. Dijkstra, “Electronic structure of MoSe2, MoS2, and WSe2. I. Band-structure calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 35(12), 6195–6202 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  53. O. Svelto, “Principle of Laser. 4th edition,” A Division of Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York (1998).
  54. H. M. Chen, X. Y. Zhao, and J. L. Wang, “Principles and Applictions of Laser. 3rd edition,” Electronic Industry Press, Beijing (2017).
  55. R. Guo, Y. Meng, and M. Gong, “Anisotropic stimulated emission cross-section measurement in Nd: YVO4,” Chin. Phys. B 28(4), 044204 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  56. G. Turri, H. P. Jenssen, F. Cornacchia, M. Tonelli, and M. Bass, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section in Nd3+:YVO4 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(11), 2084–2088 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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2019 (6)

V. V. Sevastyanov, “An Experimental Study of the Specific Features of Laser Radiation Propagation through the Optical System of the Human Eye and the Optic Nerve,” Biomed. Eng. 52(5), 340–343 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Angelini and F. Colao, “Optimization of laser wavelength, power and pulse duration for eye-safe Raman spectroscopy,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid 15(1), 2 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Biswas and J. K. Bhattacharjee, “On the properties of a class of higher-order mathieu equations originating from a parametric quantum oscillator,” Nonlinear Dyn. 96(1), 737–750 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Tian, Y. Li, and J. Yang, “Passively Q-switched Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser with 2D MoTe2 acting as saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 125(2), 125–129 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Deng, Z. Liu, A. Wang, D. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Yang, J. Pang, H. Li, H. Li, H. Liu, and W. Zhou, “Oxygen-incorporated MoX (X: S, Se or P) nanosheets via universal and controlled electrochemical anodic activation for enhanced hydrogen evolution activity,” Nano Energy 62(36), 338–347 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Guo, Y. Meng, and M. Gong, “Anisotropic stimulated emission cross-section measurement in Nd: YVO4,” Chin. Phys. B 28(4), 044204 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

S. Zhao, D. He, and J. He, “Probing Excitons in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Drude-Like Exciton Intraband Absorption,” Nanoscale 10(20), 9538–9546 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Hao, J. B. Pang, Y. Zhang, J. W. Wang, L. B. Ma, and O. G. Schmidt, “Boosting the Photoluminescence of Monolayer MoS2 on High-Density Nanodimer Arrays with Sub-10 nm Gap,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(2), 1700984 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Bai, Y. Bai, and D. Li, “Double Q-switched 946 nm laser with MgO:LN electro-optic crystal and MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(3), 031402 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. J. Li, X. Yang, and L. Zhou, “Active/passive Q-switching operation of 2 µm Tm,Ho:YAP laser with an acousto-optical Q-switch/MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 614–619 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Ding, P. Liu, and Y. Li, “Continuous-wave, singly-resonant, intracavity optical parametric oscillator based on a single-mode-laser-diode-pumped Yb:KYW laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(12), 2807–2813 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (10)

P. B. Jiang, Q. Sheng, and X. Ding, “Dual-wavelength eye-safe Nd:GYSGG/YVO4 intracavity Raman laser under in-band pumping,” Opt. Commun. 383(15), 6–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, X. Chen, and L. Cheng, “Continuous-Wave Intracavity Multiple Optical Parametric Oscillator Using an Aperiodically Poled Lithium Niobate Around 1.57 and 3.84 µm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. A. Boyko, N. Y. Kostyukova, and V. Badikov, “Intracavity difference-frequency mixing of optical parametric oscillator signal and idler pulses in BaGa4Se7,” Appl. Opt. 56(10), 2783–2788 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Wei, X. Qiu, and Z. Gang, “High-efficiency frequency upconversion of 1.5 µm laser based on a doubly resonant external ring cavity with a low finesse for signal field,” Appl. Phys. B. 123(2), 52–55 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, J. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Doubly Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber and an acousto-optic modulator,” Opt. Mater. 72(10), 464–469 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, Y. Bai, and D. Li, “946 nm Nd: YAG double Q-switched laser based on monolayer WSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21037–21048 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Qiao, S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Hybrid Q-switched laser with MoS2 saturable absorber and AOM driven sub-nanosecond KTP-OPO,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4227–4232 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, M. A. Ismail, and S. Sathiyan, “S-band Q-switched fiber laser using MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382(93), 93–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Pang, R. G. Mendes, P. S. Wrobel, M. D. Wlodarski, H. Q. Ta, L. Zhao, L. Giebeler, B. Trzebicka, T. Gemming, L. Fu, Z. Liu, J. Eckert, A. Bachmatiuk, and M. H. Rummeli, “A self terminating confinement approach for large area uniform monolayer graphene directly over Si/SiOx by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1946–1956 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, K. Yang, X. Zhang, S. Zhao, C. Luan, C. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched laser at 1.3 µm with few-layered MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 71–75 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

A. Puretzky, L. Liang, and X. Li, “Twisted MoSe2 Bilayers with Variable Local Stacking and Interlayer Coupling Revealed by Low-Frequency Raman Spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(2), 2736–2744 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Soubelet, A. E. Bruchhausen, A. Fainstein, K. Nogajewski, and C. Faugeras, “Resonance effects in the Raman scattering of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 93(15), 155407 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Kim, J. U. Lee, D. Nam, and H. Cheong, “Davydov Splitting and Excitonic Resonance Effects in Raman Spectra of Few-Layer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 10(8), 8113–8120 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zhou, “Investigation of the behaviour of electronic resistive switching memory based on MoSe2-doped ultralong Se microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(14), 143904 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. A. Gorbunov, O. V. Kulagin, and A. M. Sergeev, “Eye-safe picosecond Raman laser,” Quantum Electron. 46(10), 863–869 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

K. Wu, X. Zhang, and J. Wang, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11459 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, and G. Hu, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20051–20061 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, D. Sun, and Y. Li, “Measurement of lateral and interfacial thermal conductivity of single- and bi-layer MoS2 and MoSe2 using refined optothermal Raman technique,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(46), 25923–25929 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, J. U. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Excitation energy dependent raman spectrum of MoSe2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17113 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, J. Zhao, K. Yang, S. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Low repetition rate subnanosecond pulse characteristics of Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4/KTP green laser with EO and MWCNT,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 79–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, and M. Zhong, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-µm Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by a Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

X. Song, J. Hu, and H. Zeng, “Two-dimensional semiconductors: recent progress and future perspectives,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(17), 2952–2969 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Xu, Z. Wang, X. Du, M. Safdar, C. Jiang, and J. He, “Atomic-layer triangular WSe2 sheets: synthesis and layer-dependent photoluminescence property,” Nanotechnology 24(46), 465705 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, P. Böttger, X. Zhang, J. Börner, A. Liebig, M. Albrecht, C. Kloc, Ovidiu Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Photoluminescence emission and Raman response of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4908–4916 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

G. Turri, H. P. Jenssen, F. Cornacchia, M. Tonelli, and M. Bass, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section in Nd3+:YVO4 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(11), 2084–2088 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Li, S. Zhao, and G. Li, “Optimization of pulse width of double passively Q-switched lasers with GaAs and Cr4+-doped saturable absorbers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(3), 272–279 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

F. Q. Liu, H. R. Xia, and S. D. Pan, “Passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser using Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39(7), 1449–1453 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Zhao, and G. Li, “Pulse Compression in Laser-Diode-Pumped Doubly Q-Switched Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator Considering Gaussian Distribution of Intracavity Photon Densities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1505–1510 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, G. Li, and J. An, “Pulse compression and threshold decrease in high- repetition-rate doubly Q-switched intracavity optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2521–2525 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and D. Li, “Doubly Passively Self-Q-Switched Cr4+:Nd3+:YAG Laser With a GaAs Output Coupler in a Short Cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(2), 109–115 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, “Stable acousto-optics Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 500 kHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(7), 511–514 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

X. Z. Xie, G. Y. Chen, and L. J. Li, “Dressing of resin-bonded superabrasive grinding wheels by means of acousto-optic Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36(5), 409–419 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, and Q. Wang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, and M. Birnbaum, “unable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(4), 657–663 (1995).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(10), 1738–1741 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO: LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(5), 922–933 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, and J. Dijkstra, “Electronic structure of MoSe2, MoS2, and WSe2. I. Band-structure calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 35(12), 6195–6202 (1987).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

M. Oshman and S. Harris, “Theory of optical parametric oscillation internal to the laser cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 206 (1969).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

P. V. Avizonis and R. L. Grotbeck, “Experimental and Theoretical Ruby Laser Amplifier Dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(2), 687–693 (1966).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, “Evolution of the Giant Pulse in a Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), 2040–2046 (1963).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, H.

H. Ahmad, M. A. Ismail, and S. Sathiyan, “S-band Q-switched fiber laser using MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382(93), 93–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M.

Amani, M.

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

An, J.

Angelini, F.

F. Angelini and F. Colao, “Optimization of laser wavelength, power and pulse duration for eye-safe Raman spectroscopy,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid 15(1), 2 (2019).
[Crossref]

Avizonis, P. V.

P. V. Avizonis and R. L. Grotbeck, “Experimental and Theoretical Ruby Laser Amplifier Dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(2), 687–693 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bachmatiuk, A.

J. Pang, R. G. Mendes, P. S. Wrobel, M. D. Wlodarski, H. Q. Ta, L. Zhao, L. Giebeler, B. Trzebicka, T. Gemming, L. Fu, Z. Liu, J. Eckert, A. Bachmatiuk, and M. H. Rummeli, “A self terminating confinement approach for large area uniform monolayer graphene directly over Si/SiOx by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1946–1956 (2017).
[Crossref]

Badikov, V.

Bai, B.

Bai, Y.

Bass, M.

Bhattacharjee, J. K.

S. Biswas and J. K. Bhattacharjee, “On the properties of a class of higher-order mathieu equations originating from a parametric quantum oscillator,” Nonlinear Dyn. 96(1), 737–750 (2019).
[Crossref]

Birdwell, A. G.

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Birnbaum, M.

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, and M. Birnbaum, “unable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(4), 657–663 (1995).
[Crossref]

Biswas, S.

S. Biswas and J. K. Bhattacharjee, “On the properties of a class of higher-order mathieu equations originating from a parametric quantum oscillator,” Nonlinear Dyn. 96(1), 737–750 (2019).
[Crossref]

Börner, J.

Böttger, P.

Boyd, G. D.

Boyko, A. A.

Bratschitsch, R.

Bruchhausen, A. E.

P. Soubelet, A. E. Bruchhausen, A. Fainstein, K. Nogajewski, and C. Faugeras, “Resonance effects in the Raman scattering of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 93(15), 155407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Burshtein, Z.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(10), 1738–1741 (1995).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO: LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(5), 922–933 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. Y.

X. Z. Xie, G. Y. Chen, and L. J. Li, “Dressing of resin-bonded superabrasive grinding wheels by means of acousto-optic Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36(5), 409–419 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. M.

H. M. Chen, X. Y. Zhao, and J. L. Wang, “Principles and Applictions of Laser. 3rd edition,” Electronic Industry Press, Beijing (2017).

Chen, X.

Y. Yu, X. Chen, and L. Cheng, “Continuous-Wave Intracavity Multiple Optical Parametric Oscillator Using an Aperiodically Poled Lithium Niobate Around 1.57 and 3.84 µm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Deng, Z. Liu, A. Wang, D. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Yang, J. Pang, H. Li, H. Li, H. Liu, and W. Zhou, “Oxygen-incorporated MoX (X: S, Se or P) nanosheets via universal and controlled electrochemical anodic activation for enhanced hydrogen evolution activity,” Nano Energy 62(36), 338–347 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L.

Y. Yu, X. Chen, and L. Cheng, “Continuous-Wave Intracavity Multiple Optical Parametric Oscillator Using an Aperiodically Poled Lithium Niobate Around 1.57 and 3.84 µm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheong, H.

K. Kim, J. U. Lee, D. Nam, and H. Cheong, “Davydov Splitting and Excitonic Resonance Effects in Raman Spectra of Few-Layer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 10(8), 8113–8120 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, J. U. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Excitation energy dependent raman spectrum of MoSe2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coehoorn, R.

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, and J. Dijkstra, “Electronic structure of MoSe2, MoS2, and WSe2. I. Band-structure calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 35(12), 6195–6202 (1987).
[Crossref]

Colao, F.

F. Angelini and F. Colao, “Optimization of laser wavelength, power and pulse duration for eye-safe Raman spectroscopy,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid 15(1), 2 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cornacchia, F.

Crowne, F. J.

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

Y. Deng, Z. Liu, A. Wang, D. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Yang, J. Pang, H. Li, H. Li, H. Liu, and W. Zhou, “Oxygen-incorporated MoX (X: S, Se or P) nanosheets via universal and controlled electrochemical anodic activation for enhanced hydrogen evolution activity,” Nano Energy 62(36), 338–347 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dijkstra, J.

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, and J. Dijkstra, “Electronic structure of MoSe2, MoS2, and WSe2. I. Band-structure calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 35(12), 6195–6202 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

P. B. Jiang, Q. Sheng, and X. Ding, “Dual-wavelength eye-safe Nd:GYSGG/YVO4 intracavity Raman laser under in-band pumping,” Opt. Commun. 383(15), 6–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ding, Z.

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, “Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals. 3rd edition,” Springer, Berlin (2009).

Doualan, J. L.

Du, X.

K. Xu, Z. Wang, X. Du, M. Safdar, C. Jiang, and J. He, “Atomic-layer triangular WSe2 sheets: synthesis and layer-dependent photoluminescence property,” Nanotechnology 24(46), 465705 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dubey, M.

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eckardt, R. C.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO: LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(5), 922–933 (1990).
[Crossref]

Eckert, J.

J. Pang, R. G. Mendes, P. S. Wrobel, M. D. Wlodarski, H. Q. Ta, L. Zhao, L. Giebeler, B. Trzebicka, T. Gemming, L. Fu, Z. Liu, J. Eckert, A. Bachmatiuk, and M. H. Rummeli, “A self terminating confinement approach for large area uniform monolayer graphene directly over Si/SiOx by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1946–1956 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fainstein, A.

P. Soubelet, A. E. Bruchhausen, A. Fainstein, K. Nogajewski, and C. Faugeras, “Resonance effects in the Raman scattering of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 93(15), 155407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y. X.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO: LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(5), 922–933 (1990).
[Crossref]

Faugeras, C.

P. Soubelet, A. E. Bruchhausen, A. Fainstein, K. Nogajewski, and C. Faugeras, “Resonance effects in the Raman scattering of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 93(15), 155407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fu, L.

J. Pang, R. G. Mendes, P. S. Wrobel, M. D. Wlodarski, H. Q. Ta, L. Zhao, L. Giebeler, B. Trzebicka, T. Gemming, L. Fu, Z. Liu, J. Eckert, A. Bachmatiuk, and M. H. Rummeli, “A self terminating confinement approach for large area uniform monolayer graphene directly over Si/SiOx by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1946–1956 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gang, Z.

T. Wei, X. Qiu, and Z. Gang, “High-efficiency frequency upconversion of 1.5 µm laser based on a doubly resonant external ring cavity with a low finesse for signal field,” Appl. Phys. B. 123(2), 52–55 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gemming, T.

J. Pang, R. G. Mendes, P. S. Wrobel, M. D. Wlodarski, H. Q. Ta, L. Zhao, L. Giebeler, B. Trzebicka, T. Gemming, L. Fu, Z. Liu, J. Eckert, A. Bachmatiuk, and M. H. Rummeli, “A self terminating confinement approach for large area uniform monolayer graphene directly over Si/SiOx by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1946–1956 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giebeler, L.

J. Pang, R. G. Mendes, P. S. Wrobel, M. D. Wlodarski, H. Q. Ta, L. Zhao, L. Giebeler, B. Trzebicka, T. Gemming, L. Fu, Z. Liu, J. Eckert, A. Bachmatiuk, and M. H. Rummeli, “A self terminating confinement approach for large area uniform monolayer graphene directly over Si/SiOx by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1946–1956 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gong, M.

R. Guo, Y. Meng, and M. Gong, “Anisotropic stimulated emission cross-section measurement in Nd: YVO4,” Chin. Phys. B 28(4), 044204 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gorbunov, I. A.

I. A. Gorbunov, O. V. Kulagin, and A. M. Sergeev, “Eye-safe picosecond Raman laser,” Quantum Electron. 46(10), 863–869 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gordan, Ovidiu

Grotbeck, R. L.

P. V. Avizonis and R. L. Grotbeck, “Experimental and Theoretical Ruby Laser Amplifier Dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(2), 687–693 (1966).
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J. Pang, R. G. Mendes, P. S. Wrobel, M. D. Wlodarski, H. Q. Ta, L. Zhao, L. Giebeler, B. Trzebicka, T. Gemming, L. Fu, Z. Liu, J. Eckert, A. Bachmatiuk, and M. H. Rummeli, “A self terminating confinement approach for large area uniform monolayer graphene directly over Si/SiOx by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1946–1956 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, K.

Xia, H. R.

F. Q. Liu, H. R. Xia, and S. D. Pan, “Passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser using Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39(7), 1449–1453 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xia, Z.

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, X. Z.

X. Z. Xie, G. Y. Chen, and L. J. Li, “Dressing of resin-bonded superabrasive grinding wheels by means of acousto-optic Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36(5), 409–419 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

K. Wang, K. Yang, X. Zhang, S. Zhao, C. Luan, C. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched laser at 1.3 µm with few-layered MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 71–75 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

K. Xu, Z. Wang, X. Du, M. Safdar, C. Jiang, and J. He, “Atomic-layer triangular WSe2 sheets: synthesis and layer-dependent photoluminescence property,” Nanotechnology 24(46), 465705 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

K. Wang, K. Yang, X. Zhang, S. Zhao, C. Luan, C. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched laser at 1.3 µm with few-layered MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 71–75 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yakobson, B. I.

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

K. Tian, Y. Li, and J. Yang, “Passively Q-switched Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser with 2D MoTe2 acting as saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 125(2), 125–129 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

D. Wang, J. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Doubly Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber and an acousto-optic modulator,” Opt. Mater. 72(10), 464–469 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Qiao, S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Hybrid Q-switched laser with MoS2 saturable absorber and AOM driven sub-nanosecond KTP-OPO,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4227–4232 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, K. Yang, X. Zhang, S. Zhao, C. Luan, C. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched laser at 1.3 µm with few-layered MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 71–75 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, J. Zhao, K. Yang, S. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Low repetition rate subnanosecond pulse characteristics of Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4/KTP green laser with EO and MWCNT,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 79–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, G. Li, and J. An, “Pulse compression and threshold decrease in high- repetition-rate doubly Q-switched intracavity optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2521–2525 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and D. Li, “Doubly Passively Self-Q-Switched Cr4+:Nd3+:YAG Laser With a GaAs Output Coupler in a Short Cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(2), 109–115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Y. Deng, Z. Liu, A. Wang, D. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Yang, J. Pang, H. Li, H. Li, H. Liu, and W. Zhou, “Oxygen-incorporated MoX (X: S, Se or P) nanosheets via universal and controlled electrochemical anodic activation for enhanced hydrogen evolution activity,” Nano Energy 62(36), 338–347 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

L. J. Li, X. Yang, and L. Zhou, “Active/passive Q-switching operation of 2 µm Tm,Ho:YAP laser with an acousto-optical Q-switch/MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 614–619 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, T.

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, X. Chen, and L. Cheng, “Continuous-Wave Intracavity Multiple Optical Parametric Oscillator Using an Aperiodically Poled Lithium Niobate Around 1.57 and 3.84 µm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zahn, D. R. T.

Zeng, H.

X. Song, J. Hu, and H. Zeng, “Two-dimensional semiconductors: recent progress and future perspectives,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(17), 2952–2969 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, J. Zhao, K. Yang, S. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Low repetition rate subnanosecond pulse characteristics of Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4/KTP green laser with EO and MWCNT,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 79–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

K. Wang, K. Yang, X. Zhang, S. Zhao, C. Luan, C. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched laser at 1.3 µm with few-layered MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 71–75 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, D. Sun, and Y. Li, “Measurement of lateral and interfacial thermal conductivity of single- and bi-layer MoS2 and MoSe2 using refined optothermal Raman technique,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(46), 25923–25929 (2015).
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X. Zhang, S. Zhao, and Q. Wang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
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Zhang, Y.

Q. Hao, J. B. Pang, Y. Zhang, J. W. Wang, L. B. Ma, and O. G. Schmidt, “Boosting the Photoluminescence of Monolayer MoS2 on High-Density Nanodimer Arrays with Sub-10 nm Gap,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(2), 1700984 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B.

H. Zhang, J. Zhao, K. Yang, S. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Low repetition rate subnanosecond pulse characteristics of Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4/KTP green laser with EO and MWCNT,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 79–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

D. Wang, J. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Doubly Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber and an acousto-optic modulator,” Opt. Mater. 72(10), 464–469 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, J. Zhao, K. Yang, S. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Low repetition rate subnanosecond pulse characteristics of Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4/KTP green laser with EO and MWCNT,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 79–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

J. Pang, R. G. Mendes, P. S. Wrobel, M. D. Wlodarski, H. Q. Ta, L. Zhao, L. Giebeler, B. Trzebicka, T. Gemming, L. Fu, Z. Liu, J. Eckert, A. Bachmatiuk, and M. H. Rummeli, “A self terminating confinement approach for large area uniform monolayer graphene directly over Si/SiOx by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1946–1956 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

S. Zhao, D. He, and J. He, “Probing Excitons in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Drude-Like Exciton Intraband Absorption,” Nanoscale 10(20), 9538–9546 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Qiao, S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Hybrid Q-switched laser with MoS2 saturable absorber and AOM driven sub-nanosecond KTP-OPO,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4227–4232 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, K. Yang, X. Zhang, S. Zhao, C. Luan, C. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched laser at 1.3 µm with few-layered MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 71–75 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, J. Zhao, K. Yang, S. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Low repetition rate subnanosecond pulse characteristics of Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4/KTP green laser with EO and MWCNT,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 79–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Li, S. Zhao, and G. Li, “Optimization of pulse width of double passively Q-switched lasers with GaAs and Cr4+-doped saturable absorbers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(3), 272–279 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and D. Li, “Doubly Passively Self-Q-Switched Cr4+:Nd3+:YAG Laser With a GaAs Output Coupler in a Short Cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(2), 109–115 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, G. Li, and J. An, “Pulse compression and threshold decrease in high- repetition-rate doubly Q-switched intracavity optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2521–2525 (2007).
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J. Wang, S. Zhao, and G. Li, “Pulse Compression in Laser-Diode-Pumped Doubly Q-Switched Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator Considering Gaussian Distribution of Intracavity Photon Densities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1505–1510 (2007).
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X. Zhang, S. Zhao, and Q. Wang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
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H. M. Chen, X. Y. Zhao, and J. L. Wang, “Principles and Applictions of Laser. 3rd edition,” Electronic Industry Press, Beijing (2017).

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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, and M. Zhong, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-µm Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by a Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014).
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G. Zhou, “Investigation of the behaviour of electronic resistive switching memory based on MoSe2-doped ultralong Se microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(14), 143904 (2016).
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L. J. Li, X. Yang, and L. Zhou, “Active/passive Q-switching operation of 2 µm Tm,Ho:YAP laser with an acousto-optical Q-switch/MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 614–619 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Y. Deng, Z. Liu, A. Wang, D. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Yang, J. Pang, H. Li, H. Li, H. Liu, and W. Zhou, “Oxygen-incorporated MoX (X: S, Se or P) nanosheets via universal and controlled electrochemical anodic activation for enhanced hydrogen evolution activity,” Nano Energy 62(36), 338–347 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Zou, X.

Z. Liu, M. Amani, S. Najmaei, Q. Xu, X. Zou, W. Zhou, T. Yu, C. Qiu, A. G. Birdwell, F. J. Crowne, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, Z. Xia, M. Dubey, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5246–5250 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

X. Zhang, D. Sun, and Y. Li, “Measurement of lateral and interfacial thermal conductivity of single- and bi-layer MoS2 and MoSe2 using refined optothermal Raman technique,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(46), 25923–25929 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (3)

A. Puretzky, L. Liang, and X. Li, “Twisted MoSe2 Bilayers with Variable Local Stacking and Interlayer Coupling Revealed by Low-Frequency Raman Spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(2), 2736–2744 (2016).
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J. Pang, R. G. Mendes, P. S. Wrobel, M. D. Wlodarski, H. Q. Ta, L. Zhao, L. Giebeler, B. Trzebicka, T. Gemming, L. Fu, Z. Liu, J. Eckert, A. Bachmatiuk, and M. H. Rummeli, “A self terminating confinement approach for large area uniform monolayer graphene directly over Si/SiOx by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1946–1956 (2017).
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K. Kim, J. U. Lee, D. Nam, and H. Cheong, “Davydov Splitting and Excitonic Resonance Effects in Raman Spectra of Few-Layer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 10(8), 8113–8120 (2016).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Q. Hao, J. B. Pang, Y. Zhang, J. W. Wang, L. B. Ma, and O. G. Schmidt, “Boosting the Photoluminescence of Monolayer MoS2 on High-Density Nanodimer Arrays with Sub-10 nm Gap,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(2), 1700984 (2018).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

T. Wei, X. Qiu, and Z. Gang, “High-efficiency frequency upconversion of 1.5 µm laser based on a doubly resonant external ring cavity with a low finesse for signal field,” Appl. Phys. B. 123(2), 52–55 (2017).
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Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

K. Tian, Y. Li, and J. Yang, “Passively Q-switched Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser with 2D MoTe2 acting as saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 125(2), 125–129 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and D. Li, “Doubly Passively Self-Q-Switched Cr4+:Nd3+:YAG Laser With a GaAs Output Coupler in a Short Cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(2), 109–115 (2007).
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[Crossref]

H. Zhang, J. Zhao, K. Yang, S. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Low repetition rate subnanosecond pulse characteristics of Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4/KTP green laser with EO and MWCNT,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 79–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Y. Yu, X. Chen, and L. Cheng, “Continuous-Wave Intracavity Multiple Optical Parametric Oscillator Using an Aperiodically Poled Lithium Niobate Around 1.57 and 3.84 µm,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, and M. Zhong, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-µm Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by a Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Wang, S. Zhao, and G. Li, “Pulse Compression in Laser-Diode-Pumped Doubly Q-Switched Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator Considering Gaussian Distribution of Intracavity Photon Densities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1505–1510 (2007).
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Nanoscale (1)

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Nanotechnology (1)

K. Xu, Z. Wang, X. Du, M. Safdar, C. Jiang, and J. He, “Atomic-layer triangular WSe2 sheets: synthesis and layer-dependent photoluminescence property,” Nanotechnology 24(46), 465705 (2013).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

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F. Q. Liu, H. R. Xia, and S. D. Pan, “Passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser using Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39(7), 1449–1453 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Li, S. Zhao, and G. Li, “Optimization of pulse width of double passively Q-switched lasers with GaAs and Cr4+-doped saturable absorbers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(3), 272–279 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Z. Xie, G. Y. Chen, and L. J. Li, “Dressing of resin-bonded superabrasive grinding wheels by means of acousto-optic Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36(5), 409–419 (2004).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

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D. Wang, J. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Doubly Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber and an acousto-optic modulator,” Opt. Mater. 72(10), 464–469 (2017).
[Crossref]

Photonics Res. (1)

L. J. Li, X. Yang, and L. Zhou, “Active/passive Q-switching operation of 2 µm Tm,Ho:YAP laser with an acousto-optical Q-switch/MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 614–619 (2018).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The photograph and microscopic observation of deposited MoSe2 on sapphire substrate. (a) Photograph of the centimeter scale MoSe2 material deposited on c-cut sapphire. (b) Optical microscopy atomic force microscopy. (c) Raman mapping of peak intensity at A1g mode of MoSe2. (d) Raman spectrum collected with excitation laser of 532 nm wavelength. (e) Scanning electron microscopy. (f) Atomic force microscopy.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Transmittance of MoSe2 SA versus incident power density at 1.06 µm. Inset provides the linear relation for low-power density.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup of LD-pumped MoSe2+AO doubly Q-switched Nd3+:YVO4 /KTP IOPO.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Corresponding spectrum from doubly Q-switched IOPO under the LD-pump power of 5.5 W and AO-modulation rate of 15 kHz.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Typical temporal pulse train of passively Q-switched laser with MoSe2-SA under incident pumped power of 6.6 W. (b), (c) Typical temporal pulse train of signal light from Q-switched IOPO, under incident pumped power of 6.6 W and fp=15 kHz. SD: standard deviation.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Average output powers and pulse widths of signal light versus incident pump powers when fp=15 kHz and 25 kHz. (a) and (c), average power; (b) and (d), pulse width.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Dependence of the peak power for signal light on incident pumped power at two different AO modulation rate.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) and (b), undepleted and depleted fundamental profiles from Q-switched laser cavity under incident pumped power of 7.4 W and fp=15 kHz; (c), conversion efficiencies from two IOPOs versus incident pump power when fp=15 kHz.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The beam profile of the signal light from the doubly Q-switched IOPO under incident pumped power of 7.4W and modulation rate of 15 kHz
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Temporal-pulse profiles of the fundamental and signal light. (a) temporal-pulse profiles of the fundamental light for the doubly Q-switched IOPO based on MoSe2 SA; (b) temporal-pulse profiles of the signal light for the doubly Q-switched IOPO based on MoSe2 SA; (c) pulses from MoSe2 SA passively Q-switched laser. Solid, calculated values from rate equations; Scatter, experimental data.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. The key parameters for saturable absorption properties of 2D-MoSe2 SA

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Table 2. The other parameters in rate equations

Equations (13)

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E p u l s e = P a v e r a g e / f p
P p e a k = E p u l s e / W
η = E 1 E 2 E 1
d E p ( t ) d t = 1 2 t r [ 2 σ l g n ( t ) ( σ g σ e ) l y n y 1 ( t ) σ e l y n y 0 δ T ( t ) δ a ( t ) L ] E p ( t ) δ ω p I l K T P 4 ε p l E s ( t ) E i ( t ) ,
d E s ( t ) d t = E s ( t ) 2 τ s + δ ω s I l K T P 4 ε s l o p o E p ( t ) E i ( t ) ,
d E i ( t ) d t = E i ( t ) 2 τ i + δ ω i I l K T P 4 ε i l o p o E p ( t ) E s ( t ) ,
d n ( t ) d t = R i n n ( t ) τ σ c ε p n ( t ) 4 ω p E p 2 ( t ) ,
d n y 1 ( r , t ) d t = n y 0 n y 1 ( r , t ) τ y ε p 4 ω p σ g c n y 1 ( r , t ) E p 2 ( r , t ) ,
d E d z = h ν n y 0 ( 1 σ e σ g ) [ 1 exp ( σ g E h ν ) ] n y 0 σ e E
σ g σ e = ln T 0 ln T max
( σ g σ e ) × T 0 h ν = k
σ e = ln 2 A 21 v 2 4 π 3 2 ν 0 2 Δ ν
Δ ν = 2 ν 0 c ( 2 k b T ln 2 m ) 2

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