Abstract

Accurate in situ measurement of complex optical surfaces is desired for precision manufacturing, and deflectometry is a promising measuring method. However, deflectometry’s measurement accuracy depends heavily on the geometric calibration’s reliability. Existing calibration methods suffer from the limitations of low efficiency, complicated operations, and expensive equipment. Therefore, a self-calibration method is proposed for the monoscopic deflectometry in order to determine the the camera and screen positions. A flat mirror without markers, rather than high-precision metrological instruments, is employed to assist with the self-calibration work, and a re-projection model is adopted in order to trace the rays from the screen to the camera. Numerical optimization is performed on the global parameters—including the camera intrinsic parameters, the screen intrinsic parameters, and the geometric transformations—in order to improve the geometric calibration’s reliability. This self-calibration method only requires that four images be captured, hereby reducing the operating complexity and improving the measuring efficiency. Experiments demonstrate that the re-projection error can be significantly decreased, and also that the measuring accuracy of specular surfaces is comparable to high-precision interferometry.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

In situ measurement of complex optical surfaces is urgently demanded in precision optical manufacturing. Integrating a measurement instrument into the optical manufacturing machine can greatly improve the manufacturing reliability and efficiency, because the repetitive positioning error of the workpiece can be avoided. Deflectometry is potential to achieve in situ measurement of specular surfaces, which measures the surface slopes (or equivalently the normals) by pattern projection and then reconstructs the surface form by numerical integration [1]. Unfortunately, deflectometry suffers from the problem of ‘height ambiguity’, i.e., the solution satisfying the correspondence between the camera and the screen is not unique, as revealed in Fig. 1(a). Consequently, an extra imaging/projecting equipment or measuring procedure is demanded to eliminate the ambiguity, e.g. by stereoscopic deflectometry [2,3] or by screen shifting [4–8] as depicted in Figs. 1(b) and 1(c). While the monoscopic deflectometry based on the software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) [9–12] resolves the problem of ‘height ambiguity’ by providing a pre-knowledge surface to assist the iterative reconstruction, and an additional equipment is not required, as shown in Fig. 1(d).

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Correspondence between camera and screen pixels in deflectometry. (a) Height ambiguity. (b) Stereoscopic deflectometry. (c) Screen shifting. (d) SCOTS.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The measured surface slopes are extremely sensitive to the geometric calibration error. Currently, there are mainly two kinds of geometric calibration methods, one is by third-party metrological instruments, and the other is by numerical calculation based on the self-consistency of the ray tracing between the camera and the screen. The former [10,13] generally uses a laser tracker or a coordinate measuring machine to specify the positions of the camera, the screen, and the measured mirror. Their geometric parameters are obtained in a unified coordinate system with the assistance of certain markers. This kind of methods is of high accuracy but it is difficult to operate, and in addition, it is costly inefficient and inconvenient to be automatized. While the latter [1,5,14–18] usually optimizes the geometrical parameters globally by a re-projection model to reduce the systematic error, and this approach is called bundle adjustment. Unfortunately, it is difficult to be implemented in deflectometry, because the camera and the screen face to the measured surface simultaneously, making the camera unable to capture the screen directly. In order to resolve this problem, a flat mirror is introduced to assist the calibration work. However, a new issue arises that the mirror’s pose is ambiguous because the mirror is ‘not visible’ to the camera, thus researchers proposed to label some markers on the mirror [1,18] or locate the mirror at different poses [14,16,17]. Markers on the mirror can interrupt the projection pattern, while the poses insufficiently distinguishable can make the solution ill-posed. In addition, the field of view will be seriously limited because the projected pattern has to been captured simultaneously at all of the mirror’s poses, then the calibration reliability will be greatly reduced.

In order to improve the efficiency and reliability of geometrical calibration, a self-calibration method composed of a ray-tracing model and parameter optimization is proposed for the in situ SCOTS, as presented below.

2. Principle of slope measurement in SCOTS

Figure 2 schematically shows how the normal of a single point on the surface is measured. A screen, facing to the mirror, is placed on the right, and on the left a camera captures the image of the screen reflected via the measured surface. Due to the pin-hole camera model, only the principal ray through the camera optical center C is considered. As the incidence angle from the screen pixel S is equal to the reflection angle to the camera, the angular bisector of the incident and reflected rays is the normal n of the surface at the measured point K.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 The principle of the normal measurement in deflectometry.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Accordingly, the normal vector n is along the sum of the unit vector of the incident ray i and the unit vector of the reflected ray r,

n=[nxnynz]T=r+i=[rx+ixry+iyrz+iz]T.
Therefore, the x–slope and the y–slope at the measured point K, denoted as Wx and Wy, respectively, are calculated as
{Wx=nxnz=rx+ixrz+iz=xkxsdk2s+xkxcdk2czsW(xk,yk)dk2s+zcW(xk,yk)dk2cWy=nynz=ry+iyrz+iz=ykysdk2s+ykycdk2czsW(xk,yk)dk2s+zcW(xk,yk)dk2c,
where xk, yk and W(xk,yk) are the x, y and z coordinates of the measured point K; xs, ys and zs are the coordinates of the screen pixel S; xc, yc and zc are the coordinates of the camera optical center C; dk2s is the distance from the screen pixel S to the measured point K, and dk2cis the distance from the camera optical center C to the measured point K, respectively. All the above geometric positions need to be determined accurately except the coordinates of the measured point K, which are obtained by the intersection between the pre-knowledge surface and the reflected ray.

The key to SCOTS is to iteratively calculate the surface form W and its slopes Wx and Wy using Eq. (2), until the slopes match well to the surface form.

3. Self-calibration for SCOTS

It is worth mentioning that the deflectometric measuring system is designed for the in situ measurement of the single point diamond turning (SPDT). As a result, the world coordinate system (WCS) in measurement should be in accordance with the SPDT machine, and a rotary stage is employed to simulate the spindle of the machine. A flat mirror without markers is introduced as a reference mirror to assist the self-calibration rather than using third-party metrological instruments, and a re-projection model is applied to trace the rays from the screen to the camera. The calibration procedure is composed of three parts, calibrating the position of the rotary stage in WCS, tracing the rays by re-projection and optimizing the geometrical calibration result. In this paper capital letters R and T are used to denote the rotation matrix and the translation vector, respectively. The subscript refers to coordinate transformation between the source and the target coordinate systems, e.g. Rw2c means the rotation matrix from WCS to the camera coordinate system (CCS). The coordinate systems in use are listed in Table 1. The inverse transformation of [Rw2c,Tw2c] satisfies a relationship {Rc2w=Rw2c1Tc2w=Rw2c1Tw2c. The rest coordinate systems have a similar relationship.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Definitions of the coordinate systems

Figure 3 schematically shows the in situ measurement system to be calibrated. Here the XwOwYw–plane of WCS is defined at the rotary stage with the origin Ow defined at the rotational center. A flat mirror without markers is introduced as a reference mirror and placed on the rotary stage. The mirror’s upper surface is defined as the XmOmYm–plane of MCS, but the origin Om is identical to Ow. It is difficult to guarantee the parallelism between the XwOwYw–plane and the XmOmYm–plane, as a result only a rotation matrix Rm2w is used to describe their geometric transformation. Subsequently, the calibration needs to link CCS, MCS and SCS to WCS, and to solve the geometric transformations between them.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 The coordinate systems of deflectometric measurement.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3.1 Calibrating rotary stage in WCS

The calibration of WCS can be thought as two issues, one is to identify the axes directions of WCS and the other is to determine the origin Ow. A calibration board placed on the rotate stage is used to assist calibrating WCS. The stage is rotated by an arbitrary angle, and BCS before rotation is marked as b, while BCS after rotation is marked as b’, as depicted in Fig. 4(a). The rotational axis from b to b’ is along the z–axis of WCS, consequently the origin Ow and the z–axis of WCS can be worked out accordingly, as shown in Fig. 4(b).

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 The calibration of WCS. (a) The calibration boards and their BCS before and after rotation. (b) WCS and its origin.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The camera, calibrated using the Zhang’s method [19], captures these two positions to obtain their extrinsic parameters [Rb2c,Tb2c] and [Rb'2c,Tb'2c]. Supposing that WCS has the same axis directions with b before rotation, we have Rw2c=Rb2c. Besides, the origin Ow is the intersection of two perpendicular bisectors of PbPb' and QbQb', where P, Q are two points selected on the calibration board. As a result, the translation vector Tb2c is determined by the extrinsic parameters [Rb2c,Tb2c] and [Rb'2c,Tb'2c].

3.2 The re-projection model for ray tracing

Once WCS is determined, ray tracing with a re-projection model will be performed from the screen to the camera. The geometric transformation [Rs2w,Ts2w] from SCS to WCS is worked out using the extrinsic parameters [Rs2c,Ts2c] and the geometric transformation [Rc2w,Tc2w],

{Rs2w=Rc2wRs2cTs2w=Rc2wTs2c+Tc2w.

However, the camera and the screen face to the measured surface simultaneously and the camera is not able to capture the screen directly, but instead capturing the virtual image of the screen reflected via a reference mirror, thus the screen extrinsic parameters [Rs2c,Ts2c] need to be calibrated using the transformation concerning the virtual image [Rv2c,Tv2c]. Henceforth a re-projection model is developed for the ray tracing. In addition, other related variables including the screen intrinsic parameters and the camera intrinsic parameters are taken into account in the model as well to improve the calibration accuracy.

As illustrated in Fig. 5, the virtual image pixel V and the screen pixel S are symmetrical with respect to the reference mirror. h indicates the distance from the origin Om to the mirror along the Zm–direction. The stage is rotated by an angle ε, then the orientation matrices of the mirror before rotation (called pose 0) and after rotation (called pose 1) are denoted with Rw2m0 and Rw2m1, respectively, and their relative difference is a rotation around the Zw–axis,

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 The coordinate systems defined in the re-projection model. (a) 2D diagram of the ray tracing. (b) Rotation from pose 0 to pose 1.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Rw2m1=Rw2m0[cosεsinε0sinεcosε0001].

As revealed in Fig. 5(a), a single pixel ray tracing from S to V and finally to C is taken as an example to describe the ray-tracing procedure. For the sake of consistency, all the coordinates are uniformly described in MCS because the light reflection is relatively straightforward to be expressed in this coordinate system.

STEP 1. Expressing the screen pixel S in MCS.

For a screen pixel S, its original pixel coordinate is [usvs]T. The transformations to SCS, WCS and MCS are

{[xsys0]T=inss1[usvs1]T[xwywzw]T=Rs2w[xsys0]T+Ts2w[xmymzm]T=Rw2m0[xwywzw]T,
where inss1=[m0dxm0ndyn000] is a matrix which transforms the screen pixel [usvs]T into the SCS coordinate [xsys0]T. The z coordinate of the screen pixel zs is set zero because the screen is located on the XsOsYs–plane. In the matrix, m and n are the pixel width and height (in mm), while the origin Os corresponds to the screen pixel [dxdy]T. The detailed definitions of the screen intrinsic parameters are shown in Fig. 6(a).

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 The reflection at mirror’s pose 1. (a) The definition of the screen intrinsic parameters. (b) The geometric relationship between [Rs2c,Ts2c]and [Rv2c1,Tv2c1].

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

In Eq. (5), the geometric transformation[Rs2w,Ts2w] is obtained by Eq. (3). As shown in Fig. 6(b), the geometric transformation [Rs2c,Ts2c] is expressed using the virtual image 1 associated with pose 1, whose extrinsic parameters [Rv2c1,Tv2c1] are obtained by

{(I32ncncT)Rs2c=Rv2c1(I32eeT)(I32ncncT)Ts2c=Tv2c1+2dnc,
where nc=Rw2cRm2w1e is the mirror normal vector at pose 1 expressed in CCS, and d is the z coordinate of origin Oc expressed in MCS at pose 1 d=eT,Rw2m1Tc2wh, with , denoting the inner product operator. I3 is a 3 × 3 identity matrix, and vector e=[001]T.

STEP 2. Expressing the virtual image pixel V in MCS.

The coordinates of the pixels S and V are described in WCS and MCS simultaneously, but their geometric relationship can be expressed from the perspective of MCS,

[xmymzm]T=(I32eeT)[xmymzm]T+2he.

STEP 3. Re-projection to the camera pixel C.

The virtual image pixel V can also be expressed in WCS and CCS,

{[xwywzw]T=Rm2w0[xmymzm]T[xcyczc]T=Rw2c[xwywzw]T+Tw2c.

According to the imaging principle of the pin-hole camera, a point in CCS corresponds to a pixel on the camera sensor,

[ucvc1]T=insc[xcyczc]T,
whereinsc=D(k1,k2,k3,p1,p2)[fx0cx0fycy001] is a transformation associated with the camera intrinsic parameters, which converts the CCS coordinates [xcyczc]T into the camera pixel coordinates [ucvc]T. The influencing factors include the focal lengths fx and fy (in pixel), the offsets cx andcy (in pixel), and the skewness k1,k2,k3,p1,p2 of the camera’s distortion modelD [19].

This model yields the camera pixel coordinates [ucvc]T associated with each screen pixel by ray-tracing at pose 1 and then converted into pose 0 using a geometric constraint that the relative difference between these two poses is a rotation about the Zw axis, while the actual camera pixel coordinates are obtained from the images captured at pose 0. The relative deviation between them reflects the reliability of the geometric calibration, i.e. the re-projection error reaches minimum when the reference mirror’s pose is specified correctly.

3.3 Iterative optimization of system parameters

Numerical optimization can be conducted to adjust the geometric parameters, so that the traced pixel coordinates are in accordance with the actual ones. There are totally l screen-to-camera pixel pairs to be traced, and a least-squares cost function is constructed as

minxi=1l12riT(x)ri(x)withri(x)=[uc(x)u^cvc(x)v^c]i,
where x={inss,Rv2c0,Tv2c0,Rv2c1,Tv2c1,insc,Rw2c,Tw2c,Rw2m0,ε,h} are variables, [u^cv^c]iT are the actual coordinates of the i-th camera pixel at pose 0, and [ucvc]iTare the re-projected camera coordinates at pose 0, which depend on the variable x and the input screen pixel [usvs]iT.

Equation (10) is a non-linear least-square problem, and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is applied to solve it iteratively. Appropriate setting of the initial solution is critical to the convergence rate and computational accuracy. Here the initial values of the variables [Rw2c,Tw2c], [Rv2c0,Tv2c0] and [Rv2c1,Tv2c1] are obtained from the calibrated camera. In addition, the initial insc is obtained using a method presented in the camera calibration toolbox, and the initial inssis supplied by the manufacturer of the projecting screen. The rotation matrix Rw2m0 denotes the pose parameter of the reference mirror, and it is initially estimated as an identity matrix because MCS has a slight difference with WCS. The angle of rotation ε is obtained from the reading of the rotary stage and the thickness of the mirror h is measured by vernier calipers.

In order to improve the numerical stability of the multi-dimensional optimization, the variable x is separated into three groups,

x={inss,Rv2c0,Tv2c0,Rv2c1,Tv2c1GroupA,insc,Rw2c,Tw2cGroupB,Rw2m0,ε,hGroupC},
using a principle that the strongly dependent variables should be allocated in one group, but different groups should be discrepant to each other. Here the variables in Groups A, B and C are the screen intrinsic parameters, the camera intrinsic parameters, and the geometrical parameters of the reference mirror, respectively. The variables in Group C are roughly estimated or simply measured, thus they are less reliable compared to those in Groups A and B. As a result special attention needs to be paid on the optimization of Rw2m0,ε and h. The alternative direction method (ADM) is used to conduct optimization successively for Groups A, B and C, until the convergence is achieved. The complete self-calibration procedure is shown in Fig. 7.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 The self-calibration workflow.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

4. Experimental verification

In order to verify the proposed method, a deflectometric measurement system is established, as shown in Figs. 8(a)-(c). A calibrated JAI camera SP-2000C-PMCL with a 50 mm lens and of resolution 5120 × 3840 is used. An iPad mini2 of resolution 2048 × 1536 is adopted as a projecting screen. A reference mirror with 130 mm diameter and flatness error less than λ/10 is placed on the rotary stage, making the camera able to capture the whole screen’s projection pattern.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 The set-up of the self-calibration. (a) The measurement system. (b) Ray tracing in SCOTS. (c) Projection pattern captured by the camera.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Owing to the minor non-parallelism between the upper surface of the rotary stage and the reflecting surface of the mirror, the pictures captured before and after rotation have a slight difference, as illustrated in Fig. 9, where the magenta dots denote pose 0 and the cyan dots denote pose 1.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 The difference of the patterns from pose 0 and pose 1.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Then optimization is employed after initial calibration, and the root mean square (RMS) value of re-projection errors is employed as a cost function, which is decreased progressively until approaching a stable value. Different initial guesses of Rw2m0,ε and h are tested and it is found that consistent convergence results can always be achieved. The convergence domain of the optimization solver is large enough to cover the errors of the initial parameters. The optimized results are shown in Figs. 10(a)-(c) and the detailed optimization results are listed in Table 2. The average projection error is reduced from (1.5154, 6.8170) down to (1.7274e-04, 0.0010), and the standard deviation of the re-projection errors is reduced from 0.2455 pixel down to 0.1200 pixel. It shows that not only the systematic error caused by the false geometric parameters can be eliminated, but also the consistency between these projection points is improved. The RMS value of re-projection errors is reduced down to 0.1199 pixel, which greatly improves the final calibration accuracy. Then the optimized positions of the camera, the rotary stage, and the screen are used in the following deflectometric measurement.

 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 The optimization results of ray tracing. (a) Overall re-projection errors before optimization. (b) Overall re-projection errors after optimization. (c) RMS of the re-projection errors.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Tables Icon

Table 2. The metrics of the optimization in self-calibration

The sensitivity of optimized parameters is also analyzed by comparing the impact of the variable groups on the optimization results. We conduct optimization in three cases, solely Group C, combining Group A and C, and combining Group B and C, respectively. As shown in Figs. 11(a)-(c), the variables of Group C are the most sensitive in the three groups, and the detailed optimization results are listed in Table 3. It means that the pose of the reference mirror is the crucial factor for the overall optimization, and the geometric parameters of the camera and screen are relative less significant to improve the calibration accuracy.

 figure: Fig. 11

Fig. 11 The result of partial-optimization. (a) Group C. (b) Group A and Group C. (c) Group B and Group C.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Tables Icon

Table 3. The metrics of the partial optimization

Using the self-calibration result, a spherical concave surface with an aperture 63.85 mm is measured, as illustrated in Figs. 12(a) and 12(b). Figures 13(a) and 13(c) show the measurement results which are reconstructed by the modal reconstruction method [20] before and after applying the proposed calibration, respectively. In order to verify the results, the workpiece is also measured by a 4D Dynamic Interferometer PhaseCam 6000. The relative difference between the measured results of deflectometry and interferometry are shown in Fig. 13(b) and 13(d), and the detailed specifications of the measurement deviations are listed in Table 4. The experimental results demonstrate that this self-calibration method can significantly improve the accuracy of the deflectometric measurement by adjusting the positions of the camera and the screen by re-projection and numerical optimization.

 figure: Fig. 12

Fig. 12 The measured spherical concave surface. (a) Workpiece. (b) The actual measured region in red.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 figure: Fig. 13

Fig. 13 The measurement results of the spherical concave surface. (a) The deflectometric measurement without self-calibration. (b) The difference between (a) and interferometry. (c) The measurement result with self-calibration. (d) The difference between (c) and interferometry.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Tables Icon

Table 4. The measurement deviations of the spherical concave surface

Existing calibration methods normally use multiple independent poses of the reference mirror to eliminate the ambiguity of the reference mirror’s pose to identify the positions of the screen and the camera. While in this self-calibration method, only two poses of the reference mirror are needed, with the assistance of the geometric constraints on these two poses, thus only four images are required. Two images and one pose are used to calibrate WCS and the rest are used to optimize the reference mirror’s pose, thereby greatly improving the measurement efficiency.

5. Conclusions

This paper develops an accurate self-calibration method for monoscopic deflectometry used in the in situ measurement, and a re-projection model is proposed to improve the calibration accuracy of the geometrical positions of the screen and camera. The rotary spindle of the SPDT machine is fully utilized, which is combined with the reference mirror to simplify the calibration work, and only four images and two poses of the reference mirror are required to obtain the geometric parameters. In the numerical optimization, the alternative direction method is applied to improve the numerical stability, making the calibration result more reliable. The experimental results demonstrate the measuring accuracy of specular surfaces is comparable to high-precision interferometry, thus it is of significance for the in situ measurement in high-precision optical manufacturing.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (51875107); Science Challenging Program (JCKY2016212A506-0106); National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFB1104700); Fudan University-CIOMP Joint Fund and European Horizon 2020 EMPIR project (15SIB01 FreeFORM).

References

1. M. C. Knauer, J. Kaminski, and G. Hausler, “Phase Measuring Deflectometry: a new approach to measure specular free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5457, 366–377 (2004). [CrossRef]  

2. Y. Xu, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy of optical stereo deflectometry based on imaging model analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 111, 1–7 (2018). [CrossRef]  

3. L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, and M. Idir, “Three-dimensional shape measurement with modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 10449, 1044909 (2017). [CrossRef]  

4. Z. Niu, N. Gao, Z. Zhang, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects based on advanced PMD with bi-telecentric lens,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1615–1632 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. Y. L. Xiao, X. Su, W. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Three-dimensional shape measurement of aspheric mirrors with fringe reflection photogrammetry,” Appl. Opt. 51(4), 457–464 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. H. Guo, P. Feng, and T. Tao, “Specular surface measurement by using least squares light tracking technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 166–171 (2010). [CrossRef]  

7. W. Zhao, “Testing an aspheric mirror based on phase measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 103603 (2009). [CrossRef]  

8. Y. Liu, S. Huang, Z. Zhang, N. Gao, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Full-field 3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects by direct phase measuring deflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10293 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013). [CrossRef]  

10. P. Su, Y. Wang, J. H. Burge, K. Kaznatcheev, and M. Idir, “Non-null full field X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS: a reflection deflectometry approach,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12393–12406 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. J. H. Burge, P. Su, G. Butel, R. Huang, A. Maldonado, and T. Su, “Measuring large mirrors using SCOTS: the Software Configurable Optical Test System,” Proc. SPIE 9151, 91510Z (2014). [CrossRef]  

12. L. Huang, C. S. Ng, and A. K. Asundi, “Dynamic three-dimensional sensing for specular surface with monoscopic fringe reflectometry,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12809–12814 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. R. Huang, P. Su, J. H. Burge, L. Huang, and M. Idir, “High-accuracy aspheric x-ray mirror metrology using Software Configurable Optical Test System/deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 54(8), 084103 (2015). [CrossRef]  

14. H. Ren, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Iterative optimization calibration method for stereo deflectometry,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22060–22068 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. T. Yuan, F. Zhang, X. Tao, X. Zhang, and R. Zhou, “Flexible geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection optical three-dimensional shape measurement,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9102–9107 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. Y. L. Xiao, X. Su, and Z. You, “Pose transfer geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection optical three-dimensional measurement,” Opt. Commun. 305, 143–146 (2013). [CrossRef]  

17. Y. L. Xiao, X. Su, and W. Chen, “Flexible geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection 3D measurement,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 620–622 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, C. McPherson, J. Beverage, and M. Idir, “Modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24649–24664 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(11), 1330–1334 (2000). [CrossRef]  

20. I. Mochi and K. A. Goldberg, “Modal wavefront reconstruction from its gradient,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3780–3785 (2015). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. M. C. Knauer, J. Kaminski, and G. Hausler, “Phase Measuring Deflectometry: a new approach to measure specular free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5457, 366–377 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Xu, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy of optical stereo deflectometry based on imaging model analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 111, 1–7 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, and M. Idir, “Three-dimensional shape measurement with modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 10449, 1044909 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. Z. Niu, N. Gao, Z. Zhang, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects based on advanced PMD with bi-telecentric lens,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1615–1632 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y. L. Xiao, X. Su, W. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Three-dimensional shape measurement of aspheric mirrors with fringe reflection photogrammetry,” Appl. Opt. 51(4), 457–464 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. Guo, P. Feng, and T. Tao, “Specular surface measurement by using least squares light tracking technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 166–171 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. Zhao, “Testing an aspheric mirror based on phase measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 103603 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Liu, S. Huang, Z. Zhang, N. Gao, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Full-field 3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects by direct phase measuring deflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10293 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. Su, Y. Wang, J. H. Burge, K. Kaznatcheev, and M. Idir, “Non-null full field X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS: a reflection deflectometry approach,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12393–12406 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. H. Burge, P. Su, G. Butel, R. Huang, A. Maldonado, and T. Su, “Measuring large mirrors using SCOTS: the Software Configurable Optical Test System,” Proc. SPIE 9151, 91510Z (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Huang, C. S. Ng, and A. K. Asundi, “Dynamic three-dimensional sensing for specular surface with monoscopic fringe reflectometry,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12809–12814 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. Huang, P. Su, J. H. Burge, L. Huang, and M. Idir, “High-accuracy aspheric x-ray mirror metrology using Software Configurable Optical Test System/deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 54(8), 084103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Ren, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Iterative optimization calibration method for stereo deflectometry,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22060–22068 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. T. Yuan, F. Zhang, X. Tao, X. Zhang, and R. Zhou, “Flexible geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection optical three-dimensional shape measurement,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9102–9107 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Y. L. Xiao, X. Su, and Z. You, “Pose transfer geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection optical three-dimensional measurement,” Opt. Commun. 305, 143–146 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. L. Xiao, X. Su, and W. Chen, “Flexible geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection 3D measurement,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 620–622 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, C. McPherson, J. Beverage, and M. Idir, “Modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24649–24664 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(11), 1330–1334 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. I. Mochi and K. A. Goldberg, “Modal wavefront reconstruction from its gradient,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3780–3785 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

Z. Niu, N. Gao, Z. Zhang, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects based on advanced PMD with bi-telecentric lens,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1615–1632 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy of optical stereo deflectometry based on imaging model analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 111, 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, and M. Idir, “Three-dimensional shape measurement with modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 10449, 1044909 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, S. Huang, Z. Zhang, N. Gao, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Full-field 3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects by direct phase measuring deflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10293 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (4)

2014 (1)

J. H. Burge, P. Su, G. Butel, R. Huang, A. Maldonado, and T. Su, “Measuring large mirrors using SCOTS: the Software Configurable Optical Test System,” Proc. SPIE 9151, 91510Z (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y. L. Xiao, X. Su, and Z. You, “Pose transfer geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection optical three-dimensional measurement,” Opt. Commun. 305, 143–146 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

H. Guo, P. Feng, and T. Tao, “Specular surface measurement by using least squares light tracking technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 166–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

W. Zhao, “Testing an aspheric mirror based on phase measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 103603 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. C. Knauer, J. Kaminski, and G. Hausler, “Phase Measuring Deflectometry: a new approach to measure specular free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5457, 366–377 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(11), 1330–1334 (2000).
[Crossref]

Asundi, A. K.

Beverage, J.

Burge, J. H.

R. Huang, P. Su, J. H. Burge, L. Huang, and M. Idir, “High-accuracy aspheric x-ray mirror metrology using Software Configurable Optical Test System/deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 54(8), 084103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burge, P. Su, G. Butel, R. Huang, A. Maldonado, and T. Su, “Measuring large mirrors using SCOTS: the Software Configurable Optical Test System,” Proc. SPIE 9151, 91510Z (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Su, Y. Wang, J. H. Burge, K. Kaznatcheev, and M. Idir, “Non-null full field X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS: a reflection deflectometry approach,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12393–12406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butel, G.

J. H. Burge, P. Su, G. Butel, R. Huang, A. Maldonado, and T. Su, “Measuring large mirrors using SCOTS: the Software Configurable Optical Test System,” Proc. SPIE 9151, 91510Z (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Dominguez, M. Z.

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, P.

H. Guo, P. Feng, and T. Tao, “Specular surface measurement by using least squares light tracking technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 166–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gao, B.

L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, and M. Idir, “Three-dimensional shape measurement with modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 10449, 1044909 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, C. McPherson, J. Beverage, and M. Idir, “Modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24649–24664 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

Z. Niu, N. Gao, Z. Zhang, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects based on advanced PMD with bi-telecentric lens,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1615–1632 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy of optical stereo deflectometry based on imaging model analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 111, 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, S. Huang, Z. Zhang, N. Gao, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Full-field 3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects by direct phase measuring deflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10293 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Iterative optimization calibration method for stereo deflectometry,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22060–22068 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, N.

Z. Niu, N. Gao, Z. Zhang, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects based on advanced PMD with bi-telecentric lens,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1615–1632 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S. Huang, Z. Zhang, N. Gao, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Full-field 3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects by direct phase measuring deflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10293 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberg, K. A.

Guo, H.

H. Guo, P. Feng, and T. Tao, “Specular surface measurement by using least squares light tracking technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 166–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hausler, G.

M. C. Knauer, J. Kaminski, and G. Hausler, “Phase Measuring Deflectometry: a new approach to measure specular free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5457, 366–377 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, and M. Idir, “Three-dimensional shape measurement with modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 10449, 1044909 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, C. McPherson, J. Beverage, and M. Idir, “Modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24649–24664 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huang, P. Su, J. H. Burge, L. Huang, and M. Idir, “High-accuracy aspheric x-ray mirror metrology using Software Configurable Optical Test System/deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 54(8), 084103 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, C. S. Ng, and A. K. Asundi, “Dynamic three-dimensional sensing for specular surface with monoscopic fringe reflectometry,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12809–12814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, R.

R. Huang, P. Su, J. H. Burge, L. Huang, and M. Idir, “High-accuracy aspheric x-ray mirror metrology using Software Configurable Optical Test System/deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 54(8), 084103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burge, P. Su, G. Butel, R. Huang, A. Maldonado, and T. Su, “Measuring large mirrors using SCOTS: the Software Configurable Optical Test System,” Proc. SPIE 9151, 91510Z (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

Y. Liu, S. Huang, Z. Zhang, N. Gao, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Full-field 3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects by direct phase measuring deflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10293 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Idir, M.

L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, and M. Idir, “Three-dimensional shape measurement with modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 10449, 1044909 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, C. McPherson, J. Beverage, and M. Idir, “Modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24649–24664 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huang, P. Su, J. H. Burge, L. Huang, and M. Idir, “High-accuracy aspheric x-ray mirror metrology using Software Configurable Optical Test System/deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 54(8), 084103 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Su, Y. Wang, J. H. Burge, K. Kaznatcheev, and M. Idir, “Non-null full field X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS: a reflection deflectometry approach,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12393–12406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

Z. Niu, N. Gao, Z. Zhang, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects based on advanced PMD with bi-telecentric lens,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1615–1632 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy of optical stereo deflectometry based on imaging model analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 111, 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, S. Huang, Z. Zhang, N. Gao, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Full-field 3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects by direct phase measuring deflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10293 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Iterative optimization calibration method for stereo deflectometry,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22060–22068 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaminski, J.

M. C. Knauer, J. Kaminski, and G. Hausler, “Phase Measuring Deflectometry: a new approach to measure specular free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5457, 366–377 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kaznatcheev, K.

Khreishi, M. A. H.

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knauer, M. C.

M. C. Knauer, J. Kaminski, and G. Hausler, “Phase Measuring Deflectometry: a new approach to measure specular free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5457, 366–377 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S. Huang, Z. Zhang, N. Gao, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Full-field 3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects by direct phase measuring deflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10293 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Xiao, X. Su, W. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Three-dimensional shape measurement of aspheric mirrors with fringe reflection photogrammetry,” Appl. Opt. 51(4), 457–464 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maldonado, A.

J. H. Burge, P. Su, G. Butel, R. Huang, A. Maldonado, and T. Su, “Measuring large mirrors using SCOTS: the Software Configurable Optical Test System,” Proc. SPIE 9151, 91510Z (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

McPherson, C.

Mochi, I.

Ng, C. S.

Niu, Z.

Parks, R. E.

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

Su, P.

R. Huang, P. Su, J. H. Burge, L. Huang, and M. Idir, “High-accuracy aspheric x-ray mirror metrology using Software Configurable Optical Test System/deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 54(8), 084103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burge, P. Su, G. Butel, R. Huang, A. Maldonado, and T. Su, “Measuring large mirrors using SCOTS: the Software Configurable Optical Test System,” Proc. SPIE 9151, 91510Z (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Su, Y. Wang, J. H. Burge, K. Kaznatcheev, and M. Idir, “Non-null full field X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS: a reflection deflectometry approach,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12393–12406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, T.

J. H. Burge, P. Su, G. Butel, R. Huang, A. Maldonado, and T. Su, “Measuring large mirrors using SCOTS: the Software Configurable Optical Test System,” Proc. SPIE 9151, 91510Z (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Su, X.

Tao, T.

H. Guo, P. Feng, and T. Tao, “Specular surface measurement by using least squares light tracking technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 166–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tao, X.

Wang, Y.

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Su, Y. Wang, J. H. Burge, K. Kaznatcheev, and M. Idir, “Non-null full field X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS: a reflection deflectometry approach,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12393–12406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, Y. L.

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy of optical stereo deflectometry based on imaging model analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 111, 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xue, J.

L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, and M. Idir, “Three-dimensional shape measurement with modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 10449, 1044909 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, C. McPherson, J. Beverage, and M. Idir, “Modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24649–24664 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, Z.

Y. L. Xiao, X. Su, and Z. You, “Pose transfer geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection optical three-dimensional measurement,” Opt. Commun. 305, 143–146 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, T.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Niu, N. Gao, Z. Zhang, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects based on advanced PMD with bi-telecentric lens,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1615–1632 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S. Huang, Z. Zhang, N. Gao, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Full-field 3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects by direct phase measuring deflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10293 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(11), 1330–1334 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, “Testing an aspheric mirror based on phase measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 103603 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, R.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(11), 1330–1334 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. L. Xiao, X. Su, and Z. You, “Pose transfer geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection optical three-dimensional measurement,” Opt. Commun. 305, 143–146 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (3)

P. Su, M. A. H. Khreishi, T. Su, R. Huang, M. Z. Dominguez, A. Maldonado, G. Butel, Y. Wang, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “Aspheric and freeform surfaces metrology with software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Opt. Eng. 53(3), 031305 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, P. Su, J. H. Burge, L. Huang, and M. Idir, “High-accuracy aspheric x-ray mirror metrology using Software Configurable Optical Test System/deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 54(8), 084103 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhao, “Testing an aspheric mirror based on phase measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 103603 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

Y. Xu, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy of optical stereo deflectometry based on imaging model analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 111, 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, P. Feng, and T. Tao, “Specular surface measurement by using least squares light tracking technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 166–171 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. H. Burge, P. Su, G. Butel, R. Huang, A. Maldonado, and T. Su, “Measuring large mirrors using SCOTS: the Software Configurable Optical Test System,” Proc. SPIE 9151, 91510Z (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, J. Xue, B. Gao, and M. Idir, “Three-dimensional shape measurement with modal phase measuring deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 10449, 1044909 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. C. Knauer, J. Kaminski, and G. Hausler, “Phase Measuring Deflectometry: a new approach to measure specular free-form surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5457, 366–377 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Liu, S. Huang, Z. Zhang, N. Gao, F. Gao, and X. Jiang, “Full-field 3D shape measurement of discontinuous specular objects by direct phase measuring deflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10293 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

Optica participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from Optica Publishing Group journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Correspondence between camera and screen pixels in deflectometry. (a) Height ambiguity. (b) Stereoscopic deflectometry. (c) Screen shifting. (d) SCOTS.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The principle of the normal measurement in deflectometry.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The coordinate systems of deflectometric measurement.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The calibration of WCS. (a) The calibration boards and their BCS before and after rotation. (b) WCS and its origin.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The coordinate systems defined in the re-projection model. (a) 2D diagram of the ray tracing. (b) Rotation from pose 0 to pose 1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The reflection at mirror’s pose 1. (a) The definition of the screen intrinsic parameters. (b) The geometric relationship between [ R s 2 c , T s 2 c ] and [ R v 2 c 1 , T v 2 c 1 ] .
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The self-calibration workflow.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The set-up of the self-calibration. (a) The measurement system. (b) Ray tracing in SCOTS. (c) Projection pattern captured by the camera.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The difference of the patterns from pose 0 and pose 1.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The optimization results of ray tracing. (a) Overall re-projection errors before optimization. (b) Overall re-projection errors after optimization. (c) RMS of the re-projection errors.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The result of partial-optimization. (a) Group C. (b) Group A and Group C. (c) Group B and Group C.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The measured spherical concave surface. (a) Workpiece. (b) The actual measured region in red.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 The measurement results of the spherical concave surface. (a) The deflectometric measurement without self-calibration. (b) The difference between (a) and interferometry. (c) The measurement result with self-calibration. (d) The difference between (c) and interferometry.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Definitions of the coordinate systems

Tables Icon

Table 2 The metrics of the optimization in self-calibration

Tables Icon

Table 3 The metrics of the partial optimization

Tables Icon

Table 4 The measurement deviations of the spherical concave surface

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n = [ n x n y n z ] T = r + i = [ r x + i x r y + i y r z + i z ] T .
{ W x = n x n z = r x + i x r z + i z = x k x s d k 2 s + x k x c d k 2 c z s W ( x k , y k ) d k 2 s + z c W ( x k , y k ) d k 2 c W y = n y n z = r y + i y r z + i z = y k y s d k 2 s + y k y c d k 2 c z s W ( x k , y k ) d k 2 s + z c W ( x k , y k ) d k 2 c ,
{ R s 2 w = R c 2 w R s 2 c T s 2 w = R c 2 w T s 2 c + T c 2 w .
R w 2 m 1 = R w 2 m 0 [ cos ε sin ε 0 sin ε cos ε 0 0 0 1 ] .
{ [ x s y s 0 ] T = i n s s 1 [ u s v s 1 ] T [ x w y w z w ] T = R s 2 w [ x s y s 0 ] T + T s 2 w [ x m y m z m ] T = R w 2 m 0 [ x w y w z w ] T ,
{ ( I 3 2 n c n c T ) R s 2 c = R v 2 c 1 ( I 3 2 e e T ) ( I 3 2 n c n c T ) T s 2 c = T v 2 c 1 + 2 d n c ,
[ x m y m z m ] T = ( I 3 2 e e T ) [ x m y m z m ] T + 2 h e .
{ [ x w y w z w ] T = R m 2 w 0 [ x m y m z m ] T [ x c y c z c ] T = R w 2 c [ x w y w z w ] T + T w 2 c .
[ u c v c 1 ] T = i n s c [ x c y c z c ] T ,
min x i = 1 l 1 2 r i T ( x ) r i ( x ) with r i ( x ) = [ u c ( x ) u ^ c v c ( x ) v ^ c ] i ,
x = { i n s s , R v 2 c 0 , T v 2 c 0 , R v 2 c 1 , T v 2 c 1 G r o u p A , i n s c , R w 2 c , T w 2 c G r o u p B , R w 2 m 0 , ε , h G r o u p C },

Metrics